Countlesstraditional medicinal values ofleaves, bark, fruit and seed of A.muricata have been recently emphasized. The puree of bark,root, seed or leaf is the most commonlyused method in traditional medicine and its applications are far reaching. Theaddition of leaves decoction is used as analgesic (pain-relieving) and to treatcold, flu and asthma; and to treat cutaneous (external) and internal parasitescan be treated. It’s known that use of these leaves is majorly helpful in thetreatment of Malaria. Diarrhea, heart and liver diseases are treated with thejuice made by the fruit which is used as galactogoge.
It also works against intestinalparasites. In the tropical areas, number of sufferings such as fever,torment, respiratory and skin disease, bacterial infections, hypertension,aggravation, diabetes and cancer were considered to be treated by therapeuticqualities of A. muricata. There have been a number of reports on theethno-medical uses of A.muricata leaves includingtreatments for hypertension, diabetes and cancer.
Most parts ofthe A. muricata tree, similar to that ofthe other Annona species, namely A.squamosa and A. reticulata arewidely used as local and habitual medicines contrary to a large number of humaninflamations, infections and disorders. The pulp of the fruit is used asnatural medicine for joint pains, dysentery, neuralgia, diarrhea, rheumatism,fever, malaria, parasites, skin rushes and worms, and also is eaten to increasemother’s milk after parturition. Cystitis, body aches and diabetes can be curedby the leaves. Also, the leaf’s decoction is known to display anti-rheumaticand neuralgic effects.
In addition, the cooked leaves are topically used totreat abscesses and rheumatism that was reported by de Sousa OVandcolleagues.(9)The crushed seeds are thought to have anthelminticactivities antaagonistic to external and internal worms. In tropical Africa,the plant is employed as an astringent pesticide, and insecticide; along thisit is used to treat coughs, pain and skin diseases. In India, the fruit andflower are used as remedies against catarrh, while the root-bark and leaves arewell known to have an anti phlogistic and anthelmintic activities which wasworked uponby Adewole SO, Ojewole J.
(2)InMalaysia, the crude extract of A. muricata and A.squamosais used as a syrup on the head to buffer from fainting. In SouthAmerica and tropical Africa, including Nigeria, leaves of A.muricata areimplemented as an ethnomedicine opposed to tumors and cancer. Moreover, thesmooth muscle relaxant, hypotensive hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, sedative,and antispasmodic effects accredit to the leaves, barks and roots of A.muricata.
Moreover along with the ethnomedicinal uses, the fruitsare widely employed for the preparation of beverages, ice creams,and syrups (3, 21, 23, 26) . 1. Phytoconstituents:Over200 chemical compounds have beendocumented and isolated from this plant; out of which the most prominentcompounds are the alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids and acetogenins.
Based on thein vitro studies, extracts and phytochemicals of A. muricata have been sorted out as anti-microbial,anti-inflammatory, anti-protozoan, antioxidant, insecticide, larvicide, and cytotoxic to tumor cells. Researches on theextracts and isolated compounds of A.muricata suggested contraceptive, antitumor, anti-ulceric, wound healing,hepato-protective, anxiolytic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-icteric andhypoglycemic activities. To amplify the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolicextracts of A. muricata leaves,various clinical studies were conducted. Cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-nociception and hypotensiveactivities are analyzed and developed by mechanisms of action of a fewpharmacological activities. Although, some phytochemical compounds isolatedfrom A.
muricata have shown aneurotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo. Hence, to define the magnitude of theeffects, optimal dosage, long-term safety, and potential side effects,additional studies on these crude extracts and isolated compounds should becarried out. (32)Constant examinations on diverse partsof the A. muricata have shown theoccurrence of varieties of phyto constituents and compounds, including flavonoltriglycosides(FTGs) alkaloids (ALKs), phenolics (PLs), megastigmanes (MGs), cyclopeptides(CPs) and essential oils. The existence of various minerals such as Ca, Na, Fe,K, Cu and Mg imply that regular intake of the A.
muricata fruit can help furnish essential nutrients to thehuman body. However, Annona species,including A. muricata, have beenshown to be a vital source of annonaceousacetogenin compounds (AGEs). Almostall the parts inclusive of the fruits, leaves, stems androots of this plant are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloidsand annonaceousacetogenins. (23,25,26,28,35,42) Long chain (C-32/C34) fatty acids in the polyketidepathway give rise to Acetogenins, a unique category of C-35/C37 secondarymetabolites. It is explained by combining fatty acids with 2-propanol unit at C-2 that gives amethyl-substituted ?, ?-unsaturated ?-lactone.
After 1982,a number of acetogeninsare identified with the discovery of uvaricin from Uvariaaccuminata . About 500 have been reported from numerous parts of the plants in the Annonaceaefamily. In recent times, AGEs have drawn significant scientific interest due tothe remarkable structures and broad spectrum of biological activities..
Theactive annonaceousacetogenins have shown to be successful in inducing death incancer cells that are resistant to even chemotherapeutic drugs. It is foundthat these annonaceous acetogenins aids to debilitating side effects such as neurotoxicity which results in easytraverse of the blood-brain barrier and causes a typical Parkinson’s disease.This inhibits the growth of new drug entities. Various biological activitieshave been reported for AGEs, including antimalarial, anti-parasitic andpesticidal activities.
Yet, the toxicity against cancer cells and inhibitionsof the mitochondrial complex I are initially influenced by the physiologicalactivities of AGEs . (11)