Continuous increase in world energy demand driven by population and economic development in recent decades has caused the decline of the availability of petrochemical resources characterized by more efficient production and refining.
Oil and gas productions have been decline in many ways. in parts of the world due to the oil yield maturity and the major factor is causes in the increasing energy demands due to global population growth. therefore, there is an urge to d out alternative technologies to increase oil recovery from existing oil yields around the world (Biji).
This technology is a biological based technology that contains in manipulating function and structures of microorganism environments existing in oil and gas reservoir. The ultimate aim of this type of technology is to improve yield of recovery of oil entrapped in any porous media while increasing economic profits (2). it is also a tertiary oil extraction technice allowing the partial recovery of the commonly residuals also it increasing the life of mature oil reservoirs. Microbial based enhanser are using many types of chemicals in order to increase the efficiency. some of this chemical are Surfactants and potassium ions. Surfactants are chemically synthesized surface-active compounds they are widely used for large number of applications in various industries. During last few years there is increase in demand of biological surface-active compounds or biosurfactants and potshuim ion compounds which are produced by large number of microorganisms as they exert biodegradability, low toxicity and widespread application compared to chemical surfactants. They can also be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, foaming agents, functional food ingredients and detergents also.
Various experiments at laboratory scale on sand-pack columns and field trials have successfully indicated effectiveness of bio surfactants in microbial enhanced oil recovery(kahire).Microbial enhancer technology the stakeholders are engineers, scientists, and industries as Microbes, Inc., Statoil, Glori Energy, M-I SWACO, Huskiy Energy Inc., DONG E&P, Titan Oil Recovery, Inc., Maersk Oil, and Danish Technological Institute. These companies are coplentely responsible for developing and implementing of microbial organism for extraction of oil. This technice has positive consequienses with it at the same time it have negative consequiences . it can stimulate oil production from wells ,that may increase pressure in vessels and decrease the viscosity( augustive).
Also positively impacts the flow of crude oil from wells to the external reservoirs. In the process polysaccharides are produces which are high energy for microbes . this microorganisms are also positively effective when they are bond together ,also give ability to stay tightly bond with biofilm and surface formation. As a result of there micro size and fast mobility they are deep in penetration in to surface rock.From what I learn from engineering ethics the ethical theory, I find most is ROLE VIRTUES which is applicable for this technology. Every engineer and professionalism has to display a competence and full honest when it comes down to understanding what benefits most and not dident.
Engineers and other pfrofecialist who are working in a plca that affect some ones life at a point or environment at any way must have to be rational and also judgmental at the same time because they are they are dealing with decisions that affects some ones health and environments. They have to display competence because they have a big responsibility to uphold the safety mostly on health, environment also welfare of the public at the same time. Specifically, engineers which are working with this microbs have to uphold this particular code of ethics ,because they are fully obligated by ethics low to make several toxicity tests on them to be used in the field of high scale.(Al-Sulaimani 156).
This toxicity test will decrease the effects of corrosion and bloking of pipeline also preventing reservoir souring.The movement for microbial oil enhancer must be continues , the reason is that because it has a lot of advantages with it when we compare it with the old traditional way of oil recovery. This microbial besed recovery take less amount of enegery compare to the old traditional thermal process, which is about two third of less heat consumption(Al-Sulaimani 148). This explains that microorganisems they don’t use large amount of energy with in the reservoir unlike the traditional one.this technice or technology runs in two different processes this first one is the single treatment , which is increase in production by depositing the vessels . and the second one is full treatment, injuction of microorganisems to the vessel with nitration through an injector(Carson 56).
Later in a process this microbs produce polymers which helps in reduction of the interference of oil and water in reservoir thank. This technology can be implemented to the old traditional existing field reservoirs with minor or small modification. The use of reservoir microorganism has a few problem coming with it. some biologist and environmental scientists’ are still arguing that this technology is parolin base ” (Carsion 24).in other word this microbes are like all other living organism and must be protected from Harish and unsuitable environment and chemicals . This tertiary oil recovery uses mostly in China and some part of europ which is polymer flooding and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding are the brunt of chemical flooding”(Zdenko 47). Polymerzing flooding mechanism is adding high amount of molecular polymer into injected water in order to increase displacing viscosity, adjust water absorbing and enhance oil recovery rate at the same time .
many researches on microbe enhancer shows that recovery factor generally increases by 10% after polymer flooding treatment. In addition to that also alkaline-surfactant flooding works on oil exploitation. Add the polymer together with alkali and surfactant into the sandstone, the effect is much more better than the regular polymer flooding. Both polymer flooding and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding have high performance to price ratio, it comes with low price, fast effect and better production increase rate.