Contents: development of affixation in word formation of

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………2Chapter I Affixation as a productive type of word formation…..………………..4Development of affixation in word formation of English language
( Diachronic Analysis)………………………………………………………..4
Theoretical and practical comparison of affixation …………………………11
Chapter II ” Instructional analysis and strategies of affixation in lexicology….20
2.1. ” Analysis of noun-forming affixes “…..………………………..…………..20
2.2. ” Analysis of verb-forming affixes”…..………………………………….…24
2.3. ” Analysis of adjective-forming affixes”…………………………………….28
The theme of my course paper is “Instructional strategies in teaching affixation as a productive type of word formation ( in verbs, in nouns, in adjectives)”
The aim of this research is to analyze the role of affixation in word formation and usage of affixation in different contexts.
The subject matter of the given research includes the whole course on lexicography.

The object matter of this research work is analysis of affixation with examples and their special features, peculiarities.

Introduction states the actually, subject matter novelty, working hypothesis, methods, theoretical and practical importance of the work. Futhermore, this part tells us briefly the list of the content of the work.

Main part includes two chapters in itself.

Chapter 1 entitled as “Affixation as a productive type of word formation”
In the first paragraph of this chapter I have analyzed the development of affixation in word formation of English language.

We know that English Lexicography grew thematically as it embraced the social and cultural changes of Britain resulting from various social, political affairs, wars and etc…
In the second paragraph of this Chapter I have compared affixation usages both in theoretical and practical ways.

Chapter 2 is entitled as ” Instructional analysis and strategies of affixation in lexicology”
In the first paragraph of this chapter I have analyzed noun-forming affixes in different contexts.

The second paragraph depicts the analysis of verb-forming suffixes and prefixes in various literary works.

In the third paragraph of this chapter I have demonstrated the analysis of adjective-forming affixes in a series of literary genres.

Conclusion contains the main themes and ideas of the course paper. It summarizes the main points and reviews all the information which was covered and analyzed..Bibliography presents the list of literature used, internet sites and the sources, which were used for writing this work.

Chapter I “Affixation as a productive type of word formation”
“Development of affixation in word formation of English language
(Diachronic Analysis)”
Affixation is a morphological process in which a bound morpheme, an affix- “prefix or suffix” is attached to a morphological base. Diachronically, the English word affix was first used as a verb and has its origin in Latin: affixus, past participle of the verb affigere, ad- ‘to’ + figere ‘to fix’.
I have found out out that the term affixes has been noticed since the renaissance. It is the time when English comes to its ‘glory’ for the inventory and also new word formation. Many new words entered into English vocabulary as an impact of this period, including the creation of new words using affixation. And what is important, Affixes have existed in the time of Old English. It has become part of the vocabulary and indicated the flexibility of the vocabulary at that time. That is, the affixes are used to form new words from old words to vary or enlarge the root idea. The affixes of this period are more similar to modern German. The common-used prefixes are:
?-, be-, for-, fore-, ge- mis- of-, ofer-, heafod-, on-, to-, un-, under-, and wiþ- (with-). Meanwhile, the common suffixes are:
–ig (–y), -full, -leas (- less), -lice (-like), -nes (-ness), -ung –w?s (- wise), -d?m, -end, -ere (-er), -h?d (-hood), -sum (-some), -scipe (-ship), and –ingMost of the above affixes still remain in Middle English as well as in Modern English. However, as the lists in general, many of affixes are disappeared in the latter time. By the way, the latter time after Old English is called Middle English. The affixes in the Middle English time are more or less similar to the affixes in the Old English. Nonetheless, the affixes in this time are combined and noticed more apparently in the word formation. Some of the additional common prefixes besides the above list are:
on- (un-), over-, under-, counter-, dis-, re-, trans-.
In contrast, the additional suffixes are -ish, -lock, -red, -ly, – more, and
-ster. Primarily, the most significant time when the affixes are defined more frequently is in the time early modern English (renaissance) up to the nineteenth century or the time of Modern English. The affixes are more familiar with the affixes in the present day and the vocabulary is enlarged in a more readily combination.

The lists of additional prefixes are:
pre-, de-, super-, inter-, non-, sub-, mal-, anti-, contra- extra-, inter-, and neo-.
By comparison, the list of additional suffixes are:
–able (or -ible), -age, -ate, -ify, -(i)an, (i)al, -ist, ite, -ant, -al, -(a)tion, -ion, -or, -ity, -ive, -th, and -ary
In this sense, there are some affixes from Old English which are no longer used in Modern English. For example, the prefixes for- and the suffix –lock previously are usually used in the OE period. By contrast, now there are only few words which survive such as forgive, forbid, forsake, forswear for the prefix for- together with wedlock and warlock for the suffix –lock. On the other hand, there is also an occurrence when the affixes are seldom used in former period but they are noticeable in the later period. The instances are the suffixes –dom and –wise which become more acceptably used, especially in the rise of American English.
The Origin of the Affixes
I consider that it is also important to review about the origin of the affixes. That is, there are some affixes which are originally come from English (Native Old English) ,but there are also some affixes which are borrowed or derived from the other language. According to the scientist I.Plag , the affixes which innately came from English are the affixes which derived from Old English period. For the prefixes, they are:
un-, mis-, be, out-, over-, under-, fore-.
Meanwhile, the examples for the suffixes are:
–less, -ness, – dom, -ship, -full, and –hood.

Then, there are also affixes which originate from Latin. The examples of the prefixes are:
con-, contra, de-, dis-, in-, im-, ir-, il-, sub-, inter-, counter-, mini-, pre-, post-, pro-, re-, super-, and –trans.

By comparison, the suffixes are:
–an, -ar, -ian, -ic, -ive, -ty, and -y
Comparatively, there are also affixes derived from Greek. The prefixes are:
anti-, auto-, bio-, bi-, geo-, hyper-, micro-, mono-, neo-, proto-, pseudo-, and thermo-.
Meanwhile, the suffixes are:
–ism, -ist, -ize, -gram, -graph, – logue/ -log, -logy, -meter, -oid, -phobia
Another influence is the affixes from French. The affixes of French basically come from Romance, Latin, and Greek. Therefore, it does not influence many in English. The examples are mainly on the suffixes that are:
– ette and –esque
Generally, these affixes will contribute to form nouns and adjectives. However, there is also a case when the affixes do not change the lexical category or part of speech of the word. That is, they are more usable in changing the meaning of the word. For example, the prefixes un-, in-, and dis- are used to change the meaning into negative (the opposite of the root meaning).

Besides that, the next development the usage of affixation (historical) is based on the Declaration of Independence of the USA. You know that the time of the declaration was on 1776 (Late of 17th Century). It can be stated as a time of Modern English. It is the time when the spelling, punctuation, and vocabulary are nearly closed to English on present day . Correspondingly, the form of affixes is also more similar to the affixes that are found nowadays.
There are eight prefixes found in the Declaration of Independence text. They are:
un, dis-, en-, ab- in-, pre-, trans-, and with-.
The most prefixes that appear in the text are un(six words), dis- (three words), and en- (three words). As stated previously, the use of prefixes are mostly modifying the meaning of the words rather than in changing the word category. However, there is a case of en- prefix which changes the lexical category of the word. They are exemplified as follows:
1. Words with prefix un: unacknowledged, unanimous, uncomfortable, undistinguished unfit, unusual;
2. Words with prefix dis: disavow, dissolve, dispose;
3. Words with prefix en: encourage, enlarging, entitle;4. Words with prefix ab: absolved;
5. Words with prefix in: incapable, independence ;6. Word with prefix pre: pretended;
7. Words with prefix trans: transport;
8. Words with prefix with: without, within;
In this extent, the prefixes observed from the text deal mostly with adjectives, verbs, adverbs, preposition, and nouns. The prefixes which relate to adjectives are unanimous, uncomfortable, undistinguished, unfit, unusual, incapable, and pretended. Then, the prefixes which cope with verbs are unacknowledged, disavow, dissolve, dispose, encourage, enlarging, entitle, absolved, and transport. The prefixes which contend with adverbs are without (also with preposition) and within, while the prefix deals with noun is independence.

The use of prefixes un-, in-, and disusually functions to reverse the meaning. For example, when the prefix un- is attached in the word comfortable, fit, and usual, the meaning becomes the contrary. By comparison, the prefixes ab-, pre-, trans-, and with- are used in the extent of changing the situation, order, and side of the meaning. Conversely, the remaining prefix en- can be treated differently. That is, rather than changing the meaning, the use of prefix enfunctions more on shifting the word category. For example, prefix en- in the words encourage and enlarging that change the category from the stem courage (noun) and large (adjective) into verbs.

Suffixes in the Declaration of Independence
Compared with the identified prefixes, the use of suffixes in the text is much more extensive. There are at least eighteen categories of suffixes found from the Declaration of Independence. They are (1) ion, -tion, or -ation, (2) -ly (3) -y, -ty, or – ity, (4) -able, (5) -ence, -ance, (6) -er /-or, – ier/ -ior, (7)-ment, (8)-ness, (9)-ive, (10) – ent, -ant, (11) -ary, (12) -ing, (13) -al, (14) – tude (15) -less, (16) -ure, (17) -ism, and (18) -some. The list of these suffixes can be observed below:
Words with suffix –ion, -tion, or –ation:
accommodation, administration annihilation, appropriation, attention, connection, constitution, convulsion declaration, desolation, destruction emigration, foundation, insurrection intention, invasion, jurisdiction legislation, migration, naturalization operation, opinions, oppression petition, population, protection representation, separation, usurpation;
2. Words with suffix –ly:
accordingly, fundamentally, likely manly, mutually, repeatedly, scarcely solemnly, totally;
3. Words with suffix –y, -ty, or –ity: consanguinity, cruelty, injury magnanimity, necessity, perfidy, safety, security, unworthy;
4. Word with suffix –able: inestimable, sufferable, valuable;
5. Word with suffix -ence, -ance: allegiance, compliance, correspondence providence, prudence, reliance, sufferance;
6. Word with suffix –er /-or, -ier/ -ior: creator, executioner, foreigner, frontier, governor, officer, ruler, superior;
7. Word with suffix –ment: establishment, governments, payment punishment, settlement;
8. Word with suffix –ness: firmness, happiness; 9. Words with suffix –ive: destructive, legislative, representative;
10. Words with suffix –ent, -ant: dependent, inhabitant;
11. Words with suffix –ary: boundary;
12. Word with suffix –ing (as derivational): neighbouring; 13. Word with suffix –al: political; 14. Word with suffix –tude: multitude;
15. Word with suffix –less: merciless; 16. Word with suffix –ism: despotism; 17. Word with suffix –ure: legislatures;
18. Word with suffix –some: wholesome;In this respect, it can be noted from the text the Declaration of Independence that the most suffixes used are –ion (/-tion, /-ation), twenty-nine words. Sequentially, they are followed by –ly (ten words), –y/ -ty/–ity (nine words), -ence /-ance (seven words), –er /-or (six words), -able (five words) and –ment (five words). As also stated previously, suffixes behave more in changing the lexical category of the attached words. It can be recognized in almost all the suffixes except in the word
boundary (bound noun, bound + -ary noun),
political (politic adjective, politic + – al adjective),
despotism (despot noun, despot + -ism noun), and some words with suffixes –er /-or, -ier/ -ior
(execution noun, execution + -er noun; office noun, office + -er noun).

The identified suffixes from the text considerably change the verbs into nouns, verbs into adjectives, adjectives into adverbs, adjectives into nouns, and nouns into adjectives. The suffixes that change the verbs into nouns are –ion, -tion, or -ation, -ence, – ance, -or, –ment, and –ure. The suffixes that alter the verbs into adjectives are –able, –ive, and–ent. The suffix that transforms adjectives into adverbs is –ly. The suffixes that convert adjectives into nouns are –y, -ty, or –ity, and– ness. The suffix that substitutes nouns into adjectives is –less.

Furthermore, the functions of the suffixes in changing the meaning of the words also vary. The suffix –less is used to show that the ‘thing’ is not there (e.g. merciless). Besides, the suffix –able is used to show the capability or liability of the ‘thing’ (e.g. inestimable, sufferable, and valuable). While, the suffixes – er /-or, -ier/ -ior are applied to modify the word which is inhuman to be a person that relates to the base of the word or to state a condition (e.g. creator, executioner, foreigner, frontier, governor, officer, ruler, and superior).

The Presence of both Prefixes and Suffixes in the Declaration of Independence
In the text, it can be also noticed that there are also some words with the affixes of both prefix and suffix. There are at least four words of it. They are dissolution, invariably, inevitably, unalienable, and unwarrantable. The change of grammatical category also varied. That is, for the word dissolution, the word dissolute which is an adjective (dis + solute) changes into a noun because of the suffix –ion. Meanwhile, for the word invariably, the morpheme vary which is a verb got a reverse meaning semantically and adding of the prefix in-. After that, it changes into an adjective under the circumstance of the suffix –able (in + vary + able). Then it changes the adjective into an adverb under the attachment of the suffix –y (in + vary+ able +y). The more or less similar change also occurs in the word inevitably (in+ evitable + y).

The similar change also happens for the next two words, unalienable and unwarrantable. That is, the words alien and warrant change into adjectives under the suffix –able to become alienable (alien + able) and warrantable (warrant + able). Then, the prefix un- changes the semantic meaning of the words into the reverse meaning of the adjectives alienable and warrantable.

” Theoretical and practical comparison of affixation”
As above mentioned affixation is the morphological process by which bound morphemes are attached to a roots or stems to mark changes in meaning, part of speech, or grammatical relationships.  Affixes take on several forms and serve different functions.  In this course paper, we will look specifically at affixation in Standard English.
An affix is a bound morpheme that attaches to a root or stem to form a new word, or a variant form of the same word. In English we primarily see 2 types.  Prefixes precede the root or stem, e.g., re-cover, while suffixes follow, e.g., hope-ful.  A third type of affix known as a circumfix occurs in the two words en-ligh-en and em-bold-en,  where the prefix en/m– and the suffix –en/m are attached simultaneously to the root.

There are those who claim that infixation is also used as an emphasis marker in colloquial English.  This occurs when an expletive is inserted into the internal structure of a word, e.g., un-fricking-believable.

Derivational affixes derive new words by altering the definitional meaning or the grammatical category of a word, whereas inflectional affixes show grammatical relationships between words or grammatical contrast.  In English, both prefixes and suffixes can be derivational, but only suffixes can be inflectional.

PrefixesPrefixes are abundant in English.  Some are more commonly used (productive) than others.  As mentioned above, prefixes are only used to derive new meaning or part of speech.  Below is a list of those that are more common:

Suffixes can either be derivational or inflectional.  Below is a list of common derivational suffixes:

In English there are 8 inflectional suffixes.  As you will see, these are limited to showing some type of grammatical function:

You may have noticed that -er appears as both a derivational and inflectional morpheme.  Although they share phonological form, they are two separate morphemes, having 2 separate functions and must not be confused. 
 -er attached to a verb causes the derivation: verb  noun, e.g., write-  writer.  -er attached to an adjective shows inflection, i.e., the comparative form of an adjective: nice –  nicer.   This is also true for –ing and –en.  
 A verb + -ing can derive a noun or inflect a verb for past or present progressive.set + ing = noun  i.g: The setting of the sun was covered by clouds.set + ing + progressive verb  i.g: I was setting the table when the phone rang.

verb + -en = past participle (freeze + en)i.g: The low temperatures had frozen all the crops.noun + -en = verb (light + en)i. g: Mary decided to lighten her hair.

Certain affixes are more productive than others, meaning that they can be added to a large number of words without obstructing meaning.  An example of a productive suffix in English would be –ness which we regularly use to derive nouns from adjectives.adjective + ness = nounhappy     + ness = ‘happiness’
In fact, some affixes are so productive that they can be attached to almost any stem creating nonce words in which meaning is transparent.  Take –ish ,for example, in English. This suffix can be attached to almost any noun or adjective to communicate like –ness.  If a soup broth is not thick, it could be described as ‘thin’-ish and there would be no ambiguity as to this non-word’s meaning.  All listeners would agree on the interpretation of ‘thin’-ish.

Non-productive morphemes, on the other hand,  are not frequently used.  An example would be the suffix –th  as in ‘warmth’.i.g.: adjective + –th = noun’warm’       + –th = ‘warmth’
-th can only be attached to a small number of words.  No English speaker would consider using the word ‘thinth’ to describe soup broth that is not thick.

So let us back to rules.

As we have seen, there are rules that govern the process of affixation. Furthermore, we know that when specific suffixes are attached to one part of speech, they derive another.

For example: –ly will derive an adverb from an adjective.adjective + –ly = adverb’calm’     + –ly = ‘calmly’
We can also use –ly with a limited number of nouns to derive adjectives.noun + –ly = adjective’matron’ +-ly = ‘matronly”friend’ + –ly = ‘friendly”love’ + –ly = ‘lovely’
However this is not possible with verbs.*verb +-ly = adverb/adjective*’walk’  + –ly = adverb
Thus we can claim:1. adjective + –ly = adverb2. noun + –ly = adjective
Let’s look again at ‘-ness’.  This suffix can be attached to adjectives but not to nouns or verbs.

Let’s look again at –ness.  This suffix can be attached to adjectives but not to nouns or verbs.For example: adjective + –ness = noun’sweet’ + –ness = ‘sweetness”tender’ + —ness = ‘tenderness’
*noun + —ness = noun (or anything)*’house’ + —ness = ‘houseness’
*verb + –ness = noun (or anything)*’study’ + –ness = ‘studiness’
Prefixes in English do not generally change the grammatical category of a word, but rather meaning.  Even so, there are still rules as to how they are distributed.

For instance: Un-   may combine with adjectives and certain verbs, but not with nouns or adverbs.

un + ‘friendly’ = ‘unfriendly’un– + ‘do’ = ‘undo’
but not
* un– + ‘computer’ = ‘uncomputer’* un– + ‘very’ = ‘unvery’
In addition, to these distributional constraints, we will see that there is an order in which affixes must be combined with roots and stems. For instance, the word ‘unbelievable’ must be built by attaching –able:  to ‘believe’, deriving ‘believable’, and then add un– : to derive ‘unbelievable’.  We cannot add un– to ‘believe’ and then –able to ‘unbelieve.’  Even though the outcome seems to be the same, the meaning derived from the different rule orderings is not.  This is due to the fact that un- generally attaches to an adjective and not a verb.  That’s why ‘unbelieve’  is not a word to which an affix may be added.

This requirement for an ordered application of affixes is referred to as the hierarchal structure of derived words, which is shown by tree diagrams. These tree structures demonstrate the steps to adding multiple affixes to a root and how each addition may create a new word form. Below you may see an example of a diagram:

Here we  see that the result of attaching un–  to a noun root yields an ungrammatical structure.  Furthermore, we cannot add –y to a noun.  This derivation fails.
However, pay attention to the next diagram here :
Here we see that when -y is attached to a noun, it yields an adjective.  Now un– can be attached to an adjective.  This derivation results in a grammatical structure.

Constructions such as (1 and 2) demonstrate an unambiguous word-formation.  This means that the ordering of affixes is clear.  There are, however, morphologically complex words in which two orders are possible with meaning being dependent upon the ordering.  
Here is given the next example:

In this diagram,  the first construction shows –able attaching to the verb root, resulting in the adjective ‘lockable’ to which un– is added, deriving an adjective with the opposite meaning: ‘not capable of being locked’.  In the second diagram un– is first added to the verb root resulting in the verb ‘unlock’ to which
–able can be attached resulting in an adjective meaning ‘capable of being unlocked’.   The formation of the morphologically complex word ‘unlockable’ is ambiguous since both orderings of affixes result in a grammatical structure. As you can see, it is crucial to be well-acquainted with the parts of speech and rules of formation.

Difference Between Affixation and Blending
One form of word alteration and invention that is commonly mistaken for being an example of affixation is the process of blending words to form new ones, most notably present in the example of the marketing term “cranapple,” where people naturally assume the root word “cran-” from “cranberry” is being applied as an affix. 
However, affixes must be able to universally be attached to other morphemes and still make sense. This is not the case with the “cran-” root, which is only seen attached to another morpheme in marketing examples of juices that also contain cranberry juice like “crangrape” and “cranapple.” Instead of being a stand-alone morpheme which conveys “of cranberry,” the suffix “cran-” can only make sense when applied to other juices and is therefore considered a blend of two reduced words (cranberry and apple).

Though some words and prefixes can be both stand-alone morphemes or parts of blended words, meaning the phrases aren’t necessarily mutually exclusive, most often words that are products of blending do not contain any actual productive affixes.

Chapter II ” Instructional analysis and strategies of
affixation in lexicology”
2.1. ” Analysis of noun-forming affixes
1. The poem “If” by R. Kipling.

If you can keep your head when all about you   
    Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,   
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
    But make allowance for their doubting too;   
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
    Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated, don’t give way to hating,
    And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise:
If you can dream—and not make dreams your master;   
    If you can think—and not make thoughts your aim;   
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
    And treat those two impostors just the same;   
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
    Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
    And stoop and build ’em up with worn-out tools:
If you can make one heap of all your winnings
    And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
    And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
    To serve your turn long after they are gone,   
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
    Except the Will which says to them: ‘Hold on!’
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,   
    Or walk with Kings—nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
    If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
    With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,   
Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it!!!    And—which is more—you’ll be a Man, my son!
Let us compare it with Uzbek suffixation (noun, verb,adj.) on its translation:
Garchi boshingizni mag’rur tutsangiz,
Va-lek faqat sizni ayblashsalar,
Garchi o’zgalarga ishonch-la boqsangiz,
Va-lek faqat sizdan shubhalansalar…
Mayli, izn bering shubhalansinlar…
Garchi kutishdan hech charchamasangiz,
Aldansangiz-u hamon aldamasangiz,
Yomon ko’rsalar hamki, yomon ko’rmang – siz..Mayli izn bering… Dono bo’ling siz…
Orzu qilsangiz-u, hech ham amalga u oshmasa,
O’ylasangiz-u, fikringiz maqsadga aylanmasaShodlik va qayg’u bilan yo’lingiz to’qnashganda,
Turli xil mojarolar sizga hech yondashmasa,
Siz bilgan chin haqiqat tuzoqqa aylanganda,
Yoki hayot mazmuniz misli sham so’nganida,
Qayta oyoqqa turib, yangi hayot quring- siz…
Nafratdan yiroq bo’lib, mehrni yod aylangiz…
Yutuqlarga erishib, so’ng xavf-xatani quchsangiz,
Omad sizdan yiroqlashib, topganiz yo’qotsangiz,
Va lek barchasin yana qaytadan boshlasangiz,
Yo’qotilgan damlarni hech ham eslamasangiz,
Qalbingiz yashar boqiy, abadiy hayotingiz,
Ko’nglingizni boshqarar, pok xohish-istag(k)ingiz…
Xalq nazarin olsangiz-da, ezgulik saqlasangiz,
Qirollar-la yursangiz-da, xalqni qadrlasangiz,
Do’stlar-u g’animlardan hech ham ozor chekmasdan,
Barcha sizga yuzlansa-da, ochiq chehra-la boqib,
Kechirilmas(ravishdosh) xatolarni bir zumda kechirsangiz…
Bu dunyo, borliq, olam…
Siz uchun bir mukofot,
O’g’lim, bilingiz har dam,
Inson bo’lish – bu chin baxt…
Qadriga yeting faqat!!!
Extract from “Long Walk To Forever ” by Kurt Vonnegut
They had grown up next door to each other, on the fringe of a city, near fields and woods and orchards, within sight of a lovely bell tower that belonged to a school for the blind. Now they were twenty, had not seen each other for nearly a year. There had always been playful, comfortable warmth between them, but never any talk of love.

His name was Newt. Her name was Catharine. In the early afternoon, Newt knocked on Catharine’s front door. Catharine came to the door. She was carrying a fat, glossy magazine she had been reading. The magazine was devoted entirely to brides. “Newt!” she said. She was surprised to see him.

“Could you come for a walk?” he said. He was a shy person, even with Catharine. He covered his shyness by speaking absently as though what really concerned him were far away – as though he were a secret agent pausing briefly on a mission between beautiful, distant, and sinister points. This manner of speaking had always been Newt’s style, even in matters that concerned him desperately.

“A walk?” said Catharine.

“One foot in front of the other,” said Newt, “through leaves, over bridges-”
“I had no idea you were in town,” she said.

“Just this minute got in,” he said.

“Still in the Army, I see,” she said.

“Seven months more to go,” he said. He was a private first class in the Artillery. His uniform was rumpled. His shoes were dusty. He needed a shave. He held out his hand for the magazine. “Let’s see the pretty book,” he said.

“Why me?” she said.

“Because I love you,” he said. “Now can we take a walk?” he said. “One foot in front of the other – through leaves, over bridges-“.

3. “Testament of Youth” by V.Brittain.(extract)
When the Great War broke out, it came to me not as a superlative tragedy, but as an interruption of the most exasperating kind to my personal plans. To explain the reason for this egotistical view of history’s greatest disaster, it is necessary to go back a little – to go back, though only for a moment, as far as the decadent ‘nineties, in which I opened my eyes upon the none-too-promising day. I have, indeed, the honour of sharing with Robert Graves the subject of my earliest recollection, which is that of watching, as a tiny child, the flags flying in the streets of Macclesfield for Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee. Fortunately there is no need to emulate my contemporary’s Good-bye to All That in travelling still further back into the ponderous Victorianism of the nineteenth century, for no set of ancestors could have been less conspicuous or more robustly ‘lowbrow’ than mine. Although I was born in the ‘Mauve Decade’, the heyday of the Yellow Book and the Green Carnation, I would confidently bet that none of my relatives had ever heard of Max Beerbohm or Aubrey Beardsley, and if indeed the name of Oscar Wilde awakened any response ? in their minds, it was not ad(dead prefix)miration of his works, but disapproval of his morals. My father’s family came from Staffordshire; the first place-names bound up with my childish memories are those of the ‘Five Towns’ and their surrounding village(dead s)s – Stoke, Hanley, Burslem, Newcastle, Longport, Trentham, Barlaston and Stone – and I still remember seeing, at a very early age, alarming glimpse?s through a train window of the pot-bank furnaces flaming angrily against a black winter sky. At an old house in Barlaston – then, as now, associated with the large and dominant Wedgwood family – my father and most of his eleven brothers and sisters were born. The records of my more distant predecessors are few, but they appear to have been composed of that mixture of local business men and country gentlemen of independent means which is not uncommon in the Midland countries. They had lived in the neighbourhood of the Pottery towns for several generations, and estimated themselves somewhat highly in con(dead pref)sequence, though there is no evidence? that any of them did anything of more than local importance. The only ancestor of whom our scanty family documents record any achievement is a certain Richard Brittain, who was Mayor of Newcastle-under-Lyme .The others were mostly small bankers, land agents, and manufacturers on a family scale.

2.2 ” Analysis of verb-forming affixes”
1. “Rip Van Winkle” by W. Irving. (extract)
 In that same village, and in one of these very houses (which, to tell the precise truth, was sadly time-worn and weather-beaten), there lived many years since, while the country was yet a province of Great Britain, a simple, good-natured fellow, of the name of Rip Van Winkle. He was a descendant of the Van Winkles who figured so gallantly in the chivalrous days of Peter Stuyvesant, and ac(dead pref)companied him to the siege of Fort Christina. He inherited, however, but little of the martial character of his ancestors. I have observed that he was a simple, good-natured man; he was, moreover, a kind neighbor and an obedient, henpecked husband. Indeed, to the latter circumstance might be owing that meekness of spirit which gained him such universal popularity; for those men are most apt to be obsequious and conciliat(e)ing abroad who are under the discipline of shrews at home. Their tempers, doubtless, are rendered pliant and malleable in the fiery furnace of domestic tribulat(e)ion, and a curtain lecture is worth all the sermons in the world for teaching the virtues of patience and long-suffering. A termagant wife may, therefore, in some respects, be considered a tolerable blessing; and if so, Rip Van Winkle was thrice blessed.    6  Certain it is that he was a great favorite among all the good wives of the village, who, as usual with the amiable person, took his part in all family squabbles, and never failed, whenever they talked those matters over in their evening gossipings, to lay all the blame on Dame Van Winkle. The children of the village, too, would shout with joy whenever he approached. He assisted at their sports, made their playthings, taught them to fly kites and shoot marbles, and told them long stories of ghosts, witches, and Indians. Whenever he went dodging about the village, he was sur(dead pref)rounded by a troop of them, hanging on his skirts, clambering on his back, and playing a thousand tricks on him with impunity; and not a dog would bark at him throughout the neighborhood.

2.”Gift of Magi” by O. Henry.(extract)
One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was in pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by bulldozing the grocer and the vegetable man and the butcher until one’s cheeks burned with the silent imputat(e)ion of parsimony that such close dealing implied. Three times Della counted it. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. And the next day would be Christmas.

There was clearly nothing to do but flop down on the shabby little couch and howl. So Della did it. Which instigates the moral reflection that life is made up of sobs, sniffles, and smiles, with sniffles predominat(e)ing. While the mistress of the home is gradually subsiding from the first stage to the second, take a look at the home. A furnished flat at $8 per week. It did not exactly beggar description, but it certainly had that word on the lookout for the mendicancy squad. In the vestibule below was a letter-box into which no letter would go, and an electric button from which no mortal finger could coax a ring. Also appertaining thereunto was a card bearing the name “Mr. James Dillingham Young.” The “Dillingham” had been flung to the breeze during a former period of prosperity when its possessor was being paid $30 per week. Now, when the income was shrunk to $20, though, they were thinking seriously of contracting to a modest and unassuming D. But whenever Mr. James Dillingham Young came home and reached his flat above he was called “Jim” and greatly hugged by Mrs. James Dillingham Young, already introduced to you as Della. Which is all very good.

Della finished her cry and attended to her cheeks with the powder rag. She stood by the window and looked out dully at a gray cat walking a gray fence in a gray backyard. Tomorrow would be Christmas Day, and she had only $1.87 with which to buy Jim a present. She had been saving every penny she could for months, with this result. Twenty dollars a week doesn’t go far. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated. They always are. Only $1.87 to buy a present for Jim. Her Jim. Many a happy hour she had spent planning for something nice for him. Something fine and rare and sterling–something just a little bit near to being worthy of the honor of being owned by Jim. There was a pier-glass between the windows of the room. Perhaps you have seen a pierglass in an $8 flat. A very thin and very agile person may, by ob(dead suf)serving his reflection in a rapid sequence of longitudinal strips, obtain a fairly accurate conception of his looks. Della, being slender, had mastered the art. Suddenly she whirle(dead suf)d from the window and stood before the glass. Her eyes were shining brilliantly, but her face had lost its color within twenty seconds. Rapidly she pulled down her hair and let it fall to its full length.

“Scarlett Letter” by Nathaniel Hawthorn
Hester Prynne’s term of confinement was now at an end. Her prison-door was thrown open, and she came forth into the sunshine, which, falling on all alike, seemed to her sick and morbid heart, as if meant for no other purpose than to reveal, realize the scarlet letter on herself. Perhaps there was a more real torture in her first unattended footsteps from the threshold of the prison than even in the procession and spectacle that have been described, where she was made the common infamy, at which all mankind was summoned, wide+ened to point its finger. Then, she was supported by an unnatural tension of the nerves, and by all the combative energy of her character, which enabled her to convert the scene into a kind of lurid triumph. It was, moreover, a separate and insulated event, to occur but once in her lifetime, and to meet which, therefore, reckless of economy, she might call up the vital strength that would have suffice(dead suf)d for many quiet years. The very law that condemned her–a giant of stem featured but with vigour to support, as well as to annihilate, in his iron arm–had held her up through the terrible ordeal of her ignominy. But now, with this unattended walk from her prison door, began the daily custom; and she must either sustain and carry it forward by the ordinary resources of her nature, or sink beneath it. She could no longer borrow from the future to help her through the present grief. Tomorrow would bring its own trial with it; so would the next day, and so would the next: each its own trial, and yet the very same that was now so unutterably grievous to be borne(dead suf-French derv). The days of the far-off future would toil onward, still with the same burden for her to take up, and bear along with her, but never to fling down;
for the ac(dead suf)cumulate(e)ing days and added years would pile up their misery upon the heap of shame. Throughout them all, giving up her individuality, she would become the general symbol at which the preacher and moralist might point, and in which they might vivify and embody their images of woman’s frailty and sinful passion. Thus the young and pure would be taught to look at her, with the scarlet letter flaming on herself–at her, the child of honourable parents–at her, the mother of a babe that would hereafter be a woman–at her, who had once been innocent–as the figure, the body, the reality of sin-overestimated. And over her grave, the infamy that she must carry thither would be her only monument.

2.3 ” Analysis of adjective-forming affixes”
1. Extracts from different novels:
“Why, then, O brawling love! O loving hate! O anything, of nothing first create! O heavy lightness! Serious(1word) vanity! Misshapen(verb) chaos of well-seeming forms! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health! Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is! This love feel I, that feel no love in this. Dost thou not laugh?” (Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare)
Beautiful sins, like beautiful things, privilege of the rich…
(The Picture of Dorian Grey, O. Wilde)
I am changed and the mere touch of Sibyl Vane’s hand makes me forget you and all your wrong fascinat(e;verb)ing, poisonous, delightful theories
(The Picture of Dorian Grey, Wilde)
I have but one simile, and that’s a blunder For wordless woman, which is a silent? thunder (Byron)
There was a cold bitter taste in the air, and the new-lighted, brightful lamps looked sad. Dimly they burned as if regretting something (A Cup of Tea, Mansfield).

The pen is stronger than the sword.
Wherefore feed, and clothe(dead suf) and save,
From the cradle to the grave (W.Shakespeare)
Those ungreatful drones who would
Drain your sweat – nay, drink your blood ( Shelley)
William Shakespeare
Blue-inflections, red-derivations
My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips’ red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damask’d, reddish and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks,
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.

I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go,
My mistress when she walks treads on the ground.
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.

Let us compare it with uzbek version and define the uzbek suffixation on its translation:
Mayli yorim ko’zlari quyosh nurin to’solmas,
Alvon kabi g’uncha lab, ham chiroyli bo’lolmas,
Qordek oppoq bo’lmasin o’shal yorim ruxsori,
Zilol chashmin boqmam men, hayotimning u bori,
Hayhot, ko’rib edim men- kamalakning sarasin,
Va lek ko’rmam hech bir deng, rangda uning orazin…
Bayot qilib bo’lib men dunyoning bor iforin,
Hayot guvoh – asl, chin topmam yorim nafasin…
Mayli, yorim ovozi bo’lmasa-da yoqimli,
Uni biroz eshitsam bas, baxtliman ham sevimli.

Umrim bino ko’rmam hech ma’budlarning yurganin,
Va lek yorim qadam ila olar yerning yuragin.

Shunday bo’lsin mayliga; tanho mening farishtam,
Men uchun u bir dona va yagona sarishtam…
Zero, uning chiroyi, ko’rki ham namunasi,
Soxta qiyoslash emas, chin haqiqat? oynasi,
Go’zallar malikasi ham qalbim farishtasi…
The main purpose of this course paper is to deal with one of the sub-divisions of Lexicology – word formation, and the most wide spread type of word formation- affixation. Besides that it helps us to get information about instructional strategies of teaching affixation. It may also be of interest to all readers, whose command of English is sufficient to enable them to read texts of average difficulty and who would like to gain some information about the vocabulary resources of Modern English (for example, about synonyms and antonyms), about the stylistic peculiarities of English vocabulary, about the complex nature of the word’s meaning and the modern methods of its investigation, about English literary books’ word usage, about the word derivations-their historical origins, about those changes that English vocabulary underwent in its historical development and about some other aspects of English lexicology. One can hardly acquire a perfect command of English without having knowledge of all these things, for a perfect command of a language implies the conscious approach to the language’s resources and at least a partial understanding of the “inner mechanism” which makes the huge language system work. This “inner mechanism” , I guess , it is densely connected with the word formation-affixation. Because , whether we don’t know the formation of the words, we can hardly acquire them perfectly.

In this course paper the reader will find the fundamentals of the word-formation-affixation theory and of the main problems associated with English affixation, its characteristics and subdivisions.
In conclusion, I aimed at that this course paper will be of some assistance that it will be useful to teach students to be word-conscious, to be able to guess the meaning of words they come across from the meanings of morphemes, to be able to recognise the origin of this or that lexical unit.

“The English Word” ( I. V. Arnold)
” A course in modern English lexicology” ( R.S. Ginzburg)
“A practical course in English Lexicology”
( J. Buranov, A. Mo’minov)
Lectures on English Lexicology ( Adilova F.)
“Guidebook to seminars in Modern English Lexicology”
( Tukhtakhodjayeva Z.T)
“History of English and American Literature” (
“A book of Practice in Stylistics” ( Kucharenko V.A.)
“Stylistics in Literary analysis” ( Ashurova D )
“Semantics and Lexicology” ( M.D. Castillo)
“Lexicology of the English language” (L. Lipka)
” Lexicology as a linguistic discipline” ( M. Niemeyer)
” Modern English Lexicology” ( G.Y. Knyazeva, A.A. Sankin)
” An outline of English Lexicology” ( Leonard Lipka)
” Lectures on English Lexicology” ( Davletbayeva D.N.)
“A course in English phonetics” ( G.B. Kurtiniene)
Lexicology lectures of foreign universities.

www. elibrary.
https:// www.>cache
Different articles by the researchers and critics.


I'm Mary!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out