ContentNo Topic Pages1.0 Introduction 12.
0 Research Objective 33.0 Research Methodology 34.0 Data Collection Method 55.0 Coding Data 96.
0 Conclusion 11References 121.0 Introduction According to Abdul Rahim (2017), the 21st century promises a sophisticated age as a result of the great development of science and technology. All industries will be based on the latest technology. Therefore, the required labor force must be highly skilled. Therefore, a strategic paradigm shift is necessary made Malaysia able to cope with a more challenging global climate. Thus, the educators are playing a role to produce energy the necessary proficiency. Efforts to make changes in the education world are desirable so that existing state education systems are not left behind.
However, education reforms have been introduced have given rise to many problems in education, especially to educators. This is acknowledged by the Education Minister, Datuk Seri Hishammudin Hussien, stating that based on the 1930 World Labor Organization (ILO) Conference which allows working hours 48 hours a week to carry out tasks including 50.4 hours or 68 percent on curriculum. As a result, many teachers feel depressed and stressed in their careers (Utusan Malaysia, 7 July 2005).
This was further reinforced when a survey by Dunham (1992) conducted after the enforced Education Reform Act 1998 in Britain found that the existence of stress was also due to the role and task that teachers should play.Excerpt from the phonemes, it indirectly contributes to a stressful situation where teachers are less likely to absorb all the stresses received. There are some teachers who are in a dilemma because they feel less confident to compete with the requirements of the outlined measures and the various curriculum demands and the complexity of conducting daily routines at school. Thus, the results of this study are aimed at identifying the challenges faced by primary school teachers as well as the contributing factors. This research study concentrated on the social and affective dimensions of the online learning community. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to explore the features, levels, and related issues of the being in teaching profession. The investigation was guided by two primary research questions:What is the level of challenges of primary school teachers to face in the teaching profession in a Perak State school?What are the factors that contribute to the challenge in the field of teaching profession in a Perak State school?The strength of qualitative research is its ability to provide complex textual descriptions of how people experience a given research issue. Qualitative methods are also effective in identifying intangible factors, such as social norms, socioeconomic status, gender roles, ethnicity, and religion, whose role in the research issue may not be readily apparent.
Researcher on this study used the qualitative method in collecting data. 2.0 Research ObjectiveThe objectives of the study are to:Identifying the level of challenges in primary school teachers to face in the teaching profession at a Perak State school.Identify factors that contribute to challenges in the field.3.0 Research MethodologyResearch methods are important to ensure that the research is more structured and seamless to obtain the required data. This study uses observation and interview methods to obtain feedback from respondents. The methodology of the study is a method used by the researcher to obtain information on the questions that arise in this study.
The design of the study is an element in the success of a study. This research methodology is carried out using qualitative methods of observation and interview methods. This method gives a more detailed understanding of the phenomenon being studied, Caresswell (2002) in Malakoluthu (2007). Each assessment has a certain type of assessment design to make it easier for researchers and readers to understand the study. Figure 3 shows the study procedure that has been done.361950-21590Research TopicProblem StatementSamplingPrepare Interview Question Reliability testInterview Session Discussion and Conclusion Analyse DataRevised00Research TopicProblem StatementSamplingPrepare Interview Question Reliability testInterview Session Discussion and Conclusion Analyse DataRevisedFigure 1.
1 Data Collection Procedure At the beginning of the researcher, discussions with supervisors on the topics that were appropriate and interested by the researcher on the problems that existed to carry out this study. The selection of respondents was selected based on the problem statement and the objective of the study. Next, the interview question was formulated and received confirmation from the supervisor so that it was appropriate to the requirements of the study title and objectives. Pilot study was also conducted to determine the validity of the interview questions before interviewing the respondents. Then the question of the interview was modified and revised. According to Chua Yan Piaw (2006), pilot study is a study conducted before the actual study is conducted to determine the accuracy of the study results.
Researchers will interview some teachers around the middle of July 2018. Researchers will interview three teachers who teach in primary schools. 3.
1 Sampling The respondents of this study were three teachers who taught level 1 and level 2 under supervision at one of Tamil National Type Schools, in Perak. The respondents of this study were selected by purposive sampling. This sampling is intended when the researcher selects subjects and locations with specific features and purposes. (Caresswell, 2008). The respondents selected for this study are based on their experience teaching subjects and positions held in schools. This helps researchers make comparisons related to research questions.
(Mason, 1998). The selected respondents consist of teachers who have undergone basic KSSR courses which have experience level 1 and level 2 in Tamil national schools. In addition, they also need to have the experience and knowledge of all matters in school. The teachers selected as respondents for the study have also been nicknamed to protect the identity of the whistle-blower.Table 1.
1 Sampling ListSample Code for SampleSample 1 A1Sample 1 A2Sample 1 A34.0 Data Collection ProcedureThrough this research method, the researcher explored the challenges of becoming a teacher at the Tamil National Type School through the method of interviewing in the classroom and documentation. The interview protocols as in the report have been prepared to gain experience and teachers in KSSR level 1 and 2 teaching and learning. The questions used can provide answers to researchers on the level of challenge being as a teacher as well as the factors that motivate the teacher as a teacher. This qualitative methodology requires researchers to interview subjects or respondents on site and make classroom observations as well as research-related needs.
There are many respondent techniques in purposive sampling. In this study, criteria-based sampling techniques have been used to select respondents. Sampling of criteria based is when the condition is similar to some criteria, useful for quality assurance (Miles & Huberman, 1994).
The criteria based sampling was used in this study because it can describe the situation of the study situation. Sampling was selected at one of the Tamil National Type Schools in Perak where three teachers taught KSSR level 1 and 2 who had various experiences in teaching at one of the Tamil National Type Schools.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the challenge of becoming a teacher, and the factors contributing to the human person. Based on this survey, the following criteria are identified to help answer the research questions. The researcher as a tool of study is a feature to get data and analysis in the study. This question requires interviews, as well as viewing relevant documentation. The researcher went to the subject location or respondent to get the data and analyze the data. In order to avoid biased conditions, researchers have recorded interviews when planning field studies.
4.1 Data Collection MethodIn this study, the researcher chose the interview method. The results of this interview will answer all three questions. Respondents consist of three teachers teaching in primary schools. Interviews are conducted based on the framework or protocol of interviews provided based on objective and research questions. The result of interview information with three respondents (teachers) is used as a complete data to answer the research questions.
Interview is a major way to get data.Qualitative research is a research strategy that typically emphasizes on words rather than computation of data collected and analysed. The research design is a framework used by a study to collect and analyse data. In other words, the design of the study is to change the research questions to projects involving objective components, theories, research questions, methods and sampling strategies. According to.
Creswell J.W (2009) views, the design of the study is a plan or proposal designed to conduct a study involving interactions between research philosophy, research strategy and research methodology. Qualitative design is appropriate for Virginia and Cictoria exploration (2013).According to Marriam (1998), qualitative methods are a form of research used by researchers to obtain and understand a phenomenon from the perspective and the overall view of the people involved. Practical method of qualitative research is to give researchers the opportunity to explore the subject in its original state. This study helps researchers to understand and explain social phenomena with minimal original method disruption. Documents such as authorization letters, voice recorders, notebooks were brought together with researchers during fieldwork. Researchers also brought together batteries and additional recording tools for interview sessions.
The interview session with the respondent was arranged in collaboration with the headmaster himself or in collaboration with the senior assistant teacher so that during the interview session the teaching & learning session in the classroom was not affected. An interview session was held in the Phase 1 movement room at the school. The researcher has also observed the respondents as shown in Figure 1.2 which shows a workflow chart.74427960015Request for Permission (PPD, JPN & School)Social visit to bond the relation between researcher and respondent.Data acquisition techniques: -a) Interviewsb) Document analysisData compilation and data analysis00Request for Permission (PPD, JPN & School)Social visit to bond the relation between researcher and respondent.Data acquisition techniques: -a) Interviewsb) Document analysisData compilation and data analysisFigure 1.
2 Research Flow ChartThe researcher took three days to conduct the interview process on all selected respondents. On average, researchers have spent 2 to 3 days at the school from social visits to field work. Field studies will be conducted from 13.6.
2018 to 17.6.2018. Data management and data analysis are critical to qualitative researchers. Data easily verified codes, verified labels, verified connections and verified placements without data management and a complete and complete data analysis (Miles and Huberman, 1994). There are many data obtained in this study. Accordingly, the data requires a system organization.
Therefore, this section is devoted to data formulation and data analysis to increase the reliability of the findings.Table 1.2Set of QuestionsNo ItemQuestion 1 Is the field of education complicated in this 21st century?Question 2 What is the factor contributed to this challenge to be in the education profession?Question 3 Do you have the desire to sustain this field of profession?Qualitative studies require researchers to conduct field studies that are self-evacuating to the scene. This allows researchers to see and evaluate their own behaviour in the real situation (Mervian, 1998). Therefore, the researcher will conduct all the research from interview to observation. Accordingly, the researcher took 2 weeks to complete the work.Data management is done to ensure quality and accessible data, documentation of analysed data, retention of data and analysis following a complete review (Miles and Huberman, 1998). Raw data obtained from field studies is collected and processed before being analysed.
The interview recording data is labelled so that it is not confusing. Subsequently interview voice recording data in field studies is transcribed and observations will be transcribed carefully.4.
2 Data Analyse Method Researchers also used the interview method as one of the methods of assessment. The researcher interviewed 3 different gender teachers who also taught KSSR Tamil students in primary schools. The selected respondents have a bachelor’s degree in education, an educational diploma and a person pursuing a diploma-level course. Researchers first consult with supervisors to formulate some questions before interviewing teachers. As soon as the discussion was conducted, the researcher used some of the detailed questions to interview the teacher consisting of questions related to the teacher’s challenge.
Researchers conducted random interviews with respondents (teachers). At first the researcher observed all selected respondents during the teaching and afterwards interviewed them.5.0 Coding DataSome themes have been identified as a result of observation and interview analysis findings such as teaching time factors, leadership attitude factors in administration, additional task load factors in the teaching process and the benefits of education in the field of education. Here’s an analysis code by theme:Table 1.3 Theme and codingNo Theme Code Explanation 1 Factor Management Time(2) Weak management timeThere is not enough time to carry out the assignmentThe time provided was not enough to teach2 Leadership Style Factors(1) The great teacher did not overlook the teacherThe great teacher does not care for the virtues of teachersThe great teacher is stubborn and shows power3 Additional task loads(3) Always given additional work Had to do extra work to avoid bad names Quiet teachers are not enough4 Factors Advantages / Teachers’ Welfare(4) The virtues of teachers are not given priority Teachers are empowered to spend money on their own in the workplace5 Challenges at a high level(5) 6 Instincts carry out tasks and tasks at medium level(6) The researcher considers the factors of time management, leadership style, additional workload and teacher’s advantages and welfare factors as contributing factors to the challenges in education.
5.1 Validation of Observations and Interview QuestionsThe validity of the interviews is used as a review procedure to see the degree to which a sample of the questionnaire item can represent the subject matter of the investigation. According to Othman Lebar (2006), validity is an indicator of whether the study provides a true picture of the phenomenon studied. Researchers use content validity to build instruments through qualitative analysis. Yaghmale (2013) notes that amongst the first steps of instrument development is to identify the domain or construct that needs to be measured. This can be determined through literature review, interviews and focus groups. To determine the construct of the item in this study, the researcher has taken several steps, namely through reading in literature review, content analysis and interviews with expert’s panel. Researchers have interviewed three experts in education, statistics and educational psychology with over five years’ experience in related fields at Malaysian universities.
For an interview instrument (three parts) and an interview instrument (three parts), both instruments are built and investigators interview experts panel to test the validity of each item (I-CVI) to get their level of consent for each item. As stated by Davis (1992), the minimum value of 0.80 is adequate for the authenticity and reliability of the instrument. The findings of observations and interviews for all items in this study indicate I-CVI; 0.
80 (1.0; 0.80) and evidence that is valid content for all items. Subsequently, the researchers improve the questions, the structure of the sentences and the spell as proposed by the panel before they are printed and distributed to the respondents. Each feedback given by the respondent is recorded by the researcher. First stage, transcribe the category of interviews. The opportunity to start an analysis while listening and having what is heard from the sound recording. Researchers can give ideas for data analysis.
The stages of data analysis can be seen in Figure 1.3.center153670Listening and transcribing data forms a common idea to construct tentative category ideas.Build a ThemeForm a categoryAdvice from advisory committees, lecturers and panelsAnalyse pattern 00Listening and transcribing data forms a common idea to construct tentative category ideas.Build a ThemeForm a categoryAdvice from advisory committees, lecturers and panelsAnalyse pattern Figure 1.3: Data analyses A summary was made on every detail of the questions submitted by the respondent. The findings of the analysis will then be analysed and described as a holistic conclusion to support the results obtained.
6.0 Conclusion The main purpose of this study is to identify the level of challenge being a teacher and the factors contributing to the field of teaching profession. In this qualitative study, the researcher has thoroughly discussed the methods used to carry out studies, population, study sample, research instrument and method of analysing research data.
In order to track the challenges and issues in profession teachers, researchers have used interview methods as primary data sources. Observation methods and document analysis methods are used to ensure that data obtained is accurate and has high reliability. All the aspects discussed in this chapter are important as it will help in obtaining the findings of the research that lead to the achievement of the study goals.
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