. Proximal composition and mineralanalysisAvailability of micro and macronutrients are represented in Table 1. The increased percentage of ash content in Annona cherimola indicatesthat it has a rich sources of mineral contents. Trace elements like Chromium,arsenic, manganese, zinc, aluminum, nickel, sulphur and copper were alsoanalyzed and were found to be in minimal quantity and some are hardlynoticeable. Meanwhile, higher amount of macronutrients like sodium, potassium,phosphorous and calcium was found in the samples. Reports of previous researchsuggest that ash content of the plants play vital role in the assessment ofquality of functional properties of foods 21 and the results are in agreementrepresenting 89.65% of ash content in the tested sample. Similarly, the levelsof potassium are high when compared tosodium levels giving low Na/K ratio favoring the nutritional point of view thatdiet with low Na/K ratio are associatedwith lower incidence of hypertension 22.
Hence Annona cherimola can be choice of drug in combatting diabetes.3.2. Estimation of chlorophyll and carotenoids The absorbance for chlorophylland carotenoid in Annona cherimola leaves were found at differentwavelength in Table 2. The results indicated that the amount of totalchlorophyll, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoids present in the leavesof Annona cherimola are 49.45,25.673, 23.797 and 1.
919 µg/ml. Our results are in line with previous reports demonstratedthe availability of chlorophyll content present in medicinal plant Melothira maderaspatana 233.3.
Effect ofAnnona cherimola extract on ?-amylase inhibition assay The alpha amylase inhibitionassay was determined to evaluate the ability of leaf extracts of Annona cherimola to inhibitalpha-amylase, a digestive enzyme secreted by pancreas and salivary gland. Thedigestion of carbohydrates in the intestine is done by alpha-amylase. Manycrude drugs inhibit alpha-amylase activity 24. The alpha-amylase inhibitorsare beneficial in reducing the post prandial hyperglycemia by delaying thedigestion of carbohydrates.
The aqueous leaf extracts shows a powerfulinhibition to alpha amylase with 51 to 58% dose dependent inhibition (Fig. 1). 3.
4. Effect of Annona cherimola onbody temperature in experimental ratsThe results of the present study reveals that thecirculation of blood flow in normal rats represents healthiness of the rat,whereas in alloxan induced diabetic rats the raise in body temperature isobserved which might be due to increased circulation due to damaged pancreaticislets reducing the impact of damage caused by alloxan (Fig. 2).Similarly, the thermal images ofdrug treated and Annona cherimolatreated groups observed gradual fall in temperature throughout the experimentalperiod, representing the efficiency of Annonacherimola diminishing the diabetic complication and improving bloodcirculation with 1 to 5% asymmetric abdominal temperature changes (Fig.3). Fig. 4 illustrates the observation recorded using FLIR camera at twodifferent abdominal sites of experimental rats and representing the temperaturechanges.
Skin plays a major role in maintainingbody thermoregulation 25 and any particular damage in the system can bemonitored by thermography technology and studies have reported diabetic footlesions and ulceration can be easily detected before complications using athermography 26, 27. An attempt is made to identify the temperature changesduring diabetic condition representing raise in temperature during diabetic conditionand gradual reduction in temperature after treatment.3.5. Effect of Annona cherimola extracts on bodyweight, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, C-Peptide and insulinTable3 depicts the effect of Annona cherimolaon diabetic parameters.
Decrease in body weight, insulin and C- Peptide is acommon phenomenon observed in the experimental diabetes and was also observedin the present experimental groups. Treatment with Annona cherimola has pronounced effect in improving the body weightand has reverted the changes in glucose, insulin and C peptide levels. Research has proved that diabetesinduction causes significant weight loss, elevation in blood glucose; fall in insulin and C peptide levels due to increasemuscle wasting, loss of tissue protein and abnormal secretion of the hormone ismainly because of pancreatic ??cells damage there by inhibiting insulin release11. Similar effect was observed in the present study, but after treatmentwith Annona cherimola thealtered levels were reverted back to near normal level. 50% and 26% decline inblood glucose and GHb levels were observed in group II animals when comparedduring regular intervals. Similarly, there was a raise by 64% & 62% in C-peptide and insulin levels and the values are on par with the drug treatedgroups.
The present finding is in line with the previous findings of othermedicinal plants demonstrating antidiabetic activity 28, 29.3.6. Effect of Annona cherimola extracts on LipidprofileTheeffect of Annona cherimola on lipidprofile was determined in alloxan induced experimental diabetic rats (Table 4).
It is a well-known fact that cardiovascular complications such asatherogenesis, fatty liver and coronary artery disease are the factorsassociated with diabetes mellitus due to the abnormal lipid metabolism. In Annona cherimola treated groups IIanimals the elevated levels of TC, LDL-C, VLDL and TG were reduced by 51%,213%, 72% & 87%respectively on comparing with the values during regularintervals. Similarly, decreased HDL levels was gained back to near normallevels with an increase by 39%. These results are on par with the drug treatedgroups and are in line with the previous studies with other plants demonstratingantihyperglycemic and hypolipidimic activity, lowering atherogenic index 14.