Consumers for use also have a number

Consumerstake a lot of interconnected decisions every day, choosing the options forbuying, using and disposing of the product. Options for buying decisions: buyor save money, when to buy, what to buy – which product category and brand,where to buy. Solutions for use also have a number of options: to consume ornot, when to consume, how to consume. Variants of solutions to get rid of theproduct are: complete disposal, processing, remarketing (reselling the usedproduct).Thedecision-making process by consumers can be interpreted as solving the problem.Often this process is considered as a rational decision-making.

Thus there is acareful weighing and an estimation of utilitarian, functional attributes of aproduct. In other cases, the hedonic advantages of the object of choicedominate emotions. Here the object of consumption has a symbolic meaning,expressed in sensory pleasures, dreams and aesthetic impressions. Purchasingand use basically reflect a mixture of both utilitarian and hedonicpreferences. Stages ofthe consumer solution processThedecision by the consumer is influenced by a number of external, or social, andinternal, or psychological, factors considered earlier. This process solvesproblems of varying scale and complexity, but has a stable structure, includingthe following stages: comprehension of need, information search, pre-purchaseevaluation of alternatives, purchase, post-purchase evaluation of alternatives,disposal. Consider the meaning of each of the stages in the process of consumerdecision. 1.

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Needrecognition – the consumer’s perception of the difference between the desiredand the actual state, sufficient to activate the solution. The realizationof need comes about as a result of the individual’s perception of thedifference between his ideal and real state. This perceived difference appearsas a result of the interaction of individual values ??and needs with thesurrounding social environment.

So, for example, most people want to lookadequate in solemn situations and realize the need for dresses in anticipationof such an event. Many consumers tend to be healthy and physically perfect.They evaluate their health and appearance as being subject to excellence andtherefore realize the need for sports equipment. 2. Searchfor information – search for information stored in memory (internal search), orfinding information related to the solution in the external environment(external search).

 Havingrealized the need, the consumer turns to his memory and determines whether heknows enough about the options for solving his needs. If your own knowledge isnot enough, the consumer makes an external search. Thepredisposition to external search depends on the type of product, theindividuality of the consumer and the influence of the environment. Simplepurchases require less information retrieval than complex ones. Some consumersare more cautious and even in the case of simple purchases are not inclined toact without extensive and detailed information. Other buyers make a choicewithout evaluating alternatives. All sourcesof information search for a consumer can be divided into two categories: 1)marketer-dominated and 2) all others.

The first group includes sources formedand managed by the marketer – advertising, including direct answer and directmail; sales promotion tools – coupons, lotteries, refund of part of the price;format presentation “sales formula” in personal sales, etc. The restof the sources are not dominated by the marketer – he can not completely managethem. These are editorial materials of the media (news, reports, interviews,comments), information “by word of mouth”, expert assessments,ratings, reference books. 3.Pre-purchase alternative evaluation – evaluate options for choosing thecriteria for expected benefits and narrow the choice to the preferredalternative. At thisstage, consumers use evaluation criteria – standards and norms for comparingdifferent products or brands.

 Thesecriteria are the desired results of purchase and consumption and are expressedin the form of preferred attributes. The criteria depend on the individualcharacteristics of consumers and the influence of the environment. They are aproduct-specific manifestation of the needs, values, life style of theconsumer. For example, a consumer can emphasize in his preferences productdesign or novelty of a technical solution, the duration of intensive use, the priceof a product. The availability of information on product attributes is asignificant factor in the success of sales. 4.

Purchase- the acquisition of a preferred alternativeor anacceptable substitute. Thepurchase takes place in retail outlets, with the observed growth in thedeveloped countries of purchases at home, through electronic commerce systems.At this stage of decision-making, an experienced salesperson plays a specialrole. The decision to purchase is not necessarily taken at the cash desk; oftenthe consumer reflects and evaluates the final version long before thecalculation for the purchase. 5.

Consumption – use of the purchased alternative. Consumption can take many forms- the product can be consumed immediately or its consumption can be postponedfor a certain period. The nature of consumption should be known to the marketerand can be identified through a survey, observation, experiment. Traditionally,consumption was of little interest to the seller, focused primarily on closing thesale transaction.

In the conditions of growing competition there is areorientation of marketers to the satisfaction and preservation of consumers. 6.Post-purchase alternative evaluation – evaluation of the degree to which theexperience of consumption has brought satisfaction. Consumptionand post-purchase evaluation of alternatives are closely related. The study ofthe use of consumer purchases consists in getting answers to questions: whatdoes the consumer like the most in buying? What suggestions do consumers haveto modernize the product? why do consumers return? Theconsumer is satisfied if his expectations are justified – i.e. perceivedproduct execution corresponds to what he expected to receive.

If the purchasedid not meet expectations in large measure, the consumer is dissatisfied. Theinability of the product to function properly causes discontent, claims andclaims for damages on the part of the consumer, especially if the purchase hasa high level of perceived significance for the consumer. Therefore, the qualityof after-sales service can play a decisive role in preserving the consumer. 7.Deliverance (divestment) – disposal of not consumed to the end of the productor its residues. Disposal isthe final stage of the consumer decision process.

Here the consumer faces achoice of a complete disposal of the product, its processing or remarketing(resale in the market of second-hand products). This decision-making stage isalso subject to producer competition – especially in developed countries, whereconsumers and society as a whole are very concerned about preserving thenatural environment. Here, the companies-producers declare their friendlyecology policy – the recycling of packaging, computer cases and waste cassettesof printer cartridges.


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