Computational also the nonlinear interpolation (Fig. 14), that

Computationaltechniques improved considerably the animation production in terms of efficiencyand costs because traditional animation requires more time and labour force tocreate animations. One recent example is the movie Loving Vincent, thatrequired more than a hundred animators/painters to create the animated movie. Besidescost and efficiency advantages, the results achieved with the 3D animation arenot possible to achieve with traditional animation.

For example, if oneconsiders the point of view that composes of each frame, it has a huge impacton the storytelling and in the viewer experience. Changes in perspective andthe point of view of the frames have a bigger impact in traditional animation,because it cannot be easily done, while in it can be easily changed in 3Dprojects. Considering this, computational technologies are more error friendlyand also allow the animators and producers to be more creative, because theycan try more option during the production process.

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Forexample, one kind of computer animation is the scripted animation, that is basedon frames and interpolation. In the traditional animation, the illusion ofmovement was created through the illustration frame-by-frame, with anillustrator creating the key-frames frames and a team of animators working inthe in-between frames. Computer animation, on the other hand, the key-framesare set and the in-between animation frames are generated automatically by thesystem through interpolation. One technique to animate the in-between frames isthe linear interpolation (Fig. 13), that allows calculating new positions atequal intervals along a straight line (Spalter, 1999).

You determine the numberof positions calculated and thus the number of frames created. There is alsothe nonlinear interpolation (Fig. 14), that creates a more realistic motioneffect. In the case of frames and in-between frames, the computationaltechniques reduced the time and also the production costs, because the computersubstituted a number of people that would be involved in the process of drawingthe frames.

At the same time, the accuracy in terms of the ‘pencil strokes’ ofthe draw are becoming standardized, what would be hard to achieve in thehand-drawing process. For example, by observing the classic Snow White and theSeven Dwarfs from Disney, it can be noticed some little changes in the formatsof the animated objects and characters, also the flow of movement is not asrealistic as can be achieved with computer technologies.

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