Computational that required more than a hundred animators/painters to

Computational techniques improved considerably the animation production in terms of efficiency and costs because traditional animation requires more time and labour force to create animations. One recent example is the movie Loving Vincent, that required more than a hundred animators/painters to create the animated movie. Besides cost and efficiency advantages, the results achieved with the 3D animation are not possible to achieve with traditional animation. For example, if one considers the point of view that composes of each frame, it has a huge impact on the storytelling and in the viewer experience. Changes in perspective and the point of view of the frames have a bigger impact on traditional animation because it cannot be easily done, while in it can be easily changed in 3D projects. Considering this, computational technologies are more error friendly and also allow the animators and producers to be more creative because they can try more option during the production process.For example, the scripted animation technique is based on animated frames and the interpolation of it in the in-between frames. In the traditional animation, the illusion of movement was created through the illustration frame-by-frame, with an illustrator responsible for the key-frames and a team of animators working in the in-between frames. In computer animation, on the other hand, the key-frames are set and the in-between frames are generated automatically by the system through interpolation. One interpolation technique to animate the in-between frames is the linear interpolation (Fig. 13), that allows calculating new positions at equal intervals along a straight line (Spalter, 1999). It determines the number of positions calculated and thus the number of frames created. There is also the nonlinear interpolation (Fig. 14), that creates a more realistic motion effect. In the case of frames animation, the computational techniques reduced the time and also the production costs, because the computer substituted a number of people that would be involved in the process of drawing the frames. At the same time, the accuracy in terms of the ‘pencil strokes’ of the draw are standardized, what would be hard to achieve in the hand-drawing process. For example, by observing the classic Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs from Disney, it can be noticed some little changes in the formats of the animated objects and characters, also the flow of movement is not as realistic as would be if made with computer technologies.Realistic movements can also be achieved with another technique called motion capture (Fig. 15). Motion capture tracks the movements of people and objects and translated that to animated movements more similar to real-life. Motion capture has two approaches: electromagnetic sensors and optical makers. The electromagnetic sensors transmit their positions and orientations to a processor that records the movements, such option is more complex to apply because the environment needs to be free from magnetic field distortions (Spalter, 1999). The optical makers require wearing reflective makers on the clothes and that is recorded and translated into images by the use of video technologies. Optical makers are less accurate but can be a low-cost option if compared to the electromagnetic ones (Spalter, 1999). The motion capture approach is very interesting if a realistic motion is desired, and again, such result cannot be achieved with hand-drawing animation. 

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