Classification a small cave in the Correze district,

Classification of Neanderthalenis: Judging the characters of the Neanderthal people Hooton has divided them into two divisions: (1) Conservative Neanderthals and (2) Progressive Neanderthals. The conservative type shows the classical Neanderthaloid characters. The progressive variety, no doubt, exhibits clearly Neanderthaloid characters but at the same time it makes a closer approach to the characters of the neanthrophic man also. La Chappelle-aux-Saints, La Moustier, La Quina, La Ferrassie are some of the members of the conservative group while the progressive type is represented by Krapina.

Ehringsdorf, Steinheim, etc. 1. Classical/Conservative: The Neanderthal man flourished during the Mousterian (Mid- Paleolithic) period, which corresponds to the last glacial invasion. The flora and fauna found in association with the skeletal remains indicate very moist and cold climate. Woolly rhinoceros, woolly mammoth, reindeer are the typical fauna of that period.

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A change in tool type is also noticed during this period. The Mousterian culture is represented by points and scrapers of various designs and similar other artifacts.

(a) La Chapelle-aux Saints:

1.

Discovery: In 1908 the skeletal materials were discovered in a small cave in the Correze district, France. 2. Materials: A skull with lower jaw, a clavicle, two almost complete humeri, two incomplete radii, some bones of hand, fragments of ilia, two incomplete femora, parts of tibiae, several bones of foot, good number of vertebrae and ribs. 3. Associated Finds: Dressed flints, scrapers and points, skeletal remains of woolly rhinoceros, reindeer, extinct bison, cave hyena, etc. 4. Age: Geological age is Upper Pleistocene. The implements belong to the Mousterian culture.

Characters: (i) Skull: 1. The cranial capacity is about 1600 cc which is well above the average capacity of modern Englishman. 2. The skull is heavy-looking and very large.

The bones of the vault are very thick. 3. The skull measures 208 mm. in length and 155 mm. in breadth giving a cephalic index of 74.5. Thus, it is dolichocranial.

(In general the Neanderthal cephalic index varies between 70 and 76). 4. The face is highly developed in comparison with the cranium. (ii) Norma Basalis: 1. The palate is large. 2. The mastoid processes are very small. 3.

The glenoid cavities are wide and shallow. The postglenoid apophyses are more developed. 4. The alveolar border is U-shaped. (iii) Norma Frontalis: 1. The face is long and projects forwards. 2.

The supraorbital regions are of enormous size, and continuous to form a heavy rounded torus (as in chimpanzee, gorilla and also in Pithecanthropus). 3. The orbits are very large. Their transverse diameter is much greater than their height.

4. The massive molar region is inclined forward and it suggests flat cheek. 5. The maxillary position is seong and massive. It projects forwards to a muzzle-like appearance. 6.

The root of the nose is depressed (as in native Australians). 7. The nose is broad (Platyrrhine). The nasal aperture is large, wide and pyriform. (iv) Norma Verticalis: 1. The skull is more enlarged behind than in front.

2. The projecting parietal eminences are placed far back. 3. The lowness of the vault makes the skull flattened (Platycephalic). 4.

The forehead is very receding. 5. The temporal fossae are large. 6. The occipital region is protruding and much depressed. 7. The temporal lines raise about half way the side of the brain box.

8. The squamosal suture is not much arched. (v) Norma Occipitalis: 1. The contour is almost circular. 2. The external occipital protuberance is absent.

3. A transverse ridge divides the skull into upper and lower parts. 4.

The whole surface is rough indicating strong muscular impression. (vi) Lower Jaw: 1. It is large and strong (but less massive than that of Heidelberg jaw).

2. The chin is absent or it may be called a rudimentary chin. 3. The ascending ramii are large and broad (broader than that of modern man, but narrower than that of Heidelberg jaw). 4. The angle is truncated. 5.

The sigmoid notch is shallow the coronoid is blunt and low. 6. The symphysis slopes backward and inward, but there is no simian shelf. (vii) Dentition: Though the dentition shows some primitive features, it is definitely human.

There is no diatom and as such the series is continuous. The canine is of ordinary size. It does not project beyond the level of the other teeth. Enough space to accommodate a supplementary molar tooth is left in the jaw beyond the molar teeth (as in many modern races).

(viii) The Bones of the Trunk and Limbs: The short, strong and stout bones of the skeleton indicate powerful muscular development. The vertebral column is short and stout. The ribs are strong indicating large thorax. The clavicles are long, slender and arched (as in chimpanzee). The hummers are strong, short and possess a large head.

(It does not differ much from that of modern man). The radius shows a strong curvature. The bones of the forearm are strong. The forearm is short in relation to the upper arm. The hand is quite human in character. The fingers are comparatively short. The femur is massive, strong and it has a large head.

The shaft is bowed forward (as in apes) and does not show sharp development of linea aspera. The tibia is short and strong. The head is bent back and the knee joint suggests that the Neanderthal man perhaps walked with his knees bent. The foot exhibits some interesting features.

The head of the ankle bone is directed sharply inward suggesting that the great toe was widely separated from the other digits. Anyway in general appearance, the foot is not more simian in character than the other bones of the limbs. The stature of the old man of La Chapels-aux Saints was 5 feet 1 inch. (The stature of the classic Neanderthals varies between 5?1? and 5’5?).

(b) Rhodesian Man:

Opinions differ as regards phylogenetic position of the Rhodesian man.

Some want to call them Neanderthaloid, while others prefer to put them under Homo erectus. In most of the physical features the Rhodesian man resembles the Neanderthal man, and bence by many authorities they are considered to form an African variety of the Neanderthals. Rhodesian man bifurcated from the Neanderthal man and proceeded towards modern man.

Others find close similarities between the Solo man and the Rhodesian man. According to them the Rhodesian man has no relationship with the Neanderthal, but show resemblances with the Australian aborigines. Boule thinks that Neanderthal man, Rhodesian man and the modern Australian race present a common stock of primitive character; the three forms have a common origin. 1. Discovery: In 192.1 Mr. T.

Twigelaar unearthed some human remains at Broken Hill Mine, Rhodesia, in South Africa. 2. Material: The remains consist of a skull with lower jaw, parts of femora, a tibia, sacrum, portions of two pelvis and some fragments of bone of another individual.

3. Associated finds: Some bone and stone implements along with broken bones of animals used as food were also discovered. The implements show similarities to those used by the modern Bushmen. 4. Age: The geological age is uncertain. From the evolutionary point of view it appears to bed Upper Pleistocene. But that is also not certain. Characters: 1.

The skull is very long (208-210 mm) and narrow (145-148 mm) being dolichocranial. 2. The height is about 131 cm. 3. The cranial capacity has been measured variously from 1280 to 1400 cc.

4. The supraorbital ridges are prominent. 5. The forehead is receding. 6. The maxillary bones lack canine fossa and are very large and flat.

7. The face gives a muzzle-like appearance. 8. The nasal aperture is very large. 9. The orbits are high and of great size. 10.

The palate is large 11. The teeth are of modern human proportion. 12. The canine is normal. 13. The third molars are reduced in size. 2.

Progressive Neanderthalenis: Opinions differ among the experts regarding the fate of the Neanderthals who were once so numerous and prominent over Europe. Many believe in the total extermination of the Neanderthals by the more progressive new comers the Cro-Magnons, through a process of internecine conflicts. There are others who contribute to the theory that the Neanderthals were extinguished as a result of natural inconveniences in the forms of harsh climate, food and catastrophic diseases. A third school would lay more emphasis on the total absorption of the Neanderthals by the new-comers. The exact truth would perhaps lay with the view that more than one process were in operation in the extinction of Neanderthals.

(a) Steinheim:

The Steinheim skull without the lower jaw, in association with an Acheulian industry was discovered in 1933 from a deposit of the Middle Pleistocene Period at Steinheinam Murrin Germany. The skull was long and narrow. The cranial index was 70 and the cranial capacity 1,070 cc. It was rather small for a Neanderthaloid though in the characters of supraorbital torus and certain other features the Steinheim skull resembles the conservative Neanderthal type. In some other characters like facial and occipital parts it shows a marked tendency towards a neanthropic type.

(b) Ehringosdorf:

The materials were discovered at Ehringosdorf, a village near Weimer in Germany during the years 1914 and 1916. And in 1925 fragments of a shattered skull were discovered. The associated artifacts are Pre-Mousterian, late Acheulian type.

The material consists of defragmentary parts of skulls and lower jaw. In the character of supraorbital ridges, the temporal bone, the form of occiput, the jaw and the teeth, Ehringosdorf man is a classic Neanderthal. But in other characters it is like that of a neanthropic man.

(c) Mount Carmel:

The Mount Carmel skeletons were discovered from two adjoining caves in Palestine in 1931-32. The layers yielded Levalloiso-Mousterian industry also. In one case, the skeleton of an adult female, a mandible and various bones and teeth were found, while the other produced fragmentary remains of about ten individuals besides many isolated fragments.

The Mount Carmel men were tall. They had massive head. The occiput was slightly projecting. The head was medium in height.

The face was of moderate height. There was no canine fossa. The chin was almost well developed.

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