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“Comparative Analysis of Various National Cyber Security Strategies” is an article published in International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, this article was written by Narmeen Shafqat and Ashraf Masood. The authors of this research paper provide an information related to the cyber security strategies between many countries in this world.

Comparative Analysis of Various National Cyber Security Strategies
The uses of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are very important in the nation nowadays especially to the societies. The ICT has been used in many countries in this world as a tool to improve the technology level in their countries. There are many benefits for the ICT’s toward their user. The country which are using the ICT shows that their country has reached a high level of technology.
Despite the benefits given by the ICT, there are also had several implications in using the ICT towards countries and citizen. For instance, according to this article, cyber-attack can cause the physical and financial law. In this new era, there are so many countries has been attacked. Other than that, it also can cause the physical war and cyber war. Even many countries recognized of the threat in using the ICT, they cannot do anything besides find for a solution to avoid it or defend their national information from being leaked to an irresponsible party.
This research aim is to measure and compare the different Cyber Security Strategies in different countries in this world. There are many countries in this world, but the chosen countries to be compared are because they had a good cyber security or a bad cyber-security sector.
In this research paper, it provides some example of the war happened in 2008. Which the physical war between Georgia and Russia and also in 2010 the attacks on Iran’s nuclear program via Stuxnet worm.
In 2013, National Security Agency monitoring the global internet communication to protect their digital information and fundamental internet rights of their citizens. This research paper also provides an information of the comparative between twenty countries of National Cyber Securities Strategies which is USA, UK, Turkey, Australia, Germany, Japan, Israel. Estanio, New Zealand, Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Canada, France, Iran, India, Spain, Saudi Arab, Austria, Finland and Malaysia.

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In this research, the author found the reason why the best 20 countries were selected to be compared. The Cyber Security Strategies implemented in USA, UK, Germany, France and Netherlands were an example of countries that has a good security defends which has been recognized by the world. While Spain, Australia, Japan and Canada have the highest ICT usage. UK, US, Esronia and Czech Republic were an example of countries that have improved their first strategy. Netherlands and USA had two separate strategies which is civil cyber and cyber defence. Other than that, Saudi Arab is also one of the countries that had the strong cyber defence. According to many security researcher, there are two countries that are defined as an example of cyber excellence which are Finland and Israel.
There are four countries ranked in cyber security which is Malaysia in the ranking number 3, Indian ranking number 5, while Turkey in the ranking number 17 and the last one is Iran in ranking number 19. This research paper stated that India and Iran have extremely high cyber-crime rates. So they need to find a solution to overcome the problem in order to improve their countries strategies. For an example, they need to examine their strategies and find some ways to protect the cyberspace against diverse threats and attacks such as improvise the security for the cyber use.
Among the aim of this research paper are to protecting the cyberspace. That is the reason why the researcher combines all the 20 countries, the researcher would like to determine the Cyber Security Strategies used by those countries. The best and effective strategies may give an inspiration or idea for the other countries or researcher to improve the strategies and lead to a better cyber-security.
The second aim of this research paper is to increase the cyber flexibility. The countries must monitor their strategies and ensure that the strategies used is compatible with the present and not out of date. If the Cyber Security Strategies used are irrelevant and not suitable with the current cyber, it may be impact to the security level of their country and the information may be leaked. They need to handle it before they will be one of the cyber-attacks team.
The third aim is level of cyber awareness. The National Cyber securities must aware with any problems that may occurred and prepared with the solution before the problems getting bigger. The National Cyber also need to give the knowledge related to the cyber security to the citizens. So that they can be aware with all the consequences.

Other than that, English language were used to prepare the Cyber securities strategies. The strategies were published online by all countries except Iran, Israel and Malaysia. Based on table III in the research paper stated that most countries were issued their cyber security strategies in 2011.
In general, there are many challenges faced by the countries to develop the cyber security strategies. One of the challenges are risk management and threat tracking. While managing, implement or develop the strategies for their countries they may be faced the risk where the information of their country may be leaked and get a threat as a victim of cyber-attack and they can lost their valuable information just like that. To prevent it from happens to their countries, they need to secure the cyber-security regulatory, legislative and assurance framework.
In addition, the cyber security should take another initiative in gather a valuable information to improve the cyber security strategies in their country. For example such as implement the research and development team to help them in the data collecting process etc.
On the other hand, each countries has set their own objective for their country’s benefits. The example given in this research paper is France would like to become the world leader in cyber security domain in future. Here is the comparison of the cyberspace definition by various countries that were selected to be compared for their strategies. For an example, according to the New Zealand, Australia, Germany, Spain and Canada defined cyber space as an internet connected to ICT devices.
After all the countries realized the importance of cyber security should be implement in their country, they willing to spend the money even it is very costly. The higher country in spending their money to implement the cyber security are USA which is USA spending 10 billion dollars and followed by Canada spending 6 billion dollars, France 1.2 billion dollar, India 500 million dollar and UK spends 650 million Euro. As we can see, USA as the countries that have spent the high cost have the best Cyber Security Strategies compared to the other countries.
The potential risk and threat can happen in any time without we realize it. For instance, unauthorized access can be happening anytime especially when the countries did not implement the cyber security strategies.
According to the Microsoft and Frost ; Sullivan (2018) study in Malaysia, the study reveals that more than half of the organizations surveyed in Malaysia have either experienced a cyber-security incident (17%) or are not sure if they had one as they have not performed proper forensics or data breach assessment (36%).
In addition, “Cyber-attacks have become a common occurrence not just in Malaysia but around the globe,” said Dato’ Dr. Haji Amirudin Bin Abdul Wahab, Chief Executive Officer of Cybersecurity Malaysia.
All countries must identify all problem or possibility that may be happened in the future. The strategies must be improved from time to time. Cyber security need to train their staff who is responsibility in that sector to handle the National Cyber Security Strategies. Other than that, security cyber also must cultivate the user and native awareness in using cyberspace.
In conclusion, the author concluded that the strategies of UK, USA, and Germany are better than the rest of the countries. Cyber Security Strategies are very important to the countries and give a lot of benefits to facilitate the nation and native life. Because of that the cyber security must improvise their service and upgrade their ICT level to prevent from any causes that may harm the country such as loss of information and the worst which related with the financial factor. The native also must be aware with the cyber-attacks nowadays which are not only give an impact to the nation but also to the native. The head of Cyber Security must be more creative and aware in developing the strategies in order to protect their countries from the cyber-attack which increasingly widespread.

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