Communication is an exchange of ideas, opinions, information, relationshipsand so on that has a purpose and is presented personally or indirectly throughsymbols or signals aimed at achieving organizational goals. Undoubtedly nomatter what the form of business or human occupation, communication isimportant and indispensable. It is something that cannot be avoidedespecially in the affairs of an organization. As stated by Zelko &Dance (1965), “Communication is an important activity in anorganization”. Good and smooth communication is very important and takesprecedence over a business organization.
According to Narimah (2004) “Communication is a very important area forall other areas, so that human deeds and behaviors can be said to be incompletewithout communication.” Initially communication was only for the sakeof singularity but with the rapid development and with the advent of humancivilization revolution, communication became more complex. When the riseof the media emerged, the greater communication was triggered, the fact thatcommunication was a key area of ??product marketing as well asmanpower.
Companies are beginning to realize that communication is the keyelement or catalyst in the business world, especially to trigger corporateimage of a company.According to Saodah, et. al (2004), “knowledge about communicationmakes a person or organization more successful and competitive. This meansthe efficiency of an organization depends on the extent to which communicationchannels are working. IMPACTON TEAM WORKTeamwork refers toworkers who work in a group that often doing work together and carry out tasksin tandem to achieve team goals. A team comprises a combination of individuals whohave a dependent competence in terms of capabilities, expertise, skills andknowledge and also have the accountability and commitment to the team’sperformance and they are willing to carry out joint assignments.
The term ‘teamwork’provides the meaning of a group of people who work together for the organization. It is also showing how humanworks more effectively in a working group of diverse backgrounds. It does notmean that each individual has no interest. On the other hand, the effectivenessand efficiency of teamwork often go beyond individual interests and targets.The most effective ‘teamwork’ is when all individuals engage and donateharmoniously to achieving the same goals. Thereare six major types of teams: Ø informalØ traditionalØ problem solvingØ leadershipØ self-directedØ virtualInformal TeamsInformal teams are generally formed for socialpurposes. They can help to facilitate employee pursuits of common concerns,such as improving work conditions. More frequently however, these teams formout of a set of common concerns and interests, which may or may not be the sameas the organization’s.
Leaders of these teams generally emerge from themembership and are not appointed by anyone in the organization.TraditionalTeamsTraditional teams are the organizational groupscommonly thought of as departments or functional areas. Leaders or managers ofthese teams are appointed by the organization and have legitimate power in theteam. The team is expected to produce a product, deliver a service, or performa function that the organization has assigned.Problem-solving TeamsProblem-solving teams or task forces are formed when aproblem arises that cannot be solved within the standard organizational structure.These teams are generally cross-functional; that is, the membership comes fromdifferent areas of the organization, and are charged with finding a solution tothe problem.LeadershipTeamsLeadership teams are generally composed of managementbrought together to span the boundaries between different functions in theorganization.
In order for a product to be delivered to market, the heads offinance, production, and marketing must interact and come up with a commonstrategy for the product. At top management levels, teams are used indeveloping goals and a strategic direction for the firm as a whole.Self-directedTeamsSelf-directed teams are given autonomy over deciding how a job will be done. Theseteams are provided with a goal by the organization, and then determine how toachieve that goal.
Frequently there is no assigned manager or leader and veryfew, if any, status differences among the team members.These teams are commonly allowed to choose new teammembers, decide on work assignments, and may be given responsibility forevaluating team members. They must meet quality standards and interact withboth buyers and suppliers, but otherwise have great freedom in determining whatthe team does. Teams form around a particular project and a leader emerges forthat project. The team is responsible for carrying out the project, forrecruiting team members, and for evaluating them.VirtualTeamsTechnology is impacting how teams meet and function.
Collaborative software and conferencing systems have improved the ability foremployees to meet, conduct business, share documents, and make decisionswithout ever being in the same location. While the basic dynamics of othertypes of teams may still be relevant, the dynamics and management of virtualteams can be very different. Issues can arise with a lack of facial or auditoryclues; participants must be taken at their word, even when video-conferencing toolsare used.Accountability is impacted by taking a team virtual.Each member is accountable for their tasks and to the team as a whole usuallywith minimal supervision. Key factors in the success of a virtual team areeffective formation of the team, trust and collaboration between members, and excellent communication.Understanding andidentifying teamwork features can help strengthen the organization to achievethe goals set.
There are four main features of teamwork:Collectivebusiness· Members in theorganization must understand and share views on the direction and goals thatthe organization wishes to achieve.· Recognizing theirrespective roles and functions can motivate members to take part in everyaction and action that has been decided.· Work together can beachieved if the collective effort is used as a working principle because allthe strengths and resources can be mobilized towards the achievement of onegoal.Positive· Every member of theorganization should look into teamwork as an opportunity for achievement ofgoals, meet the needs of life and provide social support during the crisis.· Viewing from a positiveperspective can create a cohesion amongst the next group of members of thesynergy power that drives the organization towards maximum performance.· The integration betweenmember roles and performance will encourage more creative ideas and reducedisparity in opinion.Cooperation· Not all members of theorganization really understand the role entrusted to them.
This is becausethere are those who prefer to work alone.· The big organization ofthe organization to attract its members is to expose the opportunities thatwill be enjoyed if they move in groups. In the early stages, more frequentcommunication with fellow experts can enhance the ‘spirit de corp’ for them toknow each other and to understand the aspirations of the organization.
Completecomplementary· Each member has theirrespective roles according to expertise.· The knowledge andperformance enhancement will be more prominent if each member contributes totheir skills and expertise.· Complete processes inthe organization will create stronger integration and be the cornerstone ofgreater success.Improved quality of work life and a reduction inabsenteeism and turnover all contribute to a positive impact on the bottomline. Involving employees in teams helps the organization remain open to changeand new ideas. As long as teams are seen as a means of improving theorganization’s ability to meet competitive challenges, teams will be part ofthe business world.
IMPACT ON LISTENINGActive listening takes place when a listener focuseshis full attention on the speaker, avoids interrupting the speaker, remains non-judgmentaland shows genuine interest in the speaker. In addition to hearing the words,full attention allows the listener to understand what’s being implied and readnonverbal clues such as body language and facial expressions that maycontradict verbal words. Fully engaging in the discussion or conversation isone of the most important aspects of active listening. An open, invitingposture and occasional small verbal comments such as “yes” or “I understand”can help uncover the root of most problems.
Listening should not be taken for granted. Before theinvention of writing, people conveyed virtually all knowledge through somecombination of showing and telling. Elders recited tribal histories to attentiveaudiences.
Listeners received religious teachings enthusiastically. Myths,legends, folktales, and stories forentertainment survived only because audiences were eager to listen. Nowadays,however, we can gain information and entertainment through reading andelectronic recordings rather than through real-time listening. If we becomedistracted and let our attention wander, we can go back and replay a recording.Despite that fact, we can still gain at least four compelling benefits bybecoming more active and competent at real-time listening. · Become aBetter StudentWhen we focus on the materialpresented in a classroom, we will be able to identify not only the words usedin a lecture but their emphasis and their more complex meanings. We willtake better notes, and we will more accurately remember the instructor’sclaims, information, and conclusions.
Many times, instructors give verbal cuesabout what information is important, specific expectations about assignments,and even what material is likely to be on an exam, so careful listening can bebeneficial. · Become aBetter FriendWhengiving our best attention to people expressing thoughts and experiences thatare important to them, those individuals are likely to see we as someone whocares about their well-being. This fact is especially true when we give ourattention only and refrain from interjecting opinions, judgments, and advice.· People Will Perceive We asIntelligent and PerceptiveWhen listening well to others, wereveal ourself as being curious and interested in people and events. Inaddition, our ability to understand the meanings of what we hear will make we amore knowledgeable and thoughtful person.
· Good Listening Can Help PublicSpeakingWhen listening well to others, we start to pick up more on the stylisticcomponents related to how people form arguments and present information. As aresult, we have the ability to analyze what we think works and doesn’t work inothers’ speeches, which can help wetransform our speeches in the process. For example, really payingattention to how others cite sources orally during their speeches maygive ideas about how to more effectively cite sources in our presentation. Listening is Not the Same as HearingHearing refers tothe sounds that enter our ears. It is a physical process that, provided we donot have any hearing problems, happens automatically. Listening means payingattention not only to the story, but how it is told, the use of language andvoice, and how the other person uses his or her body. In other words, itmeans being aware of both verbal and non-verbal messages. Our ability tolisten effectively depends on the degree to which we perceive and understandthese messages.
Listening is not a passive process. Infact, the listener can, and should, be at least as engaged in the process asthe speaker. The phrase ‘active listening’ is used to describe this process ofbeing fully involved.We Spend a lot ofTime ListeningAdults spend an average of 70% oftheir time engaged in some sort of communication. Of this, research shows thatan average of 45% is spent listening compared to 30% speaking, 16% reading and9% writing.
(Adler, R. et al. 2001). That is, by any standards, a lot of timelistening. It is worthwhile taking a bit of extra time to ensure that we listeneffectively. Most people spend at least 45% of theircommunication time listening. This is most used communication skill is not onlycrucial in interpersonal communication, It also affects organizationalcommunication and helps determine success in education and in careers. Thebusiness writer Kevin Murphy says ” The better you listen, the luckier you willget.
“UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATIONCommunication is the means by which we form relationships with others.By exchanging our feelings, thoughts, likes, dislikes, observations, andintentions with each other, we form cooperative and interactive bonds with thepeople in our lives. Understanding communication is necessary to understandingour and others’ behavior, including behavior that is problematic orchallenging.
Understanding communication is key to: ? · Understanding and improving relationships. ?· Effective persuasion. ? · Effective instruction or teaching. ? · Understanding and improving group dynamics. ? · Understanding and resolving conflict.
? · Understanding, predicting, and responding to problematicbehavior. ?· Understanding, predicting, andmanaging escalating behavior (crisis intervention).Expressive and Receptive CommunicationCommunication is the exchange of messages between two or more people.Communication can be viewed as a combination of expressive and receptiveprocesses. Ø Receptive communication is the process ofreceiving and understanding a message from another person. It can be thought ofas “input” (to invoke information processing and the computer as a metaphor forthe human nervous system) Ø Expressive communication is the sending of amessage to another person.
It can be thought of as “output”.Understanding the relative strength of these two processes within aperson can help us understand their behavior. For example, it might help usunderstand a person who engages in repetitive, aggressive communication when wenotice that although talkative, he has difficulty understanding and retaining incominginformation. What seems like intentional, stubborn, defiant behavior really hasits root in the problems the individual has with processing incominginformation and making sense of it.
Observing the relative strengthof expressive and receptive processes can aid us in not only understanding andinterpreting a person’s behavior; it can help us improve instruction, designstructure and develop communication strategies to improve processing in theshort and long term.