1. What do you understand by human resource planning? Human resource planning is the process by which a management determines how an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. Through planning, a management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right places, at the right time, to do things which result in both the organization and the individual receiving the maximum long range benefits 2. Define job.
A job may be defined as a, “collection or aggregation of tasks, duties and responsibilities which as a whole, are regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees” and which is different from other assignments. In other words, when the total work to be done is divided and grouped into packages, we call it a “job”. 3. What is job analysis? Job analysis is a procedure by which pertinent information is obtained about a job, i.e. it is a detailed and systematic study of information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job.
4. What is job description? ‘Job description’ is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. It provides both organizational information (location in structure, authority, etc.) and functional information (what the work is). It describes the scope of job activities, major responsibilities and positioning of the job in the organization. It provides the worker, analyst and supervisor with a clear idea of what the worker must do to meet the demands of the job. It provides an important basis for establishing assessment standards and objectives.
5. What data does a job description contain? A job description contains the following data: 1. Job identification or organisational position 2. Job summary 3.
Job duties and responsibilities 4. Relation to other jobs 5. Supervision 6.
Machine, tools and equipments 7. Working conditions 8. Hazards. 6. What is meant by recruitment? Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation. When more persons apply for jobs then there will be a scope for recruiting better persons. Recruitment is a linkage activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.
7. How does rate of growth of an enterprise influence recruitment process? The growth rate of an enterprise influences recruitment process. An expanding concern will require regular employment of new employees. There will also be promotions of existing employees to higher jobs necessitating the filling up of those vacancies. A stagnant enterprise will recruit persons only when present incumbent vacates his position on retirement, etc. 8. Write the steps which are generally followed in a selection process.
The selection procedure consists of a series of methods or steps or stages by which information is secured about an applicant. The following steps are generally followed in a selection process: (i) Receipt and scrutiny of applications. (ii) Preliminary interview, (iii) Blank application form. (iv) Tests.
(v) Interviews. (vi) Checking references. (vii) Preliminary and final selection (viii) Physical examination. (ix) Placement and orientation. 9. What is intelligence test in context of recruitment? Intelligence test, generally, consists of a long list of questions, problem solving questions, reasoning, multiple-choice questions which are to be answered in a given time. The score of persons is judged against pre-decided scales. These tests are very useful for selecting persons for jobs requiring executive responsibilities.
10. Describe the significance of personality test. Personality tests are designed to know about the non-intellectual aspect of the candidate. His mixing with people, temperament, likings and disliking, capacity to get co-operation from others, behaviour, confidence, initiative are studied with the help of these tests. Personality tests are essential for selecting persons for middle and higher level positions.
11. What are interest tests? These tests are aimed to find out the type of work in which an applicant is interested. The likings and disliking of the persons are also judged. These tests are helpful in assigning different jobs to the persons. If a person is assigned the job of his liking he is likely to contribute more. The efficiency and job satisfaction will be more if the jobs are according to the tastes of the persons. 12. What is meant by training? Training is an organised procedure for increasing the knowledge and skill of people for a specific purpose.
The trainees acquire new skills, technical knowledge, problem-solving ability, etc. It also gives an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behaviour. Training improves the performance of employees on present jobs and prepares them for taking up new assignments in future. 13. Distinguish between training and education. While training relates to increasing the skill and knowledge of employees in doing their jobs, education is concerned with the study of a particular syllabus.
The burden of training mainly falls on employees while education is generally acquired in some institutions before joining a service. 14. What are the main factors which affect salary levels within an organisation? The main factors affecting salary levels within an organisation are: External Relativities: Market rates as affected by supply and demand and general movements in pay levels. Internal Relativities: Salary relativities between jobs within the organisation depending on the values attached to different jobs Individual worth: the value of the individual’s performance to the organisation.
15. What are the components of salary administration? The starting point of salary administration is the determination of salary levels. Salary levels are determined by the process of job evaluation. Job evaluation is a systematic method of appraising the value of each job in relation to other jobs in the organisation. This is done by identifying the key tasks and the various dimensions of the jobs and thereby enabling you to arrange them in a hierarchy of grading. In this process of Job Description, Analysis and Evaluation, various methods and techniques are used. 16.
What do you mean by graded salary structure? A typical salary structure is one with a sequence of salary ranges or grades, each of which has a defined minimum and maximum. In this process, it is assumed that all the jobs allocated into a grade are broadly of the same value. However, it must be ensured that actual salaries earned by the individuals are based on their performance or length of service.
One may cover all the jobs in an organisation by the same structure of salary ranges or may design different structures for different levels or categories of jobs. 17. What is learning zone? The learning zone covers the period when a person is on his learning curve, familiarising himself with the knowledge and skills required for becoming fully competent. The length of time to go through this zone will vary according to the individual’s experience, competence and ability to learn 18. What is meant by the qualified zone? How is the salary for this zone determined? The qualified zone covers the period when the job holder continues to increase his capacity to do the work and to improve his performance.
The minimum salary in this zone should be the market rate for the job in so far as this can be determined. The mid-point of the grade is the salary level which all competent employees would be expected to achieve. This has to be above the market rate in order that the organisation is able to retain these individuals. 19. What is the premium zone? The premium zone is reserved for those employees who achieve exceptional results but suitable promotion opportunities do not exist for them.
This enables the HR function to reward and encourage outstanding employees. 20. What do you understand by salary progression curves? Salary progression curves are also known as maturity curves or career curves. They aim to link increases in salary over a fairly long period to increased maturity or experience. They are best used for professional, scientific or other highly qualified staff. Their contribution is almost entirely related to their professional capacity rather than to a more or less fixed set of duties that enable their job to be firmly placed in a rigid hierarchy.
21. What is the use of salary progression curves? Progression curves are mostly used for professional/scientific staff whose starting salary is linked to the market rate for their degree or to a professional qualification. This system assumes that they will develop within their discipline at some standard rate as a result of their experience. 22. Write down the essential features of a systematic procedure for salary progression. The essential features of a systematic procedure for salary progression should be: (a) The salary ranges are divided into defined areas or zones. The individual will pass through these zones as he progresses. (b) There should be incremental systems which will indicate the rates at which individuals can progress according to merit or experience.
23. What should be the principal aim of a bonus scheme? The principal aim of a bonus scheme should be to provide an incentive and a reward for effort and achievement. 24. What is labour productivity? Comment on its utility in wage fixation.
It is a statistical ratio of total output to total labour involved. But whole output cannot be attributable to efforts made to labour alone. It implies contribution of all factors, i.e. labour, capital and technology to the final output. But it cannot by itself be taken in isolation for wage fixation as it differs from industry to industry, firm to firm, region and so on.
25. On what factors does the efficiency of labour depend? How can it be quantified? Efficiency of labour depends upon the capacity of labourer’s hand, head and heart, i.e. upon his ability, intelligence and willingness to do the work. Labour efficiency may be expressed in terms of “Unit of Physical output” – “Output per Man Hour” “Output per man shift”. 26. On what factors does willingness of a worker depend? Willingness depends upon behaviour of employer, worker’s family condition, social impacts, prospects of rewards and promotion, his own intelligence and motivation and morale and the remuneration that he gets 27. Write down the factors which are responsible for relatively low efficiency of labour in India.
Factors for relatively low efficiency are as follows: (a) Climate (b) Migratory character (c) Low wages lower standard of living (d) Break up of joint family, so insecure feeling (e) Obsolete machinery, poor quality raw material (f) Education and training (g) Hours of work and unsatisfactory work condition (h) Bad housing condition (i) Indebtedness (j) Absenteeism (k) Social habits (l) Lack of discipline and easy going attitude (m) Political influence. 28. What does the term ‘increasing productivity’ imply? Increasing productivity implies the full, proper and optimum utilisation of the available resources of men, machines, materials, money, management techniques, power and level. It implies ruthlessly cutting down waste in all. 29. What is meant by productivity? Productivity is ratio between ‘Output’ and ‘Input’.
It is defined as “the ratio between the production of a given commodity measured by volume and one or more of corresponding input factors, also measured in volume”, e.g., labour productivity and capital productivity. 30. Describe various determinants of labour productivity. Determinants of labour productivity are: (a) Quality of labour force their standard of living, education, training, motivation morale, health. (b) Capital per worker utilised Labour/Capital ratio. (c) Level of technology.
(d) Quality of Management Treatment of labour (e) Raw materials used. (f) Decision making patterns and social institution.