Colonialism is mainly objected as domination and the subjugation of the colonized. However, colonialism is not as prevalent as it once was. The history of the world is full of examples of a particular group or society expanding and then settling in their newly captured area. Unfortunately, the effects of colonialism hit the colonized the hardest and still to this day are recuperating.

One significant example of this is the colonization of Antigua. Thousands of Antiguans are still recovering for the overall turmoil that the British imposed on them during the time of colonization. Somebody who is not shy to speak her mind, writer Jamaica Kincaid was born in Antigua before moving to America for work. She has first hand experienced and been through the British colonial education system and is very is very perceptive of her overall feelings towards colonization. This is prevalent in her book, A Small Place. Kincaid discusses a variety of topics ranging from the problems with tourism to corruption within the Antiguan government. In her book A Small Place, Kincaid utilizes a variety of symbols, appeal to the reader’s pathos, and conveys an abundance of themes to help communicate her beliefs, opinions, and attitudes towards colonization. Firstly, Kincaid uses an assortment of symbols in order to express her opinion towards colonization.

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For example, the library represents a much more idealistic meaning relating towards colonization. The sign in front of the library says, “THIS BUILDING WAS DAMAGED IN THE EARTHQUAKE OF 1974, REPAIRS ARE PENDING” (Kincaid 9). Just as the earthquake shook the tectonic plates underneath the ground, colonial to self-rule caused just as big of a disruption.

For Kincaid, the library represents the island as a whole. In which remnants of colonialism remain and Antiguans are unable to repair it or move on to a recreated structure. Furthermore, the Japanese cars introduced by Kincaid play a more significant role in expressing her thoughts towards colonization. She says, “You notice all the cars  you see are brand new and they are all Japanese made” (Kincaid 6). Kincaid states that the cars are all a money making scheme plotted by the government and that drivers are using leaded gasoline which is unhealthy for the car. Japanese cars throughout Antigua are a symbol of the huge corruption problem, which is a direct consequence of colonization. Next, the Mill Reef Club represents a time at which Antigua was under colonial rule.

Kincaid states, “The people of the Mill Reef Club love the old Antigua, I love the old Antigua, we don’t have the same Antigua in mind” (Kincaid 44). This Club symbolizes that Antigua still favours whites over blacks. The people running the Mill Reef Club still have the same old mentality and are still living in the past. Kincaid wants the people of Antigua to start with a fresh new identity in order to create prosperity in the future of Antigua and uses symbols to portray this.Secondly, Kincaid appeals to the reader’s pathos to communicate her opinion towards colonization. For instance, she does this by portraying the harsh conditions the locals must live through. She claims, “Not far from this mansion is another mansion, the home of a drug smuggler” (Kincaid 11).

While the honest and hardworking people of Antigua are struggling to make ends meet, a bonafide criminal is living luxuriously in his mansion. She reveals that criminals are able to roam freely because of government corruption. In order to receive sympathy from the reader, Kincaid uses pathos to portray her feelings about colonialism. She also declares, “The wrongness of your discrimination over us, You murdered people, You robbed people, You imprisoned people” (Kincaid 35).

Kincaid attempts to create a sense of guilt in the reader, which she typically thinks is Western. This is personally evoking emotions within the Western audience as a way to conjure sympathy within the reader. Kincaid uses the rhetoric pathos in order to convey a variety of emotions within the reader, such as compassion and sympathy.

This helps her communicate her beliefs towards colonization efficiently.Lastly, Kincaid uses an abundance of themes to assert her opinion towards colonization. To begin with, Kincaid uses the theme of Tourism throughout a portion of her novel. She says, “An ugly thing, that is what you are when you become a tourist” (Kincaid 17). Kincaid believes that tourists make use of other, more poorer people for their own pleasure. She also thinks wherever tourists go they cause problems for those who live there. This is comparable to a tourist who travels to Antigua for the glorious sun, but the same sun could be causing a drought for those who live there.

Additionally, Kincaid speaks about the prevalence of corruption within the Antiguan government. She states, “People close to the Prime Minister openly run one of the largest houses of prostitution in Antigua” (Kincaid 59). Corruption turns the once-colonized against themselves according to Kincaid. Also, she insists that corruption within the Antiguan government pervades with everyday life in Antigua and uses this theme to portray her thoughts.

Moreover, towards the end of the novel Kincaid introduces the theme of the unreal beauty of Antigua. She illustrates, “The unreal way in which Antigua is beautiful now that they are free people” (Kincaid 80). Kincaid presumes that the sheer beauty of Antigua is actually distracting from the past. She believes the history and the suffering the Antiguan people have been through is all a waste if Antigua is solely known for its beauty. Kincaid is a strong advocate for the people and does not want the sacrifices made by her people go to waste.

   Overall, Kincaid has used a variety of writing techniques that help communicate her beliefs towards colonization. Kincaid, born in Antigua, is not shy to output her opinion in any way.  Kincaid is an advocate of humanism and believes that all people should be treated equally. When colonization occurs, those freedoms and beliefs are all taken away. The years of struggle cannot be reclaimed, so Kincaid has the right to her own opinion.

In A Small Place, Kincaid effectively utilises an array of symbols, appeals to the reader’s deepest emotions using pathos, and conveys a variety of themes all of which help her communicate her beliefs, opinions, and attitudes towards colonization.   


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