Closure spread out the page making it cluttered.

Closure as mentioned in theexample earlier is when gaps are naturally filled in when information ismissing. The human eye fills in “the gaps with lines, color or patterns fromthe surrounding area to complete the image.” (Soegaard, 2017). In web design,closure can be used to create interesting logos that will be face of thewebsite. A lot of existing companies already use closure in their logo’s suchas EA or IBM. Closure can be achieved using negative and positive spaces,contrast between colours and elements in the background and foreground.

Usingclosure in design can allow designs to be simpler and sleeker. Proximity is the space betweenelements, objects that are close together will seem to be part of a group andthose that are further spaced apart are perceived as separate. This principleapplies even if the elements aren’t similar. Kepes states that words read are”segregated wholes because their letters are closer to another than are thelast and first letter of two words.

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” (Kepes, 1944). Proximity can be used togroup together objects to create complex images. In web design, proximity canbe used to group elements together to create a more organised website. To dothis, designers should take the advantage of using white space. White space cangroup together similar elements such as the navigation bar or contactinformation.

Similar grouping of elements has a more “visually pleasing effect”to the viewer rather than having all these elements spread out the page makingit cluttered.  (Soegaard, 2017). Usingwhite space to separate groups of elements is also important to design, thisallows elements on the pages to be quickly identified and “does not overwhelmthe user with information.” (Staff, 2010).Lastly, figure and ground are “the fundamental law ofgestalt that helps us identify objects (figure) as distinct from theirbackground (ground).” (Graham, 2008). Figure and ground is dependent on theuser being able to distinguish the foreground separately from the background.

For example, dark text on a dark text is indistinguishable and will lackclarity. On the other hand, using a dark text on a lighter background creates acontrast and allows the text to be easily readable. However, there are is adegree when contrast is legible and illegible, using a bright neon colour asthe background may feel visually unpleasing to look at rather than having aneutral colour. Having readable text Is important in web design, allowing usersto find information that they are looking for easily. Figure and ground canalso be used to separate links from text, this can be done by having links be adifferent colour than the text and having visited links another colour. Havingan active link in the navigation bar a different colour from the rest is anexample of figure and ground, the contrast between the colours will providefeedback to the user of which page they are on.



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