Clay with an unconfined compressive strength of less

Clay falls into this category since it’s cohesiveand has at least 1.

5 tons per square foot ofunconfined compressive strength. (Incident Prevention, 2017) Online. Clayallows for a slope angle with a ratio of 3/4:1. This means that when there is afoot of depth, the excavation sides will slope back 3/4 of a foot. This alsotranslates to a 53-degree angle.

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The equation for determining the properopening width of the slope angle is: (depth x 2) x type slope ratio + width oforiginal excavation = top width. For example, the slope angle of the clay thatis 6 feet deep by 2 feet wide would be: ‘(6 feet x 2) x .75 + 2 feet = 11 feetwide at the top.

‘ (Incident Prevention,2017) Online. On the other hand, when the cutting will reach the chalksection of the excavation, it should have a slope with a ratio of 1-1/2:1 or a34-degree angle. This is because chalk is categorised as a type C soil and istherefore considered the least stable and most hazardous type of soil. This issince chalk and other similar types of soil are cohesive with an unconfined compressivestrength of less than 0.5 tons per square foot. To determine the slope anglefor chalk that is 6 feet deep by 2 feet wide, the equation will be (6 feet x 2)x 1.5 + 2 feet = 20 feet wide at the top.

This figure is for type C soil ingeneral. The width of the track will have to be wide enough to contain tworailway lines therefore 40 feet would be sufficient and safe for such. Onceenough soil is removed with explosives, the rest of the cutting will be carriedout with 360-degree excavators. Since the track will be 40 feet wide, thecutting will have to consider the fact that it will have to take intoconsideration the sloping ratio figures given above for each side. Therefore 40feet plus 2 x (11 feet + 20 feet) = 102 feet. This means that when the 360-degreeexcavators are used, the sloping will have to be 102 feet away from both sides.360-degree excavators are used for digging rocks and soil and have anoperating weight of at least 9,000 kg.


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