These are (i) home or kitchen garden (ii) market gardens (iii) truck gardens, (iv) gardens for processing (v) gardens for seed production.
1. Kitchen garden: A home or kitchen garden refers to the raising of vegetable crops in the back yard of a house. With the growing demand for the valuable land, vegetables can be grown over the roof or in verandahs.
It not only supplies fresh vegetables but also saves some money as vegetables are now quite costly in the market. The fresh vegetables not only ensure a better balanced diet but there is also a delicate psychology behind the taste. 2. Market garden: This type of vegetable garden is intended to supply vegetable for the local market. Therefore they are confined to the immediate, vicinities of cities and towns. Such gardens are located within a radius of about 15-30 km from large towns and cities.
Since these types of gardens are close to Urban, lands are generally costly. Hence intensive method of cultivation is followed. The gardener must be a versatile person as he is to grow a number of vegetables throughout the year to supply all kinds of vegetables to the market. 3. Truck garden: This refers to producing some special crops in relatively larger quantities for distant market. The location of this type of garden is determined by the soil and climatic factors suitable for raising those particular crops. Cultivation is more extensive.
The commodities are usually marketed through middle-man. Growing of cabbage and cauliflower in Nilgiri hills and transported to distant places like Chennai, Trivandrum, Cochin are good example of truck gardens. With the development of a quick and easy transport system, the distinction between the market and truck gardens is continuously decreasing.
Vegetable Nutritional Value:
Natritional value: Vegetables, being rich in vitamins and minerals, are known as protective food. Realizing the worth of fruits and vegetables in human health, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) recommends the use of 120 g fruits and 280 g vegetables per capita per day.
Consumption of adequate amount of vegetable helps in maintaining health and vigour of an individual. Nutrient-wise richness of important vegetables: Vitamin ‘A’ richness: Beet leaf-9770 IU/100g Spinach leaves-9300 IU/100 g Colocasia leaves-10278 mg/100 Coriander leaves-6918 mg/100 g Drumstick leaves-6780 mg/100 g Fenugreek leaves-6450 IU/100 g Mustard leaves-4370 IU/100 g Vitamin ‘B,’ (Thiamine) richness Chillies-217mg/100g Colocasia leaves-mg/l00g Tomato (red)-0.12 mg/l00g Vitamin ‘B2’ (Riboflavin) richesness Fenugreek leaves 0.31 mg/l00g Amaranthus 0.30 mg/l00g Vitamin ‘C’ richness Drumstick leaves-220 mg/l00g Coriander leaves-135 mg/l00g Chilli-111 mg/l00g Tomato-31 mg/l00g Carbohydrate richness Sweet patato-28.2% Potato-22.
6% Curry leaves-18.7% Protein richness Peas-7.2 mg/l00g Cowpea-4.3 mg/l00g Indian Bean-3.
8 mg/l00g Fat richness Mustard-0.8mg/100g Beet leaf-0.7mg/100g Spinach-0.6mg/100g Calcium richness Agathi-1130mg/100g Curry leaves-813mg/100g Amaranthus-395mg/100g Fenugreek leaves-395mg/100g Radish leaves-265mg/100g Coriander leaves-184mg/100g Iron richness Agathi-83.9mg/100g Amaranthus tender-25.5mg/100g Coriander leaves-18.5mg/100g General Information about vegetables Sex Forms: 1.
Cleistogamy: Lettice 2. Chasmogamy: Tomato, capsicum 3. Protogyny: Cole crops 4. GMS: Tomato, Musk Melon, Water Melon, Cole crops, Onion 5. CMS: Carrot, Sweet Pepper, Cucumber 6. CGMS: Onion, Carrot, Raddish Tomato 7. Protandry: Onion, Carrot 8. Herkogamy: Lima Bean 9.
Peas and Beans are self pollinated crop due to presence of ‘Keel’ a. Sex Forms in Cucurbits: 1. Hermaphrodite: Satputia (Ridge Gourd), Cucumber – Original form 2. Andromonoecious: Musk Melon 3.
Gynoecious: Cucumber 4. Monoecious: Cucumber 5. Trimonoecious: Cucumber, Musk Melon, Ridge Gourd i. Broccoli: Highest Cross Pollination (95%): ii. Spinach: 5 Sex forms present b. Pollination: 1. Anemophily: Spinach, Beet root, Palak, Amaranthus 2.
Entmophily: Onion, Carrot, Raddish, Cole Crops. c. Anthesis: 1. Bottle gourd – evening 5-8 pm 2.
Snake gourd – evening 6-9 pm 3. Ridge gourd – 5-8 pm 4. Musk Melon: Morning 5.
3 – 6.30 am 5. Cucumber – Morning 6. Sponge gourd – Morning d.
Fruit type: 1. Peas and Beans: Pod/Legume 2. Orka: Capsule 3.
Sweet potato, Yams: Capsule 4. Berry – Tomato, Potato, Taro 5. Carrot: Shizocarp 6. Seed ball – Turnip, Beet root