Civil that tremendously impact the environment. Understandably, different stakeholders

Civil engineering operations, especially ones
involving large infrastructure projects, can leave a significant footprint on
both the physical and naturally built environments. As such, environmental
considerations in such operations have a notable impact on involved projects. Civil
engineering projects lead to the creation of massive physical structures that considerably
change interactions in an ecosystem. Road networks, skyscrapers and bridges are
examples of civil engineering projects that tremendously impact the environment.

Understandably, different stakeholders have been raising concerns over the environmental
sustainability of civil engineering projects. In short, these operations are
closely connected to changes in the physical and naturally built environments.

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

It is worth noting that civil engineering operations can
lead to both desirable and adverse environmental outcomes which dismisses the
notion that large projects are usually not environmentally-friendly. It is only
through this understanding that engineers can make the most out of any project.

As such, if stakeholders understand these outcomes early enough, they can take
advantage of the situation either to enhance the positive contributions or
suppress unwanted ones.

Global warming

Engineering megaprojects have consistently been
criticised for poor energy efficiency (Jurgens 2015). As such, power
consumption is always a crucial consideration in most civil engineering operations
especially large infrastructure projects. These megaprojects involve the
creation of utilities with extreme energy requirements. Particularly notable in
this category are skyscrapers and stadiums. The construction of modern stadiums
is especially notable when referring to energy efficiency in civil engineering
works. For example, the AT&T stadium in Texas, USA is estimated to consume up
to 10 MW or 90,000 kilowatt-hours of energy during peak match days (Lillie
2018). This rate of power consumption is incredibly high and unsurprisingly leads
to the emission of six metric tonnes of CO2 per game. Other than the stadium’s
display, other aesthetic features such as a retracting roof have massive power
requirements.

The AT is infamous for energy consumption but it
is not the only one. A study of the environmental impact of sports stadiums by
Schmidt et al. (2015) revealed that
achieving low energy consumption is a notoriously absent feature among such engineering
projects. Precisely, they noted that aesthetic features such as grass heating systems
consume great amounts of power. However, they concluded that it is possible for
these structures to conserve energy. In their experimental study, the
researchers recorded weather-normalised energy savings of 780 MWh and 150
metrics tonnes of CO2. By slightly compromising comfort requirements (minimum
temperature thresholds), they demonstrated that it is possible for large
infrastructural projects to minimise damage to the environment. Precisely, they
showed that if engineers and architects balance comfort and functionality, it
is possible to significantly reduce environmental footprint of large
infrastructural projects.

Exhaustion of
natural resources

There are numerous natural resources that, if used
sustainably, can meet the needs of humans for generations. Nonetheless, the
inefficient or improper exploitation of such resources invariably lead to
shortages. One such resource is water. Despite its abundance in the planet,
many human and animal communities continue to lack access to usable water. Water
is one of the most abundant naturally-occurring substances on earth. Theoretically,
there is more than enough water for consumption by all humans. Notwithstanding,
the resource has a maximum utilisation threshold beyond which its exploitation
becomes unsustainable (Barthel et al. 2016).

Superficially, one may conclude that such calamities have no connection with civil
engineering projects. However, civil engineering operations contribute considerably
to the unsustainable depletion of natural resources although this does not have
to be the case. Major infrastructural projects, such as the development of megacities,
inevitably lead to the concentration of human populations in a confined physical
area. Consequently, their rate of resource exploitation becomes higher than how
fast these resources can be regenerated.

The water cycle is among the most crucial natural
processes that can be disrupted by civil engineering operations. When energy
from the sun heats the earth’s surface, water from the oceans and other bodies
evaporate and rise due to their relatively lower density. This vapour cools and
condenses with time and forms water droplets. As they collect, they become
heavy and fall as rain or snow. When the rain falls back to the earth’s
surface, it either ends up in the oceans or land, where plants consume it as some
goes into the ground (Yang et al. 2015).

Water that percolates into the ground may eventually end in rivers or the
oceans. As such, infrastructure projects that considerably alter elements involved
in the water cycle are likely to affect rain patterns which is a reasonable
environmental concern.

Rainfall patterns can also be affected, either
positively or negatively, by works of civil engineering such as dams and
buildings. Dams that are large enough can increase the amount of evaporation coming
from an area and thus increase the amount of precipitation received in that
area (Sarsons 2015). Civil engineers working on such large projects usually
have some level of control over the environmental impact that such a construction
can have. For instance, they can alter the design of the dam to achieve the
desired surface area. Consequently, these operations can be controlled to facilitate
the achievement of desirable environmental objectives.  

While on one hand dams may be seen as disruptive to
the hydrological cycle, their role in protecting against rain shocks cannot be
underestimated. Communities that live around rivers may be dependent on its
water for irrigation. However, in some instances, the flow of these rivers is
unreliable meaning that those communities may incur disruptions to their
livelihoods due to shortage of water (Sebastianelli et al. 2016). Dams can protect such communities against the shocks
of unreliable climate. As such, civil engineering projects can contribute
positively to making the environment more liveable.

Similarly, tall buildings can notably alter the rain
patterns of a city due to their role in blocking the movement of winds. An area
that is concentrated with tall buildings is unlikely to have free movement of the
wind. Wind patterns considerably influence rainfall and should thus be a critical
consideration in civil engineering projects especially ones that involve
long-term objectives (Kilpatrick, Xie and Nasuno 2014). Although such
considerations mostly lie in the domain of urban planning, ultimately, civil
engineering will be involved in the realisation of the buildings. As such, its
operations have an overall impact on the environment.

From the illustration above, it is evident that civil
engineering operations are considerably liable for certain environmental calamities.

Precisely, their contribution to the disruption of wind and rain patterns is
particularly notable. As discussed above, the contribution of civil engineering
operations to environmental changes concerning availability of water cannot be
ignored.

Civil
engineering operations can also contribute to the unsustainable depletion of
natural resources (Asano 2016). Destruction and pollution of natural habitats
are to a great extent making human activity largely uninhabitable. Civil
engineering has brought forth urbanization that has consequently made use of
natural resources reducing them to alarming levels. Scarcity of natural
resources has always been the norm; the environment has been severely depleted
and the commercial value of natural resources reduced. For example, marine
resources such as fish have decreased over the years due to depletion of these
natural resources.  By and large, this
has been predicated on the huge exploitation of suburban and urban habitats by
human activity.

Health and safety

Wildlife
affects the health and safety of human beings; this takes the form of
sanitation problems, transportation hazards and diseases. Operations in civil
engineering involve human-wildlife contact. Largely, this conflict occurs in
air and ground transportation through competition for similar airspace.  Whenever such a situation takes place, it results
in fatalities, injuries and damage to property. The problem has occurred
nationally but has been rampant in the South-Eastern and Eastern United States.

On the other hand, collisions between deer and vehicles have been on the rise
every year and the construction of road networks near parks are to blame (Eriksson
2014). Beaver affects wetland habitat and water quality: once they begin
construction of dams, they create public safety hazards by damaging bridges,
roadbeds, culverts and roadways. Problems in sanitation are also a consequence
accumulation of faecal material from fowls causing conflicts between urban
water and humans. 

Sustainable rural infrastructure
development for economic development

Civil
engineering has played a crucial role in ensuring effectiveness and reducing
costs of access to rural communities. In addition, it ensures sustainable rural
infrastructure development within a low resource allocation and low budget
environment. Rural infrastructure has been fundamental in the reduction of
poverty, therefore, providing safe and sustainable access to basic services and
markets (Zhang et al. 2015). Economic
growth is a result of investment in infrastructure such as roads. Through this
approach, civil engineering operations have opened up vast lands that were
previously underutilised. This has more often than not resulted in increases in
output in commerce, fishing, forestry and agriculture. To assess the effects of
civil engineering operations in such regions, it is crucial to assess a
region’s potential for natural resources as well as its comparative economic
advantage. For example, in Colombia, crop production increased as a consequence
of improved rural infrastructure thus enunciating an impact of civil
engineering (Ibanez and Blackman 2016). To a great extent, rural markets with
proper road networks were found to have plenty in terms of supply compared to
those using feeder roads.

Biological impact – Aquatic ecology

In
Essex, UK, the M11 motorway was constructed and its effects studied. The civil
engineering operations from the region produced run-off were carried through a
tributary. Suspended solids were carried into a river with iron being the most
persistent in the effluent. This resulted into build-up of sand on the banks (Council
2014). From the onset, the absence of macro-invertebrates such as cased caddis,
mayflies and stoneflies being on the increase. By and large, this visible
change was premised on a lack of a suitable substratum with most becoming
incapable of growing below the discharge. Moreover, the studies proved that
civil engineering operations largely affect ecology more so in the streams that
receive water. In fact, research near a highway construction site that had
water below it showed reduced population of fish during the civil engineering
operations but levels returned to normal after completion of the works.

Still
on the aquatic impacts of civil engineering operations, the construction and
use of ports, harbours and other maritime infrastructure can disrupt marine
ecology. As large structures are built in the seas, there is usually a high
likelihood that human activity will increase in the area. In turn, increased activity
is likely to negatively affect marine life. For instance, the degradation of
coral reefs in many coastal waters has been attributed to increased human
activity in those areas (Glynn and Manzello 2015). Consequently, when
conducting such civil engineering operations in maritime waters, engineers need
to pay attention to the potential impacts that infrastructure in these areas
can cause.

Furthermore,

Dredging

Dredging involves the construction of channels
used in drainage and their maintenance. In the removal of silt that has
accumulated, the physical habitat is disturbed especially since rhizomes and
roots of marginal and submerged macrophytes are also removed (Paramasivam,
Ramasamy and Suresh 2015). Moreover, the suspension is combined with material
from the bed. Configuration and/or modification of the channel may affect
fishes and fauna.  In Pennsylvania,
dredging was found to have an adverse effect on the population of trout due to
destruction of their natural habitat. This was a consequence of removal of
vegetation, undercut banks and holes. However, dredging was found less
deleterious to macro-invertebrates.

Low carbon buildings

The
world is tremendously turning into a city with more than half its population
living in cities and mega cities. These are hotspots for hazardous emissions
that have serious effects on climate as well as soil and water quality.

Environmental impacts are felt globally and regionally thus a headache for
policymakers. Civil engineering operations need a detailed and comprehensive
insight into how megacities impact the environment. Demolition, operation and
construction of buildings lead to tremendous pollution that indirectly and
directly causes climate change and urban air quality issues. Poor civil
engineering designs create unhealthy and uncomfortable environments
increasingly making their global and local impact visible. Sustainability
refers to the self-maintenance ability of a building or the ability to maintain
a building without threatening the ability of ones around them. At times,
buildings behave in manners that make their evaluation and modelling difficult
more so premised on the systems, humans and nature. Sustainable building
development positively transforms the environment by increasing environmental,
economic and social benefits. For example, low carbon buildings designed by
John Ochsendorf’s team at MIT. This has to a great extent reduced the emission
of carbon in the United States especially from buildings that are the largest
source of emissions.

Following environmental concerns in urban spaces, it
is unsurprising that green buildings are have gained popularity in recent
decades. Precisely, the application of processes in construction that leave
minimal environmental footprints has been on high demand. Both architects and
civil engineers have shown tremendous effort in achieving construction
sustainability. This practice is mostly evident both in the actual design and
the methods used to construct such buildings. Green buildings aim at increasing
the efficiency of the usage of water, energy and materials used for
construction (King 2017). Furthermore, they attempt to improve the quality of indoor
environment. Naturally, meeting all these requirements within reasonable budgets
is quite challenging. Consequently, some engineers are forced to compromise
these environmental requirements to give priority to budgetary allocations. However,
as earlier discussed, it is possible to find a reasonable balance between comfort
and aesthetics and construction costs.

Since much of a building’s unsustainability is
realised through its usage, green buildings also target to optimise maintenance
and operation of the building. Thus, it places as much emphasis on the daily
use of a green building as it does on its construction. In this philosophy, waste
reduction is equally a core operations and maintenance objective. In short, a
green building aims to promote environmental sustainability the reduction of
its carbon footprint in all it phases of existence. Through the increased
adoption of green buildings, engineers can control the impact that different
civil engineering operations have on the environment.

Conclusion

Civil engineering is a useful engineering discipline
in the modern society. It has contributed immensely to the growth and
development of today’s civilisations. Operations in this domain result in both
negative and positive environmental impacts. Nonetheless, in recent times, there
has been considerable concern over the environmental footprint that infrastructural
projects leave in their trail. More specifically, stakeholders have expressed
fear that modern-day ambitious infrastructural projects may be harmful to the
environment. Some studies have shown that the demand for comfort and aesthetics
from these structures contributes to increasing the pressure on the environment.

However, there is also evidence to demonstrate that civil engineering
operations can be configured to create an overall positive contribution to the
environment. In summation, civil engineers can leverage operations in this
domain to minimise the environmental footprints that large infrastructural
projects have. 

Civil engineering operations, especially ones
involving large infrastructure projects, can leave a significant footprint on
both the physical and naturally built environments. As such, environmental
considerations in such operations have a notable impact on involved projects. Civil
engineering projects lead to the creation of massive physical structures that considerably
change interactions in an ecosystem. Road networks, skyscrapers and bridges are
examples of civil engineering projects that tremendously impact the environment.

Understandably, different stakeholders have been raising concerns over the environmental
sustainability of civil engineering projects. In short, these operations are
closely connected to changes in the physical and naturally built environments.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

It is worth noting that civil engineering operations can
lead to both desirable and adverse environmental outcomes which dismisses the
notion that large projects are usually not environmentally-friendly. It is only
through this understanding that engineers can make the most out of any project.

As such, if stakeholders understand these outcomes early enough, they can take
advantage of the situation either to enhance the positive contributions or
suppress unwanted ones.

Global warming

Engineering megaprojects have consistently been
criticised for poor energy efficiency (Jurgens 2015). As such, power
consumption is always a crucial consideration in most civil engineering operations
especially large infrastructure projects. These megaprojects involve the
creation of utilities with extreme energy requirements. Particularly notable in
this category are skyscrapers and stadiums. The construction of modern stadiums
is especially notable when referring to energy efficiency in civil engineering
works. For example, the AT&T stadium in Texas, USA is estimated to consume up
to 10 MW or 90,000 kilowatt-hours of energy during peak match days (Lillie
2018). This rate of power consumption is incredibly high and unsurprisingly leads
to the emission of six metric tonnes of CO2 per game. Other than the stadium’s
display, other aesthetic features such as a retracting roof have massive power
requirements.

The AT is infamous for energy consumption but it
is not the only one. A study of the environmental impact of sports stadiums by
Schmidt et al. (2015) revealed that
achieving low energy consumption is a notoriously absent feature among such engineering
projects. Precisely, they noted that aesthetic features such as grass heating systems
consume great amounts of power. However, they concluded that it is possible for
these structures to conserve energy. In their experimental study, the
researchers recorded weather-normalised energy savings of 780 MWh and 150
metrics tonnes of CO2. By slightly compromising comfort requirements (minimum
temperature thresholds), they demonstrated that it is possible for large
infrastructural projects to minimise damage to the environment. Precisely, they
showed that if engineers and architects balance comfort and functionality, it
is possible to significantly reduce environmental footprint of large
infrastructural projects.

Exhaustion of
natural resources

There are numerous natural resources that, if used
sustainably, can meet the needs of humans for generations. Nonetheless, the
inefficient or improper exploitation of such resources invariably lead to
shortages. One such resource is water. Despite its abundance in the planet,
many human and animal communities continue to lack access to usable water. Water
is one of the most abundant naturally-occurring substances on earth. Theoretically,
there is more than enough water for consumption by all humans. Notwithstanding,
the resource has a maximum utilisation threshold beyond which its exploitation
becomes unsustainable (Barthel et al. 2016).

Superficially, one may conclude that such calamities have no connection with civil
engineering projects. However, civil engineering operations contribute considerably
to the unsustainable depletion of natural resources although this does not have
to be the case. Major infrastructural projects, such as the development of megacities,
inevitably lead to the concentration of human populations in a confined physical
area. Consequently, their rate of resource exploitation becomes higher than how
fast these resources can be regenerated.

The water cycle is among the most crucial natural
processes that can be disrupted by civil engineering operations. When energy
from the sun heats the earth’s surface, water from the oceans and other bodies
evaporate and rise due to their relatively lower density. This vapour cools and
condenses with time and forms water droplets. As they collect, they become
heavy and fall as rain or snow. When the rain falls back to the earth’s
surface, it either ends up in the oceans or land, where plants consume it as some
goes into the ground (Yang et al. 2015).

Water that percolates into the ground may eventually end in rivers or the
oceans. As such, infrastructure projects that considerably alter elements involved
in the water cycle are likely to affect rain patterns which is a reasonable
environmental concern.

Rainfall patterns can also be affected, either
positively or negatively, by works of civil engineering such as dams and
buildings. Dams that are large enough can increase the amount of evaporation coming
from an area and thus increase the amount of precipitation received in that
area (Sarsons 2015). Civil engineers working on such large projects usually
have some level of control over the environmental impact that such a construction
can have. For instance, they can alter the design of the dam to achieve the
desired surface area. Consequently, these operations can be controlled to facilitate
the achievement of desirable environmental objectives.  

While on one hand dams may be seen as disruptive to
the hydrological cycle, their role in protecting against rain shocks cannot be
underestimated. Communities that live around rivers may be dependent on its
water for irrigation. However, in some instances, the flow of these rivers is
unreliable meaning that those communities may incur disruptions to their
livelihoods due to shortage of water (Sebastianelli et al. 2016). Dams can protect such communities against the shocks
of unreliable climate. As such, civil engineering projects can contribute
positively to making the environment more liveable.

Similarly, tall buildings can notably alter the rain
patterns of a city due to their role in blocking the movement of winds. An area
that is concentrated with tall buildings is unlikely to have free movement of the
wind. Wind patterns considerably influence rainfall and should thus be a critical
consideration in civil engineering projects especially ones that involve
long-term objectives (Kilpatrick, Xie and Nasuno 2014). Although such
considerations mostly lie in the domain of urban planning, ultimately, civil
engineering will be involved in the realisation of the buildings. As such, its
operations have an overall impact on the environment.

From the illustration above, it is evident that civil
engineering operations are considerably liable for certain environmental calamities.

Precisely, their contribution to the disruption of wind and rain patterns is
particularly notable. As discussed above, the contribution of civil engineering
operations to environmental changes concerning availability of water cannot be
ignored.

Civil
engineering operations can also contribute to the unsustainable depletion of
natural resources (Asano 2016). Destruction and pollution of natural habitats
are to a great extent making human activity largely uninhabitable. Civil
engineering has brought forth urbanization that has consequently made use of
natural resources reducing them to alarming levels. Scarcity of natural
resources has always been the norm; the environment has been severely depleted
and the commercial value of natural resources reduced. For example, marine
resources such as fish have decreased over the years due to depletion of these
natural resources.  By and large, this
has been predicated on the huge exploitation of suburban and urban habitats by
human activity.

Health and safety

Wildlife
affects the health and safety of human beings; this takes the form of
sanitation problems, transportation hazards and diseases. Operations in civil
engineering involve human-wildlife contact. Largely, this conflict occurs in
air and ground transportation through competition for similar airspace.  Whenever such a situation takes place, it results
in fatalities, injuries and damage to property. The problem has occurred
nationally but has been rampant in the South-Eastern and Eastern United States.

On the other hand, collisions between deer and vehicles have been on the rise
every year and the construction of road networks near parks are to blame (Eriksson
2014). Beaver affects wetland habitat and water quality: once they begin
construction of dams, they create public safety hazards by damaging bridges,
roadbeds, culverts and roadways. Problems in sanitation are also a consequence
accumulation of faecal material from fowls causing conflicts between urban
water and humans. 

Sustainable rural infrastructure
development for economic development

Civil
engineering has played a crucial role in ensuring effectiveness and reducing
costs of access to rural communities. In addition, it ensures sustainable rural
infrastructure development within a low resource allocation and low budget
environment. Rural infrastructure has been fundamental in the reduction of
poverty, therefore, providing safe and sustainable access to basic services and
markets (Zhang et al. 2015). Economic
growth is a result of investment in infrastructure such as roads. Through this
approach, civil engineering operations have opened up vast lands that were
previously underutilised. This has more often than not resulted in increases in
output in commerce, fishing, forestry and agriculture. To assess the effects of
civil engineering operations in such regions, it is crucial to assess a
region’s potential for natural resources as well as its comparative economic
advantage. For example, in Colombia, crop production increased as a consequence
of improved rural infrastructure thus enunciating an impact of civil
engineering (Ibanez and Blackman 2016). To a great extent, rural markets with
proper road networks were found to have plenty in terms of supply compared to
those using feeder roads.

Biological impact – Aquatic ecology

In
Essex, UK, the M11 motorway was constructed and its effects studied. The civil
engineering operations from the region produced run-off were carried through a
tributary. Suspended solids were carried into a river with iron being the most
persistent in the effluent. This resulted into build-up of sand on the banks (Council
2014). From the onset, the absence of macro-invertebrates such as cased caddis,
mayflies and stoneflies being on the increase. By and large, this visible
change was premised on a lack of a suitable substratum with most becoming
incapable of growing below the discharge. Moreover, the studies proved that
civil engineering operations largely affect ecology more so in the streams that
receive water. In fact, research near a highway construction site that had
water below it showed reduced population of fish during the civil engineering
operations but levels returned to normal after completion of the works.

Still
on the aquatic impacts of civil engineering operations, the construction and
use of ports, harbours and other maritime infrastructure can disrupt marine
ecology. As large structures are built in the seas, there is usually a high
likelihood that human activity will increase in the area. In turn, increased activity
is likely to negatively affect marine life. For instance, the degradation of
coral reefs in many coastal waters has been attributed to increased human
activity in those areas (Glynn and Manzello 2015). Consequently, when
conducting such civil engineering operations in maritime waters, engineers need
to pay attention to the potential impacts that infrastructure in these areas
can cause.

Furthermore,

Dredging

Dredging involves the construction of channels
used in drainage and their maintenance. In the removal of silt that has
accumulated, the physical habitat is disturbed especially since rhizomes and
roots of marginal and submerged macrophytes are also removed (Paramasivam,
Ramasamy and Suresh 2015). Moreover, the suspension is combined with material
from the bed. Configuration and/or modification of the channel may affect
fishes and fauna.  In Pennsylvania,
dredging was found to have an adverse effect on the population of trout due to
destruction of their natural habitat. This was a consequence of removal of
vegetation, undercut banks and holes. However, dredging was found less
deleterious to macro-invertebrates.

Low carbon buildings

The
world is tremendously turning into a city with more than half its population
living in cities and mega cities. These are hotspots for hazardous emissions
that have serious effects on climate as well as soil and water quality.

Environmental impacts are felt globally and regionally thus a headache for
policymakers. Civil engineering operations need a detailed and comprehensive
insight into how megacities impact the environment. Demolition, operation and
construction of buildings lead to tremendous pollution that indirectly and
directly causes climate change and urban air quality issues. Poor civil
engineering designs create unhealthy and uncomfortable environments
increasingly making their global and local impact visible. Sustainability
refers to the self-maintenance ability of a building or the ability to maintain
a building without threatening the ability of ones around them. At times,
buildings behave in manners that make their evaluation and modelling difficult
more so premised on the systems, humans and nature. Sustainable building
development positively transforms the environment by increasing environmental,
economic and social benefits. For example, low carbon buildings designed by
John Ochsendorf’s team at MIT. This has to a great extent reduced the emission
of carbon in the United States especially from buildings that are the largest
source of emissions.

Following environmental concerns in urban spaces, it
is unsurprising that green buildings are have gained popularity in recent
decades. Precisely, the application of processes in construction that leave
minimal environmental footprints has been on high demand. Both architects and
civil engineers have shown tremendous effort in achieving construction
sustainability. This practice is mostly evident both in the actual design and
the methods used to construct such buildings. Green buildings aim at increasing
the efficiency of the usage of water, energy and materials used for
construction (King 2017). Furthermore, they attempt to improve the quality of indoor
environment. Naturally, meeting all these requirements within reasonable budgets
is quite challenging. Consequently, some engineers are forced to compromise
these environmental requirements to give priority to budgetary allocations. However,
as earlier discussed, it is possible to find a reasonable balance between comfort
and aesthetics and construction costs.

Since much of a building’s unsustainability is
realised through its usage, green buildings also target to optimise maintenance
and operation of the building. Thus, it places as much emphasis on the daily
use of a green building as it does on its construction. In this philosophy, waste
reduction is equally a core operations and maintenance objective. In short, a
green building aims to promote environmental sustainability the reduction of
its carbon footprint in all it phases of existence. Through the increased
adoption of green buildings, engineers can control the impact that different
civil engineering operations have on the environment.

Conclusion

Civil engineering is a useful engineering discipline
in the modern society. It has contributed immensely to the growth and
development of today’s civilisations. Operations in this domain result in both
negative and positive environmental impacts. Nonetheless, in recent times, there
has been considerable concern over the environmental footprint that infrastructural
projects leave in their trail. More specifically, stakeholders have expressed
fear that modern-day ambitious infrastructural projects may be harmful to the
environment. Some studies have shown that the demand for comfort and aesthetics
from these structures contributes to increasing the pressure on the environment.

However, there is also evidence to demonstrate that civil engineering
operations can be configured to create an overall positive contribution to the
environment. In summation, civil engineers can leverage operations in this
domain to minimise the environmental footprints that large infrastructural
projects have. 

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