Childhood of several well-established risk factors for increased

Childhood obesity andoverweight and factors associated with it. “Childhood obesity isn’t some simple, discrete issue.

There’s no one causewe can pinpoint. There’s no one program we can fund to make it go away. Rather,it’s an issue that touches on every aspect of how we live and how we work.

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”                                                                                                                                                      -Michelle Obama 1.1 Introduction                In the last few decades of the twentieth century,overweight and obesity have become a major threat for the higher incomecountries. Ithas already reached the epidemic level in developed countries of America,Europe with prevalence rate of 63 and 59 per 1000 respectively (WHO estimates2016). Obesity has been found to be a strong predictor of severalwell-established risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality.

They are directly linked with the rise innon-communicable diseases like diabetes, hypertension etc. The globalincrease in overweight and obesity at the young age is directly linked with therisk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Worldwide, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of beingoverweight or obese, and an estimated 35.

8 million (2.3%) of global DALYs arecaused by overweight or obesity (WHO). Also there isa concern that the rise in global obesity will slow down or even reverse thesignificant mortality reductions experienced by the high income countries inthe past few decades (Swinburn et al.

2011).  Reversing theobesity epidemic should be an urgent priority (Mokdad et al., 2003).

 Earlier,higher proportion of population suffering from problems of over-weight andobesity resided in higher income and industrialized countries (Caballero,2007). Developing countries are now going under various transitions likedemographic, epidemiological, economic, as well as nutritional transition.Rising household income has contributed a lot for reducing the childhoodunder-nutrition, but also there has been a rapid rise in proportion ofover-weight and obese people (Jef L. Leroy et al) Due to this, for countrieslike India, the issue is more serious. Earlier developing countries had high prevalenceof under-nutrition but now there is a double burden of under-nutrition as wellas over-nutrition. In developing countries, malnutrition is a medical aswell as a social disorder (Sidhu & Kaushal, 2005).

This double burden of over-nutrition and under-nutrition is now a publichealth challenge in developing countries. Under-nutrition is still asignificant cause of deaths of children in less developed and developing countries. Although eradicatinghunger was a part of Millennium Development Goal, undernutrition stillcontinues to be prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries throughoutthe world.Almost all the health and nutrition policies in the developing countries isemphasising on undernutrition but at the same time, rising prevalence ofover-nutrition is now a serious health threat. Childhood obesity was consideredas an issue in the economically rich countries, but now this problem hasstarted appearing in the less developed countries also. Childhood obesity isnow a recent epidemic with high magnitude in India (Tanu Midha et al., 2012).

 Due to rise in overweight and obesityin the recent decades, it is now important for the countries to focus onregular monitoring of prevalence of it in the population.  1.2 Existingstudies on over-weight or obesity of children    1.3 Need of the studyIndia is one of the mostpopulous countries with a population of about 121 million (Census, 2011). Thereis a considerable improvement in economic as well as social fronts in therecent years. It can be seen by the improvements in various indicators ofmortality and morbidity such as infant mortality ratio (IMR), maternalmortality ratio (MMR), and life expectancy. However, improvement in nutritionalstatus of females and children is found to be lagged behind. Also, the countryis facing the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases inwhich the role of nutrition is very important.

There are a lot of studies onunder-nutrition in India for children, but over-nutrition in children andfactors associated with it are currently ignored. Due to progressiveurbanization and changing life style, childhood over-weight and obesity hasbecome an equally challenging. It isa fast emerging problem for which national representative data is scarce. Notonly are obese children at an increased risk of developing serious medical andpsychological complications, they are also likely to stay obese intoadolescence and adulthood (Gibson et.

al). Moreover, if begun in childhood,obesity in adulthood is likely to be more severe. Also effectivepreventive of adult obesity will require prevention and management of childhoodobesity. WHO has also emphasized on urgent need of understanding the prevalencetrend, factors contributing and developing strategies for effectiveintervention. Obesity is one of the preventable risk factors for variousnon-communicable diseases but studies of obesity for children are very rare. Withthese backgrounds in mind, the current paper will be an attempt to highlightthe problem of obesity and over-weight by showing its prevalence, trends,patterns and its association with various factors.

Also the association ofmother’s weight with nutritional status of child will be checked.1.4 Objectives of the study: -1) To assess the nutritional status of children and various factorsassociated with it.2) To examine the pattern of food consumption in children and its impacton their nutritional status.

3) To study the impact of mother’s weight on obesity amongst theirchildren.4) To study the association between children’s nutritional status anddiseases like anaemia. 1.5 Hypothesis: -1) There is no significant difference in food consumption pattern in children.

2) There is no impact of mother’s weight on children.3) There is no association between child’s nutritional status and anaemia. 1.6 Organization of the dissertation:-Chapter 11.1  Introduction.1.

2 Existing studies on over-weight or obesity of women.1.3 Need of the study.1.4 Objectives of the study.

1.5 Hypothesis.1.6 Organization of the dissertation. Chapter 22.

1 Introduction.2.2 Data source.2.

3 Information available in the survey.2.4 Variable construction.

2.5 Defining over-weight and obesity, and describing techniques to beused.2.

6 Methodology. 

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