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Tricksters Welcome Here?
tricksters are usually representatives for change. they are the rebels in the story who are sharp and wise; they have a very important role in the story because they either do things for the better or for worse. they can be represented in forms of a human an animal or as a god. in addition tricksters can do selfish deeds that ends up benefiting other people or they can do things to benefit themselves. trickster are not necessarily evil nor are they good. they dont follow the rules and they dont agree with the society culture; therefore they are respected but mistrusted. tricksters surface in myths from a variety of cultures and in a variety of ways. some tricksters seem to serve a very limited role of providing bad information such as agadzagada in a nigerian myth about the origin of death; simply because he wanted to deceive people on earth agadzagada misled humans about how to handle the first corpse. there is a development or evolution of the character of the trickster himself he the trickster is a savior who undergoes difficulty and suffering to provide the necessities of life to others qtd. in thury and devinney p. 373 to be considered a culture hero a trickster must behave in ways valued and appreciated by its culture. the question arises though which culture the dominant mainstream culture a sub-culture thury and devinney write because he the trickster is not completely invested in these societies the trickster is freer to disregard the morals and standards held dear by them and to behave in ways that their members would find improper or unacceptable p. 370 joseph campbell in a video entitled mythology of the trickster describes a trickster as representing the power of the psyche to overthrow programs. the dominant and mainstream culture is on a societal level; that is how a culture receives and portrays tricksters seems to signal how open they are to subcultures. native american mythology celebrates and accepts ravens disruptions and native american culture appreciates all beings for their individual capabilities. antebellum american south myths however depict a more constrained trickster who illuminates moral dilemmas and the culture reflects the harsh hierarchy of slaves and masters. raven is an important mythical figure to native americans in northwestern north america. he is credited with bringing the moon stars and daylight to humans albeit through trickery. raven also plays an important creator role as he uses the water that he steals to form major rivers and makes islands from sand that he obtained through negotiation with frog. moreover he helps to create mankind himself by discovering them under a rock and helping them to emerge. in addition raven brings fire to humans. in almost all of these instances raven does not set out to help mankind. rather he is interested in being mischievous: he tricks his grandfather into giving him the moon stars and daylight; happens to be sated so chooses not to eat the humans he finds under the rock; and seeks to punish those who refuse to take him across a river by unleashing daylight upon them. despite these questionable motives raven is revered by native americans. native americans hold a worldview that calls for a cooperative relationship between humans and nature. thury and devinney explain as their world is full of sacred beings native americans do not believe in a single supreme deity or a group of chosen gods with extraordinary powers although some beings in their world are more important than others p. 370 for native americans society is more communal than hierarchical. because the social power dynamic is looser society can more easily accommodate those who challenge the mainstream order; tricksters are not as threatening to those in power. that is there is more room for subcultures to flourish and for mainstream culture to incorporate attributes that first emerged in subcultures. unlike native american mythology where tricksters can be overt change agents american south mythology presents tricksters as more subtle change agents and its tricksters have a strong entertainment component. american south myths contain tricksters who revel in guile and either dupe someone else or are duped themselves entertaining the audience with their antics. for example in tricking all the kings buh nansi stays alive by tricking those that would typically be considered more powerful both physically and socially that is a king shark and lion. buh nansis cunning literally saves his life. yet instead of celebrating buh nansis survival the myth ends by proclaiming thats why you see that today you must never do evil. you must always do good to your friends and never do evil. you must always do good to your friends even if they do bad qtd. in thury and devinney p. 393 this ending seems to uphold traditional moral thinking. however it also allows an audience of slaves to see the tricksters behavior as dishonest but necessary. as jay edwards maintains african-american trickster stories allow the audience to reflect on certain moral dilemmas imposed by slavery life and death male and female harmony and disharmony qtd. in thury and devinney p. 382 buh nansi then is a subtle change agent as he both challenges and reinforces the dominant hierarchical culture. with its culture based on slaves and masters the american south had a clear social hierarchy. thury and devinney summarize jay edwards by stating because of the nature of the social conditions imposed by slavery the resolution of these moral dilemmas is always the same: trickster tales inevitably end in disharmony and the tricksters strategy is to maximize short-term economic gain at the cost of long-term goals like social cohesion p. 382 in this statement we see an example of a mythology asserting a way of dealing with life and death issues which is what joseph campbell contends is the underlying purpose of mythology. because of the injustice deprivation and power imbalance inherent in slavery trickster behaviors became valued ways to subvert the system p. 382 according to thury and devinney. challenging white power directly however would be too dangerous so neutralizing factors were introduced through the use of animals as characters and disrespect for the trickster i.e. not someone to be emulated or someone to be laughed at in american south mythology according to john w. roberts the role of the trickster is based not on building culture but on resisting and surviving a culture that is out to use him up. the trickster is a culture hero only in the sense of preventing the complete elimination of his culture by forces out to destroy it qtd. in thury and devinney p. 397 while the socially-powerful white culture may not be built up by american south tricksters the sub-culture of black slaves was strengthened by these tricksters who derived sub-culture hero status from their ability to survive and upend a harsh environment. the hierarchical nature of antebellum american south then births a trickster who cannot overtly be a change agent but rather is a camouflaged change agent. both the native american and american south tricksters are considered liminal figures. thury and devinney describe a liminal figure as a revolutionary who is likely to destroy the world as we know it and forge a new reality from its ruins p. 397 joseph campbell maintains that the adventure of the hero involves coming to terms with many conflicting feelings qtd. in thury and devinney p. 185 in the world of mythology then tricksters may be to society what heroes are to individuals. because tricksters are at the edge of society or between two worlds they are able to re-order or change the dominant culture which may well involve coming to terms with conflicting feelings. in contemporary society immigrants seem to be similar to tricksters. because they are of two worlds if not more they have the potential to be liminal figures. whether immigrants operate as overt or more subtle change agents would seem to depend on whether social power is held tightly or loosely in that particular culture that is how amenable the mainstream culture is to sub-cultures. societys reception of immigrants like tricksters could be a barometer of how adaptable and non-hierarchical the dominant mainstream culture is on a societal level.

Check Your Essay Online Now
Tricksters Welcome Here?
tricksters are usually representatives for change. they are the rebels in the story who are sharp and wise; they have a very important role in the story because they either do things for the better or for worse. they can be represented in forms of a human an animal or as a god. in addition tricksters can do selfish deeds that ends up benefiting other people or they can do things to benefit themselves. trickster are not necessarily evil nor are they good. they dont follow the rules and they dont agree with the society culture; therefore they are respected but mistrusted. tricksters surface in myths from a variety of cultures and in a variety of ways. some tricksters seem to serve a very limited role of providing bad information such as agadzagada in a nigerian myth about the origin of death; simply because he wanted to deceive people on earth agadzagada misled humans about how to handle the first corpse. there is a development or evolution of the character of the trickster himself he the trickster is a savior who undergoes difficulty and suffering to provide the necessities of life to others qtd. in thury and devinney p. 373 to be considered a culture hero a trickster must behave in ways valued and appreciated by its culture. the question arises though which culture the dominant mainstream culture a sub-culture thury and devinney write because he the trickster is not completely invested in these societies the trickster is freer to disregard the morals and standards held dear by them and to behave in ways that their members would find improper or unacceptable p. 370 joseph campbell in a video entitled mythology of the trickster describes a trickster as representing the power of the psyche to overthrow programs. the dominant and mainstream culture is on a societal level; that is how a culture receives and portrays tricksters seems to signal how open they are to subcultures. native american mythology celebrates and accepts ravens disruptions and native american culture appreciates all beings for their individual capabilities. antebellum american south myths however depict a more constrained trickster who illuminates moral dilemmas and the culture reflects the harsh hierarchy of slaves and masters. raven is an important mythical figure to native americans in northwestern north america. he is credited with bringing the moon stars and daylight to humans albeit through trickery. raven also plays an important creator role as he uses the water that he steals to form major rivers and makes islands from sand that he obtained through negotiation with frog. moreover he helps to create mankind himself by discovering them under a rock and helping them to emerge. in addition raven brings fire to humans. in almost all of these instances raven does not set out to help mankind. rather he is interested in being mischievous: he tricks his grandfather into giving him the moon stars and daylight; happens to be sated so chooses not to eat the humans he finds under the rock; and seeks to punish those who refuse to take him across a river by unleashing daylight upon them. despite these questionable motives raven is revered by native americans. native americans hold a worldview that calls for a cooperative relationship between humans and nature. thury and devinney explain as their world is full of sacred beings native americans do not believe in a single supreme deity or a group of chosen gods with extraordinary powers although some beings in their world are more important than others p. 370 for native americans society is more communal than hierarchical. because the social power dynamic is looser society can more easily accommodate those who challenge the mainstream order; tricksters are not as threatening to those in power. that is there is more room for subcultures to flourish and for mainstream culture to incorporate attributes that first emerged in subcultures. unlike native american mythology where tricksters can be overt change agents american south mythology presents tricksters as more subtle change agents and its tricksters have a strong entertainment component. american south myths contain tricksters who revel in guile and either dupe someone else or are duped themselves entertaining the audience with their antics. for example in tricking all the kings buh nansi stays alive by tricking those that would typically be considered more powerful both physically and socially that is a king shark and lion. buh nansis cunning literally saves his life. yet instead of celebrating buh nansis survival the myth ends by proclaiming thats why you see that today you must never do evil. you must always do good to your friends and never do evil. you must always do good to your friends even if they do bad qtd. in thury and devinney p. 393 this ending seems to uphold traditional moral thinking. however it also allows an audience of slaves to see the tricksters behavior as dishonest but necessary. as jay edwards maintains african-american trickster stories allow the audience to reflect on certain moral dilemmas imposed by slavery life and death male and female harmony and disharmony qtd. in thury and devinney p. 382 buh nansi then is a subtle change agent as he both challenges and reinforces the dominant hierarchical culture. with its culture based on slaves and masters the american south had a clear social hierarchy. thury and devinney summarize jay edwards by stating because of the nature of the social conditions imposed by slavery the resolution of these moral dilemmas is always the same: trickster tales inevitably end in disharmony and the tricksters strategy is to maximize short-term economic gain at the cost of long-term goals like social cohesion p. 382 in this statement we see an example of a mythology asserting a way of dealing with life and death issues which is what joseph campbell contends is the underlying purpose of mythology. because of the injustice deprivation and power imbalance inherent in slavery trickster behaviors became valued ways to subvert the system p. 382 according to thury and devinney. challenging white power directly however would be too dangerous so neutralizing factors were introduced through the use of animals as characters and disrespect for the trickster i.e. not someone to be emulated or someone to be laughed at in american south mythology according to john w. roberts the role of the trickster is based not on building culture but on resisting and surviving a culture that is out to use him up. the trickster is a culture hero only in the sense of preventing the complete elimination of his culture by forces out to destroy it qtd. in thury and devinney p. 397 while the socially-powerful white culture may not be built up by american south tricksters the sub-culture of black slaves was strengthened by these tricksters who derived sub-culture hero status from their ability to survive and upend a harsh environment. the hierarchical nature of antebellum american south then births a trickster who cannot overtly be a change agent but rather is a camouflaged change agent. both the native american and american south tricksters are considered liminal figures. thury and devinney describe a liminal figure as a revolutionary who is likely to destroy the world as we know it and forge a new reality from its ruins p. 397 joseph campbell maintains that the adventure of the hero involves coming to terms with many conflicting feelings qtd. in thury and devinney p. 185 in the world of mythology then tricksters may be to society what heroes are to individuals. because tricksters are at the edge of society or between two worlds they are able to re-order or change the dominant culture which may well involve coming to terms with conflicting feelings. in contemporary society immigrants seem to be similar to tricksters. because they are of two worlds if not more they have the potential to be liminal figures. whether immigrants operate as overt or more subtle change agents would seem to depend on whether social power is held tightly or loosely in that particular culture that is how amenable the mainstream culture is to sub-cultures. societys reception of immigrants like tricksters could be a barometer of how adaptable and non-hierarchical the dominant mainstream culture is on a societal level.

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