Chapter1THE PROBLEM AND ITSSETTING Introduction Mathematicsis undeniably significant in everyone’s lives. Yet, several people dislikemathematics without knowing that they are already using it in many ways. According to The India Times (2015), Mathematics is the cradle of all creations, without itthe world cannot move an inch.
Be it a cook or a farmer, a carpenter or amechanic, a shopkeeper or a doctor, an engineer or a scientist, a musician or amagician, everyone needs mathematics in their day-to-day life. Even insects usemathematics for everyday existence. Everyone should acquire mathematics skills inorder to survive in this competitive world.Mathematicshas been a useful part of today’s era. Without it, humanity is impossible tolast. Unfortunately, despite mathematics’ obvious importance, many still seemto ignore its essence and power.
In education, mathematics is the leastappreciated subject. It is loathed by most Filipino students because ofdifferent factors. However, despite this disturbing observation, Mathematicsteachers and proponents do not stop in improving instruction as it is relevantto make the students love and appreciate Math. Asthe saying goes “the youth of today is the hope for a better tomorrow”. Thecountry’s future lies in the hands of these young generations therefore theymust be equipped with enough knowledge to survive in this challenging world.Students should be taught not only the basic operations and problem solvingskills but also instill in them the importance of these in their furtherlearning. Encourage them to believe that they can become mathematical thinkers.As teachers, we must provide the support that each student needs to besuccessful (Gojak, 2013).
UNESCO supports initiatives that address the lackof interest by students in mathematics, and those that upgrade teachers ontheir knowledge of new developments in Mathematics and their significance tosociety and daily life (UNESCO, 2017). Why do most students dislike Mathematics?Antonio (2009) stated that it is disheartening to know that many Filipinosexperience not only disgust but also a phobia from Mathematics. Most studentsconsider Mathematics as an extremely difficult subject as their performance inthis area is usually low compared to the other areas.Thereare several factors which may affect student’s learning performance such as teachers’instructional methods, learning environment, student’s learning strategies,motivation and etc.
(Liu, Lin, Cheng and Wang, 2008). In learning mathematics,students naturally come up with learning strategies through the help ofteachers or peers to improve their learning efficiency. Students withoutstanding mathematics performance typically adopt learning strategiesappropriately to manage their learning. In contrast, students with relativelypoor mathematics performance typically cannot apply effective learningstrategies to solve problems or monitor their learning (Lin and Tai, 2015). Another factor that influences the students’performance is motivation or the internal force that encourages an individualto perform the task. Students should be motivated enough to accomplish the taskin mathematics through applying the different learning strategies. This is thereason motivation and learning strategies are the best couple to help everystudent. Researchesshow that motivated students are persistent (Gojak, 2013).
They try to applyseveral methods and strategies until they find the acceptable solution. Sinceevery student is unique in cognitive, affective and psychomotor attributes, Moreover,motivation enhances students’ learning allowing them to look into theimportance of mathematics to their lives and to the world. Importantly, it isalways believed that students’ motivation and learning strategies play crucialrole in learning (Schunk, 1990; O’Neil and Drillings, 1994; Pajares andKranzler, 1995). Itis still undeniable that there are students who lack motivation to pursue theirstudies despite of all the aids granted to them by the local government. Antonio(2009) concluded that first year students tend to have higher levels ofmotivation than those who are in the higher years. The study agrees with theobservation that enrolment rate gradually decreases in higher grades because ofexternal factors that might have influenced the students. High school years isthe stage in adolescent’s life where they get to experience many things asdecreased motivation and being disconnected from school (Willms, 2003; Yonezawaet al., 2009) as cited by Santos (2014).
Basedon the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), aninternational competition the Philippines attended in 1999 and 2003, Filipinostudents’ performance was worse than Indonesia. However, in the latestinternational competition, the International Mathematics Contest (IMC) andInternational Mathematics Open for Young Achievers (IMOYA), Filipino studentsproved their competence in Mathematics as they topped among 14 countries. Amongthe winners were from private and public schools. Apartfrom motivation which is seen as a contributing factor in mathematicsperformance, the type of school the students are enrolled in is said to largelyaffect students’ view of mathematics as an academic subject. Inthe Division of Taguig City and Pateros, for example, there are two sciencehigh schools located. Science high schools have been viewed as excellentschools offering great emphasis on science and mathematics curriculum thereforestudents in these kinds of schools are believed to be more motivated and moreexcellent.
However, data from three consecutive NAT results showed thatstudents from regular high schools excelled more than the science high schoolsspecifically the Upper Bicutan National High School which ranked 1st in the NAT2013 with mean percentage score of 85.49. In addition, NAT 2014, another regular highschool ranked 1st, the Taguig National High School. Meanwhile theSenator Renato Compa?ero CayetanoMemorial Science and Technology High School has been in the second rank but wasable to rank 1st in NAT 2015. This only shows that students’performance does not lie on the type of the school. The present study thereforeaims to know the difference in motivation and learning strategies among Grade 9students of science high schools and regular high schools. Theoretical Framework Thisstudy used the social cognitive model of motivation of Pintrich, and De Groot(1990) as basis. This model explains how motivation and learning strategiesoperate in the process of human learning particularly in mathematics.
In thesocial cognitive model of motivation, the researchers asserted that theintensity of an individual’s motivation will activate the learner to applyspecific learning strategies. The model proposes that there are threemotivational components associated with three different components ofself-regulated learning. These are the expectancy, value and affectivecomponent. The expectancy component involves students’ beliefs about theirability to perform the task. The value component involves the students’ goaland beliefs about the interest and importance of the task at hand. On the otherhand, the affective component concerns the students’ emotional reactions to thegiven task.
The learning strategies were classified into cognitive strategies,metacognitive strategies, non-informational resources management andinformational resources management. Several studies exploring the students’ motivationand learning strategies were inspired by the self-regulated learning approachwhich views the student as capable of monitoring and regulating his own learningprocess. According to Pintrich and De Groot(1990), there are three motivational components of self-regulated learning thatare significant for students’ performance in the classroom. First is themeta-cognitive strategy for planning, monitoring and changing of cognition.Second is the students’ control and management of his effort on classroomacademic tasks. Last, the cognitive strategies that student apply tounderstand, acquire and recall learning materials. Learning strategies alone is notenough to promote students’ achievement.
Motivation is a necessary ingredientfor learning (Biehler and Snowman, 1986). Highly motivated students are moreself-determined to accomplish the task as they are the ones who use thelearning strategies effectively (Pintrich and De Groot, 1990). A well-motivatedstudent performs better in the class, have higher educational aspirations,spend more effort in learning new tasks, and persist longer in difficult taskscompared to poorly motivated students (Pintrich and Schunk, 2002).
Conceptual Framework Theconceptual framework for this study is presented in the following diagram. nter Figure 1. Paradigm of the StudyAsshown in the diagram above, the first frame includes input which contains the profileof the respondents, mathematics motivation and mathematics learning strategies.The mathematics motivation is composed of three sub-scale; value, expectancyand affect.
Value includes three factors; intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsicgoal orientation and task value. Expectancy on the other hand, contains controlbeliefs for learning and self-efficacy while affect includes test anxiety. Themathematics learning strategies has four sub- scales: cognitive strategies,meta-cognitive strategies, non-informational and informational resourcesmanagement.
The cognitive strategies, however, is composed of the followingfactors; rehearsal, elaboration and organization. The metacognitive strategiesinclude critical thinking and self-regulation. On the other hand, non- informationalresources management involves effort regulation, time and study environment,peer-learning, and help-seeking. The informational resources management consistof are exploratory behavior and communication behavior on internet.Thesecond frame refers to the process.
This involves collection, organization,analysis and interpretation of the collected data using the abovementionedinstrument and statistical treatment.Thelast frame is the output. The output of the research is the proposedenhancement program. Statement of the Problem Thisstudy aims to determine the level of learning motivation and learningstrategies employed by the grade 9 students in Mathematics. Specifically, this study attempt toanswer the following questions:1. What is the profile of the respondents interms of;1.1. sex1.
2. typeof school attended2. What is the level of the respondents’motivation towards Mathematics learning in terms of:2.1. Value2.1.
1. Intrinsic goal orientation2.1.2. Extrinsic goal orientation2.
1.3. Task value2.2. Expectancy2.2.1. Control beliefs for learning2.
Affect2.3.1. Test anxiety3. What is level of the respondents’ learningstrategies used in Mathematics learning in terms of:3.
1. Cognitivestrategies3.1.1. Rehearsal3.1.2. Elaboration3.
1.3. Organization3.2. Meta-cognitivestrategies3.2.
1. Criticalthinking3.2.2. Self-regulation3.
3. Non-informationalresources management3.3.1. Effortmanagement3.3.
2. Timeand study environment3.3.3. Peer-learning3.3.4.
Help-seeking3.4. Informationalresources management3.4.1. Exploratorybehavior on internet3.
4.2. Communicationbehavior on internet4. Is there a significant difference in therespondents’ Mathematics learning motivation when they are grouped according totheir profile?5. Is there a significant difference in therespondents’ Mathematics learning strategies when they are grouped according totheir profile? Hypotheses Thisstudy tests the following hypotheses:1.
There is no significant difference in therespondents’ Mathematics learning motivation when they are grouped according totheir profile.2. There is no significant difference in therespondents’ Mathematics learning strategies when they are grouped according totheir profile. Scope and Limitations Thefocus of this study is to determine the mathematics learning motivation andlearning strategies of the grade 9 students in the Division of Taguig City andPateros. It also attempts to determine the significant difference between theregular school students and the science high school students’ learningmotivation and strategies in Mathematics.
TheMathematics Motivated Learning Strategies Questionnaire (MMLSQ) was utilized inthis study. This questionnaire was adapted and revised by Lin and Liu (2010)from the original Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MLSQ) byPintrich, Smith, Garcia and McKeachie (1991). The learning motivation discussedin the following components: intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation,task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy, and text anxiety. Onthe other hand, mathematics learning strategies are described in terms ofcognitive strategies, meta-cognitive strategies, informational andnon-informational resources management.Thisstudy was limited to Grade 9 public high school students in the Division ofTaguig City and Pateros enrolled for the school year 2017-2018.
Only studentswho were present during the data collection were included in the study. Significance of the StudyThesignificance of this study is to provide schools with objective data that willallow them to identify what kind of motivation and effective strategies dostudents use in Mathematics. The findings of this study may provide valuableinsights to the following:Students.
The result of this study may help studentsto realize the importance of motivation in their learning process.Understanding one’s motivation and learning strategies will help strengthengoal setting thereby leading to academic success. It may also help them to beaware of their learning techniques that best suit their learning styles. Parents. The findingsmay help the parents identify the motivation factors needed to assist theirchildren in learning. This study may also help them in promoting at home andduring study time different learning techniques. Parents should be there to support and guidethese young learners in order for them to succeed.Teachers.
Understanding the students’ learning motivation and strategies, mathematicsteachers may plan, implement and facilitate their learning strategies toimprove in Mathematics performance. School Administrators. Thefindings of this study will help the school administrators in planning and implementingprograms to motivate students thereby providing students avenues to enhancetheir skills Other Researchers.This may be used in some other studies as data reference and may impart usefulconcepts to other researchers in expanding related studies of this field. Definition of Terms Forclearer understanding of terms used in this study, important terms areconceptually and operationally defined.Affect.This is one of the sub-scales of motivation which includes test anxiety. It refers to the negative emotion of studentswhen taking Mathematics examination.
Cognitive strategies.This refers to rehearsal, elaboration, and organization strategies where thereis a mixed evidence about the level to which the respondents can actuallydistinguish their use metacognitive and cognitive strategies.Communication behavior on internet. Thisis one of the factors of informational resources management which refers toasking questions related to Mathematics through the use of internet.Control beliefs for learning.This is a factor of mathematics motivation scale which refers to the students’belief that their effort would lead to positive result.Critical thinking.This is a factor of mathematics learning strategies scale which refers to thestrategies to make purposeful or reflective judgment or decisions by analyzingthe observed information.
Effort management.This is one of the factors of mathematics learning strategies scale thatreflects the commitment to completing one’s goal.Elaboration strategies.This is a factor of mathematics learning strategies scale which includessummarizing, generative note-taking, or paraphrasing.Expectancy. Thisis one of the sub-scales of motivation which includes control beliefs forlearning and self-efficacy.Exploratory behavior on internet. Thisis one of the factors ofinformational resources management which refers to using the internet to searchfor Mathematics related information.
Extrinsic goal orientation.This is a factor of mathematics motivation scale which concerns about the outerreasons why students participate in a task, like money, grades or praises fromothers.Help-seeking.This is a factor of non-informational resources management scale which refersto the strategies to manage and use the support from other people.Informational resources management. Thisis one of the sub-scales of the Mathematics learning strategies which includesexploratory and communication behavior on internet. Intrinsic goal orientation.
Thisis a factor of value, a sub-scale of motivation which focuses on the inner reasonswhy students participate in a task, like: curiosity, self-development orsatisfaction.Learning strategies.Refer to the cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, non-informationalresources management and informational resources management employed by thestudents as they attempt to learn Mathematics.Metacognitive strategies.This is one of the sub-scales of Mathematics learning strategies that includecritical thinking and self-regulation.
Motivation.Refers to the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learningin mathematics, in addition to favorable attitudes toward learning it (Gardner,2004).Motivation Factors.These are motivational orientations of students in terms of value, expectancyand affective components which include the following factors like intrinsic,extrinsic, task value, self-efficacy, control for learning beliefs, and testanxiety.Non-informational resources management. Thisis one of the sub-scales of the Mathematics learning strategies which includeseffort management, time and study environment, peer-learning and help-seeking. Organization.
This is a factor of cognitive strategies scale which includes clustering,outlining and organizing the mathematics lesson. Peer-learning.This is one of the factors of mathematics learning strategies scale whichrefers to the strategies to cooperate with others to complete the task.
Rehearsal.This is a factor of math learning strategies scale that involves reciting ornaming the learning materials. Self-efficacy.
This is one of the factors of expectancy sub-scale of Mathematicsmotivation scale which refers to the judgment about one’s ability to completethe task and the confidence in one’s skills to accomplish the mission.Self- Regulated Learning. Itis a process where the students set goals for their learning and then attemptto monitor, regulate and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior,guided and constrained by their goals.Self- regulation strategies.
This is a factor of mathematics learning strategies which includes scheduling,planning and managing one’s time.Value. Thisis one of the sub-scales of motivation that includes intrinsic and extrinsicgoal orientation and task value.