CHAPTER2LITERATUREREVIEW2.1 INTRODUCTION Poultry farming is one of the fieldsof the industry of agriculture which isbroad and emphasizes on smoothness in every process to ensure profitablereturns and environmentally friendly process. Due to the health and wellness ofthe livestock, some factors must be focused in obtaining an ideal setting whenthe livestock process takes place.Thischapter will provide the review from previous research that is related to thisfinal year project.
Previous literatures arestudied on the standard poultry requirement and the cause ofventilation/exhaust fan failure during breeding and vibration analysis. 2.2 STANDARD POULTRYREQUIREMENT 2.2.
1 PLACE TO BUILDPOULTRY HOUSE To build a chicken house,entrepreneurs should choose an appropriatelocation. Choosing a less appropriate location can affect operationalefficiency and farming. The process of location selection will affect thecomfort of the chicken and the surrounding community. This is becauseactivities generated by both parties can cause a negative impact on each other if the selection process of the venueis not done correctly.Thesite of a poultry house should be 200 meters from the municipality, housing,tourism, industrial, placement and public utilities. The chicken house shouldhave good ventilation not less than 500 meters from the poultry field other (Unit unggas, 2006).
Other than thatthe field should not lie at least 100 meters from main water sources. (Krishi, 2014) Selection ofirregular chicken house construction can cause disturbance to surroundingenvironment. Among the disorders resulting from the poultry process is the smell associated with the poultryoperation specifically fresh waste products and decompositions such as carcasses,fur and bedding/garbage. The smell cancause discomfort to the chicken and the surrounding community. Usually, the disturbances that is often reportedis the odor of ammonia resulting from thefattening chicken feed. (Gerber, Opio, & Steinfeld, 2008)Theconclusion is that the selection of poultry house construction is an importantfactor in the livestock breeding process to ensure that it is environmentalfriendly.
Every construction should take into account the distance of thechickens from populated areas, water sources and other poultry houses. 2.2.2 CONSTRUCTION OFPOULTRY HOUSE Chicken house construction should considerthe area, the comfort, and the type of ventilation. The area of the chickenhouse is the most crucial factor in the construction for the entire process asit affects the daily activity of chickens such as for feeding, exercise,breeding, nesting and roosting. All poultry houses need some form ofventilation to ensure an adequate supply of oxygen while removing carbondioxide and other waste gases.
Thebroilers are intensively kept in the whole-time period where the floor areashould be from 0.80 to 1.00 square.
Feet. (Unit unggas, 2006). For open typepoultry house, the construction should take into account that the length of thechicken house depends on the number, type of bird and the system ofpreservation. Width should not exceeds 9 meters or 30 feet to prevent theaccumulation of ammonia in the cage. (Krishi, 2014).
Table 2.1 shows theminimum requirement for breeding space according to the types of birds and thetype of breeding environment: Table 2.1 minimum requirement for breeding space (Darre & Ph, n.
d.) Type of Bird Square feet/bird inside Square feet/bird outside runs Bantam Chicken Laying Hens Large Chickens Quail Pheasant Ducks Geese 1 1.5 2 1 5 3 6 4 8 10 4 25 15 18 The tunnel ventilation is the mosteffective aeration system for large poultry house in hot weather. The system ispopular in high-temperature areas. Ventilationexhaust will be placed at one end of the house or in the middle from thepoultry house and the air will be pulledthrough it according to the length of the chicken house, It is aimed atremoving heat, humidity, and dust. Forcooling and reducing temperature pressure ina poultry breeding, the evaporativecooling pad will be installed on the opposite side of the fan exhaust. But iftoo much water is added to the cooling pad, it may lead to higher relativehumidity and changing the temperature in the poultry house.
(Glatz, 2008). Figure 2.2.2show tunnel ventilation type for poultry house. Figure2.2.2: tunnel ventilation type for poultry house For recommendation, the use oftunnel ventilation is suitable with Malaysia environment. This is because the temperaturein Malaysia is capable to read 40°c which is high and taxing to the livestock.
Throughthis, breeders in Malaysia are able to follow the minimum requirements requiredby each chicken. 2.2.3 PARAMETER FORLIVESTOCK Livestockcondition is a focus on poultryhouse, where getting the right value for comfort and health to the poultry is a keyfactor. This includes the temperature, air flow, humidity and content in airborne inside the poultry house. Firstly, relative humidity on animalhealth and welfare are accounted whereby for incubation, more hydration willincrease the death of the chicken embryo. Humidity levels will also contributeto the difficulty for the respiration of the chicken.Humidity will have a negative effect if it is not controlled properly where itwill produce an outbreak of virus at 20-35 percent humidity and bacteria aswell as fungi at 55-75 percent humidity.
Ideal humidity for chicken breedingfor a 4-week-old one breeding cycle is 60 percent humidity rate, but if the ageis above 4 weeks, humidity content should be between 60-65 percent (XIONG, MENG, GAO, TANG, & ZHANG, 2017). The control oftemperature is a way to get a correct humidity level that is appropriate forthe poultry. The stable rate for moisture content is between 57 and 71 percent forthe chickens, whereby the ventilation system is sometimes controlled by airhumidity. The suitable temperature has been concluded to be at a 25° C forstandard humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature are ranged between 20 °C and31°C (Seedorf et al., 1998).
In Malaysia,tunnel ventilation system is commonly used which is a modern ventilationsystem, involving evaporative cooling pad and exhaust fans which affect theenvironmental condition inside the house. There are two commonly used methodsof the ventilation control which is a manual and automatic control. The readingfor both methods are between 28 ° C and 38 ° C and it exceeds the temperaturerange of 20 ° C and 27 ° C as recommended by Department of Veterinary Serviceto control closed systems. Relative humidity is recorded at a satisfactory ratewithin 70% and 80% for both methods (Ong, L.P., Muniady, K., How, S.
P., Yip, L.S. and Lim,2014) Next, the type of content in the airborne in the poultryhouse needs to be considered. Table 2.2shows the type of airborne that occur in the poultryhouse and the allowable internal environmental condition.
Table2.2: type of airborne that occur in the poultry house and allowable internalenvironmental condition. (Sulaiman et al.
, 2005) Items Reading Temperature, T (°C) Relative Humidity, RH (%) Ammonia, NH3 (ppm) Hydrogen Sulfi de, H2S (ppm) Carbon Dioxide, CO2 (%) Carbon Monoxide, CO (%) 20 – 27 60 – 80 <20 <5 <0.3 0 An experiment was conducted in Malaysia,whereby the reading of oxygen, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide did not exceed the acceptable limit as recommended tooperate a closed house system. (Ong, L.
P., Muniady, K., How, S.P., Yip, L.
S. and Lim,2014). The amount of ammonia needs to becontrolled to ensure good home air quality because of high ammoniaconcentration can reduce weight gain and increase susceptibility to disease. Thiswill result in a contraction of common disease affecting poultry is irritation to mucous membranes of therespiratory tract and the conjunctivae and corneas of the eyes. (Teitel, M.
A Levi, V.Chao, M.Barrak, E.Barlev, 2012) Next is the condition of the air flow in the poultry house which is closelyrelated to the ventilation system.
Theselection of the component of theventilation system will affect the condition of the air flow. Factors affectingventilation efficiency are the motor type and fan. The fan components involved arecommonly includes fan drive (direct coupled or belt was driven), construction material, fan housing, using shutters,guards, cones and deflectors, location, size, thermostat location, and maintenance.(Teitel, M.
A Levi, V.Chao, M.Barrak, E.Barlev, 2012) As the conclusion, the idealtemperature can produce ideal humidity for the process breeding.
The amount ofammonia must be controlled to get ideal weight and minimal contraction ofdisease. 2.3 VENTILATION SYSTEM For this project, we will focus on themodern type of ventilation available in Malaysia. Most breeders use type tunnelventilation system for livestock process.
2.3.1 TUNNEL VENTILATIONSYSTEM There are basically five reasons whywe must ventilate poultry house which are to remove heat, to remove excessmoisture, to minimize dust and odors, tolimit the build-up of harmful gases suchas ammonia and carbon dioxide and to provide oxygen for respiration. The twomost important reasons are the removing built up heat and moisture. The time ofthe year determines which of these is of primary concern.
Thetunnel ventilation is a system where exhaust fans are located at one end of thehouse and evaporate cooling pads are installed on the opposite side. The airwas pulled through this evaporate cooling pads, down the house, and out of thefans, like the wind tunnel. Figure 2.1 show illustration of tunnel ventilation. Figure 2.1: Illustration of tunnel ventilation.
Airvelocity for tunnel ventilation is usually in the range of 350- to 400-feet-per-minute(fpm), which is equivalent to 4- to 5-mph. (Bucklin, Jacob, Mather, Leary, & Naas, 2015). High-speed air velocity will produce windeffects which will reduce the temperature of effectiveness felt byfully-feathered birds by as much as 5.5-7°C.
The “effective” temperaturecreated by the wind-chill effect must be estimated and varies according to birdage and size with actual air temperature. Figure 2.2 show graph of thewind-chill effect created by high-velocity airflow to different age and sizebirds (Fallis, 2013). Figure2.
2: the wind-chill effect created byhigh-velocity airflow to different age and size birds.(Fallis, 2013) The wind-chill effect becomes lesspronounced as air temperatures rise above 32°C; above 38°C the air begins towarm instead of cool. As a conclusion, tunnel ventilationsystem is a very well-suited system for the environment condition where theweather in Malaysia can reach 40 degrees. 2.
4 VENTILATION/ EXHAUSTFAN Ventilation/exhaust fans is anengine for a mechanical ventilationsystem for a poultry house. It works tochange the flow of ventilation to ensure the poultry is always healthy and fullof comfort. The fan is also a component that takes care of the environment forpoultry, which can be a factor in the health of the breeders while in thepoultry house. Fan management is critical to keeping thebirds alive in hot weather. For the breeders, selecting the proper fan is oneof the most important decisions to make. It is important when it comes to costfor purchase, but the performance is the main criteria because it can affect the breedingprocess. Also, performance in the coming years must be in selecting the criteria.
Often, the cheapest fan is not thebest option (tabler & Wells, 2016). Figure 2.4 showventilation fan used in poultry house; Figure2.4 show ventilation fan used in poultry house 2.4.1 PERFORMANCE OFEXHAUST FAN Fan performance is the general termthat represents air flow rate, which measures how much air can flow through it ineach timeframe under specified operating conditions such as static pressure. Airflow rate is commonly measured in cubic meters per hour (m³/h) (or cubic feet perminute (cfm) if using imperial units).Fans with higher air flow rate or performance will move more air (Brown, 2015).
Methods tomeasure fan performance and efficiency assessing both criteria requiresmeasurement of air flow rate, electricalpower and operating conditions, including static pressure, barometric pressure, and temperature (Dunlop & Grant, 2012). To calculate theactual rotational speed (rpm), take the tachometer reading (blade counts) anddivide it by the number of blades on the fan. Converting airspeed (m/s)into air flow rate (m³/h): The formulafor calculating the air flow rate (m³/h): Size of exhaust fan will also affectfan effectiveness level in which bigger diameter of the fan can create more efficacy. Table 2.4 shows fan test results forefficiency based on fan size and 0.
10 inches of H2O (Miller & Gerald, 2010). Table2.4: Fan test results for efficiencybased on fan size and 0.10 inches of H2O. Diameter of fan (Inches) Efficiency rating Median rating cfm/W Top ¼ rating cfm/W <16 16 to 20 22 to 35 36 to 46 48 to 56 >56 7.9 10.
3 13.0 15.9 18.9 20.1 8.
7 11.2 14.6 17.2 20.4 21.5 2.4.
2 FAILURE OFVENTILATION FAN Normal wear and the dirtyenvironment during operations can create an unexpectedresult in which a surprising loss ofsystem efficiency and an associated rise in operating costs is observed. While performing maintenance might take some time,the payoffs can be significant. To reduce the failure of ventilation fan,poultry producer should properly perform maintenance to maximize efficiency andsave on energy costs. (Frazier, 2016) 2.4.2.
1 PHYSICAL FAILURE Proper installation is one of satisfactoryoperation needs to be prioritized on anymachine. Though the design of individualcomponents of a machine has advanced significantly and equal care in itsintegration into the system and proper installation is necessary to meet thedesign intended. It is noted that well-designed machines can cause a failure to operate smoothly if the installationdoes not follow standard (Balla, Sinha, & Rao, 2005). Pulleyson the fan and the motor must be properly aligned. If they are out ofalignment, the fan belt will rapidly wear and need premature replacement (Garrett & Wicklein, n.
d.). Figure 2.5 belowshows the vorrect and incorrect alignmentof motor and fan pulleys. Figure2.5: Correct and incorrect alignment of motor and fan pulleys. (Garrett &Wicklein, n.d.
) 184.108.40.206 DIRTY ENVIRONMENT ( DUST ) One of the airborne particle is dust where 85 percent of its mass consist organic material. (Hartung & Saleh, 2007). To control its accumulation, usage of ventilation fan must be at high performance, but after a while, accumulation of dust at the fan blade can reduce the performance. Activities in the chicken house produces a lot of fine dust which smaller than 10 µm or can be referred to as particulate matter 10 (PM10) and in most cases, they exceed the ambient air quality standard set by the European Union, EU.
EU has set the limit for concentrations of particles smaller than 10. For that reason, the EU has set limits for concentrations of particles smaller than 10 µm (PM10) and of particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) in ambient air. (Aarnink et al.
, 2009). Dust from swine barns originates from the feed, bedding material, manure and the animals themselves. Many of the respirable dust particles are odorous because of their fecal origin.
The factors determining the amount of dust in confinement includes animal activity, the temperature where the temperature level will determine the level of daily activity of the poultry, relative humidity will develop two factors namely dust generation and it affects the viability of airborne microbial contaminants, and ventilation rate, stocking density, and feeding methods (ZHANG, 2006). A fan shutter that is partially open due to dirt accumulation, and therefore heavier, shutter imparts significantly more resistance to airflow. A swift cleaning of the shutters resulted in the fan moving 47% more air per minute while using 8.3% less electrical current. (Garrett & Wicklein, n.d.
) 2.4 VIBRATION ANALYSIS Machines have been created to helppeople improve their work quality. As an example, in the industry, the use ofmachines becomes a major medium for producing products. Themaintenance of a machine can be done with guided by condition based maintenancewhich is called vibration analysis. It is because every machine will produce a vibration when it is operating. vibrationresulting from the machine can be the guide to the engineer to detect thecondition of the machine. Vibration usually occurs because of the dynamiceffects of manufacturing tolerances, clearances, rolling and rubbing contactbetween machine parts and out-of-balance forces in rotating and reciprocating members.
Often, small insignificant vibrations can excite the resonant frequencies of someother structural parts and be amplified into major vibration and noise sources (Bruel & Kjaer, 1982). A vibration study, it covers themechanical condition and the dynamic behaviorof the entire machine line from stock preparation to finishing, or of specificmachine sections in troubleshooting. The main objectives when performing avibration study are to map the dynamic behaviorof the machine from current to targeted speeds, yielding the most cost-effectiveapproach to foreseeing problems. Next is to evaluate how rebuilds will affectthe dynamic behavior of the machine andits consequences at current or increased speeds.
Besides that, it used to locateand eliminate vibration sources currently having a detrimental effect on themachinery or process (Vierck, 2007). 2.4.1 BEARING FAILURE The damaged bearing can cause damage to the fan.
there are 12types of primary causes of bearing failure which is excessive load,overheating, true brinelling, normal fatigue failure, contamination, lubricantfailure, false brinelling, reverse loading,corrosion, loose fits, tight fits, and misalignment (Wysoclci & Feest, 1997). Improper installation can give effect to bearing life.Furthermore, the belt drives used on fans also have a large effect on thebearing life. The combination of the sheaves selected and their mountings canmake the difference between having a bearing last its expected life and havingit fail prematurely. Proper lubrication and maintenance areessential for long bearing life.
An adequate supply of clean lubricant must bepresent always to prevent damage particularly due to metal-to-metal contact. They are the primary cause of the failure due to inadequate lubrication contributing 36percent of failure rate, the second cause is the normal fatigue contributing to34 percent. Besides that, contamination also contributes to 14 percent of thefailure rate and other causes such as faulty mounting, static vibration, incorrectfits, and electric current contributes to a mere 16 percent (Eugene., 2000). Besides that, an imbalance that occurs during the operationcan cause bearing failure. As the machine speed increases, theeffects of imbalance become greater. Imbalance can severely reduce bearing lifeas well as causing undue machinevibration (Taneja, 2012). 2.
4.2FAN VIBRATION ANALYSIS In the current industry, the use of Fault Condition Monitoring or Condition-BasedMaintenance can avoid downtime and also reduce total cost of products. (Erkaya & Saban, 2014). The use of an accelerometer sensor to acquire displacementsignal as it will be placed on the motor or fan bearing. These sensors shouldbe installed on radial and axial location on motor and fan bearing. Throughthis method, it will detect all the vibrationcomponents including bearing vibration, unbalance,misalignment, electrical faults, blade pass (aerodynamic disturbances) and beltfrequencies (Connection Technology Center,n.d.).
220.127.116.11 MISALIGNMENT One of common failure on the vibration on the fan is amisalignment. Nevertheless, in practice,this ideal condition rarely exists, and the shaft tends to suffer from somedegree of misalignment while rotating inside its bushing. Misalignment is a resultof asymmetric bearing loading, elasticdeflection of the shaft, under an imposed under load or its own weight.
Next, it occursfrom thermal distortion of the shaft and distortions caused by bearing housingsupport. Misalignment also can occur during manufacturing tolerances due toinaccurate machining, casting and forging. Besidesthat, misalignment occurs when errors dueto installation and assembly defects. However, general characterization of the behavior of misaligned bearings is very complex(Jang & Khonsari, 2015).
Shaft misalignment is the deviation ofrelative shaft position from a colinear axis of rotation measured at the pointsof power transmission when equipment is running at normal operating conditions.Figure 2.4.
2.1 show shaft misalignment. Figure2.
4.2.1 show shaft misalignment (Reliability, 2015)For a flexible coupling to accept bothparallel and angular misalignment there must be at least two points where thecoupling can flex to accommodate the misalignment condition. Measuring in thehorizontal and vertical planes produces four deviations, each of which must bewithin the specified tolerance values. Take the largest of these fourdeviations, measured in microns, and divide by the axial distance between thepoints of power transmission, measured in mm; this gives the maximum deviationin microns/mm.
There are three factors that influence alignment in rotatingmachinery which is the speed of the drive train, the maximum deviation ateither flexing point or point of power transmission and the distance betweenthe flexing points or points of power transmission (Reliability, 2015). 18.104.22.168IMBALANCE