CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION In physics, energy is the property that mustbe transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, theobject.
The need for energy on earth is growing each day with the growth inpopulation. To satisfy the populations needs there has been the trend wherefactories and firms are setups to producenecessary products to ensure the survival for everyone, with the treat on ourplanet by global warming these factories and firms have had to play it safewith the move to use renewable energy such as wind,hydropower, biofuels and solar among others, with all these alternativesthere has been need to include a software aspect to assist in the production,transmission and supply of the power CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY 2.1 Research designIn order to get a comprehensive and aqualitative research, I used a journal and online materials as the main meansof carrying out my research in an attempt of getting a comprehensive statisticson how software engineering plays a role in the renewable energy sector.
In Kenya,the most common renewable energy sources are hydroelectric power, wind,geothermal and solar. Hydroelectric power, the power of waterpressure is used to drive turbines that generate electric power which isinjected into the national power grid tosatisfy the intense need for power in the thriving Kenyan economyCurrently,geothermal energy accounts for 20% of the totalinstalled capacity of the Kenyan grid. Kenya is the first African country totap geothermal power and the largest producer of geo-energy, harnessing powerfrom steam released by hot rocks beneath the Rift valley. The abundant sun andwind are also being harnessed in a variety of projects: of these, the Lake Turkana project is the mostaudacious, both because of the scale and the locationWind power in Kenyacontributes only a small amount of the country’s electrical power. However, itsshare in energy production is increasing. Kenya aims to generate 2,036 MW ofwind power, or 9% of the country’s total capacity, by 2030Kenya has one majorwind farm, Ngong Hills Wind Farm, located in Ngong, Kajiado County. It producesaround 5.1 MW of electricity.
It is owned by Kenya Electricity GeneratingCompany (KenGen) and cost KES 1.6 billion to construct.Geothermal power is very cost-effective inthe Great Rift Valley of Kenya, East Africa. Kenya was the firstAfrican country to build geothermal energysources. The Kenya Electricity Generating Company, which is 74% state-owned,has built three plants to exploit the Olkaria geothermal resource, OlkariaI (195 MW), Olkaria II (105 MW) and OlkariaIV (150 MW, 75 MW Wellhead generation plants, with a third private plant OlkariaIII (139 MW). Additionally, a pilot wellhead plant of 2.5 MW has beencommissioned at Eburru and two small-scaleplants have been built by the Oserian Development Company to power their rosefarm facilities with a total of 4 MW.
Kenya currently has 636 MW of installedgeothermal capacity.Kenya is gearing up for a significant surgein the use of solar energy after the government started enforcing regulationsthat would see the installation of waterheating systems in residential buildings.In a renewed drive in favor of clean energiesand reduced reliance on hydro and thermal energy, Kenya will from this monthenforce regulations requiring property developers to install and use solarwater heating systems. The regulations are part of efforts toimplement a green economy strategy towards sustainable development. Under the strategy, the country hopes to reduce carbondioxide emissions by as much as 15 percentby 2030. 2.
2 Case Study Integration of software engineering intorenewable energy system presents animportant step in the future of software development for sustainability andrenewability of energy. As Renewable Energy needs and requirements getcomplicated, Software Engineering methodologies and techniques become moreimportant for the development of successful renewable energy software. Onthe other hand, the software development lifecyclemust incorporate important issues relevant to sustainability and renewabilityof energy such as sustainability requirements, energy and environmental standards,integration and interoperability issues, quality and safety issues, bestpractices issues, economic feasibilityissues which include Capturing sustainability requirements Software requirements Computer-aided design tools Software testing and validation tools Software quality assurance Embedded programming Integration and interoperability of software. Human-Computer Interface for renewable energy.I researched on the various issues by asking reviewingand asking different firms on how they have applied the various aspects intotheir systems. 2.2.
1 Capturingsustainability requirements Through the application of softwareengineering for renewable energy systems allows for the acquiring and capturingof the best and most important requirements needed to build and maintain asustainable energy source and energy generation system. 2.2.2 Softwarerequirements There aresoftware systems used in the energysector, some complex others simple requirements for this software are well collected by use of the best existingsoftware requirements gathering techniques.2.2.3Computer-aided design tools In order to develop the hardware part of therenewable energy systems, there is needto design the systems depending on the area of application and the source ofenergy chosen, computer-aided design tools such as CAD are used to achieve thebest alternatives.
2.2.4 Softwaretesting and validation toolsTo easily ensure that the renewable energy systems work efficiently,there is need to test and check the system for risks of malfunctions, heresoftware testing and validation tools come into place to help satisfy thisneed.
2.2.5 Software quality assuranceTesting for the quality ofa system is a necessity especially if it to produce desired results and wherethere are quality software and hardware the system has a very low probability of failing.2.
2.6 Embedded programmingThere are embedded systemsintegrated inside the larger system that need programmed systems to ensure theyreact in a timely manner and give the needed output.2.2.7 Integration and interoperability of software.Integration andinteroperability are where data fromdifferent systems is well relayed to another system to ensure the two systemswork together to achieve a single task. Softwares work to achieve this.2.
2.8Human-Computer Interface for renewableenergy.To easily andefficiently communicate with the renewable energy systems there is need forgreat application of human-computerinterface which would not be possible without the creation of easy to use userinterface, through designing and development using software tools 2.3 Data AnalysisThe major finding of this researchestablishes that the application and use of software engineering profession andtools plays a major role in the development and maintenance of sustainablerenewable energy systems. Software engineering takes care of software partwhich includes;· Management information systems· Decision support systems· Geographical Information Systems (GIS)· Database systems· Data mining· Data visualization· Security systems· Knowledge discovery and dissemination· Microprocessor-based systems· Signal processing· Operating systems· Electronic/mobile learning CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW Renewable energy systems are playing a greatroll in the achieving of the strategic goals of the vision 2030 of Kenya.Software engineering is a fast-growingarea of study and is playing a great part in the support of different areas ofgovernance, education, transport, but themain concern today is applied to therenewable energy sector,A few companies in Kenya have appliedsoftware engineering aspects to implement their systems in local households.M-KOPA is the world’s leading ‘pay-as-you-go’energy provider to off-grid homes. Thecompany has developed a better way to provide affordable, safe and clean energyto millions of people living off the grid.
This company has integrated embeddedsubsystems into their larger system toensure one can use their solar systems as long as they pay the fee required.KenGen, Kenya’s largest power generating companyhas very well used necessary aspects and tool provided by software engineeringto implement their renewable energy systems to supply and distribute electricpower. CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS 4.1 Impact of software engineering for renewable energy systems The following are some of the positiveimpacts integration of software engineering for renewable energy systems Capturing sustainability requirements.Requirementsare acquired fast and are the best to achieve optimum sustainability. Software requirements.With great software requirements, there is believe that the hardware system will alsohave great output.
Computer-aided design tools.With well-designedsystems, there is assurance of very lowfailure. Software testing and validation tools.
Well tested software to run the energysystems ensures that the system is at maximum capacity and safety is stillhigh. Software quality assuranceWhen software that runs a system is of highquality we can achieve high results from the hardware systems integrated withthe software Embedded programmingEmbedded system program using softwareengineering techniques ensures great reaction to aspects of the environment andensures fast repair or adjusting. Integration and interoperability of software.When the different subsystems communicate efficiently there is sunny, thus greater output. 4.
2. Issues that arise when implementing software engineering to renewableenergy systems- It may beexpensive to integrate software aspects for renewable energy systems especiallyfor large systems because most of the software istailored to a specific energy source.- Gettingprogrammers really familiar with renewable energy systems might be hard- Quick responseto new political decisions and their impact on markets and technology:previously rarely used technologies such as HVDC can suddenly become very muchin demand and suppliers require tremendous increases in engineering efficiency- Maintenance ofsoftware aspect may be expensive.- Norms andstandards are not yet established in this area and changes are likely. Anyonewho wants to respond quickly to such asituation should not have to revise documents manually.- The complex HVDCconverters require an engineering tool that acts flexibly in an unlimitedmanner with regard to the structures and relationships between objects.
CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATIONSAfter great research and discovery thanrenewable energy is the next great step to save earth from global warming andto the future we are moving toward to there is need to create smart systems tohandle every aspect of the renewable energy systems, these software systemswill be responsible for Management information systems- Decision support systems- Geographical Information Systems (GIS)- Database systems- Data mining- Data visualization- Security systems- Knowledge discovery and dissemination- Microprocessor-based systems- Signal processing- Operating systems- Electronic/mobile learningMy recommendation is we fully embrace andpromote the use of software engineering in the implementation of the renewableenergy systems to ensure sustainable energy production, reduction of effects ofglobal warming and achieving of the strategic goals of vision 2030. REFERENCESEnergy.(2018, January 18). Retrieved January 12, 2018, from(https://en.wikipedia.
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