CHAPTER fat content. Hence, the idea to

CHAPTER 1 :INTRODUCTION1.1 BACKGROUND Elaeis Guineensis or better known as the African oil palm tree is a widely recogniseas tree of fortune. In Malaysia, there are many plantations of the pumpkin andalso the palm oil tree.               Itis a typical practice where traditionally when an oil palm tree is old enough andcannot be harvested anymore, people will chop down the tree and will be left aswaste, which might be a good source as fertilizer yet it is still a waste. Somefolks will eat the heart of palm as a delicacy (Kahele), and I could see anopportunity to overcome the wastage of the valuable resource. According to awebsite nutritiondata.self.com, hearts of palm contain high level ofprotein, vitamins and essential minerals with low fat content.

Hence, the ideato make substitute flour from heart of palm comes in mind as the heart of palmis much underutilized. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT The demand for flour throughout the worldis rising each year. Furthermore, the quality of the flour made up from pumpkinand palm oil tree is believed to be higher than wheat flour.

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With the highawareness of the people that wheat flour is also being a cause forcardiovascular problem, obesity, diabetes, diverticular diseases andgastrointestinal problem because it is low in fibre. Not to mention there alsolots of people whom are gluten intolerant. To overcome this situation,substitute flour from abundant resource is needed so that the demands for flourin the market could be sustained.1.

3 AIMThe flour will be manufactured usingheart of palm as the raw ingredient and conventional flour making process isused as the methods of process. Two analysis will be conducted which areprotein content analysis to determine the protein content, and starch contentanalysis to determine the starch analysis of this flour.  1.

4 OBJECTIVE1) To develop a flour from heart of palmof Elaeis Guineensis as a alternative substitute flour with high nutritional valueCHAPTER 2 :LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 ABOUT OIL PALM2.1.1 ELAEISGUINEENSIS AND ITS SHOOTElaeis Guineensis, known as African oil palm or Guinea oil palm is a single-stemmedpalm tree and could be easily spotted in tropical countries. This tree canreach up to 20 to 30 metres height and its cylindrical stem can grow up to 75centimetres.

Elaeis Guineensis is anon-branched tree, unlike any other tropical plant. The fronds of the Elaeis Guineensis is usually consists of40 to 60 green leaves with thorny leave stem that can possibly grow up to 8metres long. As it was originated in Africa, thus it was named African oilpalm. The habitat of Elaeis Guineensisis in open forest with moist and sandy soils, and surprisingly this tree couldoften be found along the edges of rivers.

Usually, this tree is vastly spreadin tropical west and central Africa to Sierra Leone, Uganda and Kenya, Angola,Mozambique, Bismarck Archipelago and Cameroon, Costa Rica, Fiji, Guinea, Kenya,Ivory Coast, Sri Lanka and also the Southeast Asia in Malaysia, Indonesia andthroughout other tropics region (Fern, 2014). Elaeis Guineensis was planted for itsoil-rich fruits which are a major source of plant oil on a world scale. Theshoot of Elaeis Guineensis, or theheart of palm is the inner core part of ElaeisGuineensis, and it is the growing bud of the tree. The heart of palm isusually eaten as vegetable. The heart of palm is harvested by cutting down thepalm tree and the bark is removed until the centre core is revealed.

A wellharvested heart of palm is white in colour with tender crisp texture (Zeldes, 2010).2.1.

2 BENEFITS OF ELAEIS GUINEENSISElaeis Guineensis is being commercially planted for its high economical profits. Thebearings commenced from Elaeis Guineensishave a special characteristic, which enables the fruits and kernels to sustainoil, widely known as palm oil and palm kernel oil which could be used ascooking oil, making margarine, vegetable ghee, bakery fats and ice creams. Theproduction ratio between palm oil and palm kernel oil is 10:1, for every 10tonnes of palm oil, 1 tonne of palm kernel oil can be harvested. Palm oil ispopular among consumers as it is way cheaper than many other vegetable oils,plus its 10% linoleic acid content makes palm oil an excellent source ofcarotene for consumers. Palm kernel oil has similar composition and propertiesas coconut oil, and it is often being mixed with coconut oil for productdevelopment purpose.

Nowadays, Malaysia had been one of the world’s largest palmoil exporters, and is currently held 39% of world palm oil production and 44%of world exports (Vaile, E., 2016).Other edible parts of Elaeis Guineensis are the heart-of-palm,or known as the shoot itself, where people will consumes the soft part of the straight,acute bud as vegetables.

However, consuming the shoot will eventually lead tothe death of the tree. Usually, the shoot is consumed when an oil palm tree hadreached its maximum growth, where it would be difficult for farmers to harvestthe oil palm fruits and the tree will be cut down and replant with a new youngtree. The shoot is claimed to be rich in protein, where a cup of 146g cannedpalm shoot or heart of palm contain 4g proteins, 7g total carbohydrates, 0mgcholesterol, 622mg sodium and 4g of dietary fibre.

The pros of the intake ofheart of palm are that this food is an excellent source of protein, Riboflavin,Potassium, Vitamin C, Folate, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Zinc,Copper and Manganese. The only con is the food contain high amount of Sodium(Self Nutrition Data, 18 November 2016). Elaeis Guineensis also has beneficial values in medicinal field. The heart or shootcan be used to treat gonorrhoea, menorrhagia and perinatal abdominal pain. Theoil palm heart also considered as laxative and has anti-emetic properties andis diuretic. Anti-emetic means that the shoot can be used to treat vomiting andnausea. The leaf sap is said to have the ability to cure skin affection. Theextracted oil from its pulp has emollient properties, or has the ability tosoften and soothing especially to the skin and is widely used as ointments(Office of Dietary Supplement, 18 November 2016).

The palm oil obtained couldalso be used in developing other products than just being used as cooking oil.For example, residue from palm oil manufacturing could be used to manufacture soap,detergents, candles, lubricating greases and in cosmetic products. The palmkernel oil is used to make high quality soap and grease.2.2 ABOUT FLOUR2.2.1 FLOURBy definition, flour is a fine grindedpowder form of grain which is beyond the stage of meal, which is coarse and anyunwanted matter is eliminated by sifting, soft and silky (Palmatier, 2000). The most popular flour used worldwideis wheat flour, which is the main ingredient to make breads and pastries.

Theword flour is originated from the word “flower” as it is derive from Old Frenchfluer or flour, means “blossom” or “the finest” since flour is obtained afterthe coarse and foreign materials is removed during the milling process (Palmatier, 2000) 2.2.2 FLOUR MAKINGAs stated before, flour is made fromeither wheat or other starchy plants. The flour manufacturing process consistsof grading, purifying, grinding and packaging.

In wheat flour manufacturingprocess, the wheat will first being inspected and samples of wheat will undergophysical and chemical analysis. The samples should pass various tests, and themost important is the test to identify the protein content of the wheat. Thesucceeded batch will be kept in silos and will undergo next process.Purification process is the process whereall foreign materials will be eliminated.

The wheat will undergo thepurification process again and again until it passes the standard regulation.The first purification device used in this process is known as the separator,where the wheat will passes over a series of metal screens, separating thewheat and large foreign objects such as rocks and leaves. Next, the wheat willgo through the aspirator, which works by sucking up the lighter foreignmaterials and removes it from the wheat. Magnets will be used to remove smallmetal, and an electronic sorting machine is used to remove other foreignobjects which cannot be detected by naked eyes.

During pre-grinding phase, thepurified wheat will be washed with warm water and it will be spun to dry withan industrial scale centrifuge. If the is an excessive moisture left in thewheat, a vacuum dryer will be used to dry all the water. After the wheat isdried, it will be processed in a machine called Entoleter, which spins disksrapidly to hurl the grains against a small metal pins. Next, two large metalrollers known as breaker rolls will crack open the grains, separating theinterior parts of the wheat from the outer bran.

The products will be purifiedthrough vibration. Air is blown through the screen to remove the lighter branpieces which are mixed together with the middling. Lastly, purified middlingare processed into flour by rolling through a pairs of large and smooth metalrollers. The flour is graded according to the finest scale through sifting,separating and regrinding processes again and again. In order to make the flour to be white incolour, small amounts of bleaching agents and oxidizing agents will be added tothe flour right after milling process. The products will also be enriched withvitamins and minerals as required by law, thus enriched flour is produced.CHAPTER 3 :MATERIALS AND METHODS3.1 RAW MATERIALHeart of palm for Elaeis Guineensis is the raw material for the flour processing.

Thecharacteristics for heart of palm for Elaies Guineensis and the caloric ratiofor 146g of serving is summarised in Table 1 below.     Skin Colour Green Fresh Colour White Carbohydrate 59% Fat 19% Protein 22%  Table 1          : Physicalcharacteristics and nutrition facts for 146g of Heart of palm serving.3.

2 METHODS FORFLOUR PROCESSINGFigure 1         : Processingflow of the Heart of Palm flour  3.2.1 CLEANING AND TRIMMINGThe ElaeisGuineensis shoot will undergo cleaning and trimming process, where theouter skin with green in colour will be removed until only the white colourheart of palm remain. This process is mainly aimed to remove any unwantedparts, damaged portions and pest. This process will manually do using a sharpknife.

 3.2.2 WASHINGWashing phase would be the most vitalphase during the manufacturing process, as most of unrevoked objects and dirtare being eliminated. This process should be done multiple times, as theremight be lots of dirt stick at the heart of palm. At least 3 batches of wateris required to wash the bud, first batch is used to pre-wash the shoot, secondbatch is to remove residual foreign materials off the shoot and the thirdbatch, which a clean water should be used, is for fine cleaning. Washingprocess might increase the moisture content of the shoot; therefore pre-dryingprocess is necessary to reduce the moisture content to the lowest possiblepoint.

The washed shoot will be let dry under the sun for at least an hour. 3.2.3 SLICINGSlicing process is conducted to reducethe size of the heart of palm, and eventually will increase the surface areafor better drying.

The slicing process should be conducted manually using astainless steel knife. It would be great if the shoot could be sliced as thinas possible to shorten the time for drying process afterward. 3.2.4 DRYINGThis process is necessary to reduce downany excessive moisture left inside the heart of palm.

Dehydrator will be chosenfor this phase as it is faster, convenient and easy to use. This phase must beconducted for at least 2 days to ensure the maximum moisture lost from theshoot. The texture of the properly dried shoot is expected to be crispy andbreakable. 3.2.5 MILLINGFor milling, a hand mill can be used.

Itis advisable to conduct milling process more than one, so that the texture ofthe flour would be fine, smooth and silky. The dried shoot should be milledimmediately to avoid rehydration of the shoot which might spoil the flour. 3.2.6 SIEVINGAfter the milling process, the flour willsurely have a rough texture.

To overcome this problem, the flour will be sievedusing a sieving machine with a very fine sieve until a finer and smoother flouris obtained. 3.2.7 PACKINGThe flour should be packed right afterthe milling process done so that the flour will not rehydrate.

Any plasticcontainer that can prevent outside moisture to get into the flour should beused so that the shelf life of the flour can be extended. The air inside the containershould be removed as much as possible to avoid any contamination andspoilage.    3.3 PROTEIN CONTENT ANALYSISKjeldahl method will be used to determinethe protein content of the heart of palm flour. For this method, a strong acidis mixed with the food sample so that it would release nitrogen which will befurther determined by using a suitable titration technique and the proteincontent is calculated from the nitrogen concentration from the sample.

Thefirst step to determine protein content using Kjeldahl method is the digestionmethod where the food sample is heated up with the presence of sulphuric acid,anhydrous sodium sulphate, and a catalyst such as copper. This process willrelease any nitrogen in the food sample into ammonia.Next is neutralisation process, wheresodium hydroxide is added to make the solution alkaline which will convertammonium sulphate into ammonia gas. The ammonia gas then will be channelled toa flask with boric acid and the ammonia gas will be converted into ammonium ion,thus will simultaneously convert boric acid to borate ion.Lastly, the nitrogen content will beestimated by titration process of ammonium borate with a standardised sulphuricor hydrochloric acid and a suitable indicator will be used to determine the end-pointof the titration process. The concentration of nitrogen is estimated from thehydrogen ion concentration where both concentrations are equivalent.  3.

4 STARCH CONTENT ANALYSISStarch content analysis is conducted todetermine the concentration of starch in the heart of palm flour. Firstly, theflour sample will be dispersed in 80% ethanol solution so that themonosaccharides and oligosaccharides will be eliminated as both components aresoluble in ethanol, but starch is not. Therefore, the starch can be separatedfrom the solution via filtering or centrifuging.Once the starch is successfullyseparated, specific enzyme will be added into it to break the starch intoglucose. The glucose concentration can be analysed using chromatography orenzymatic methods.  3.5 BREAD MAKING PROCESSThe effectiveness of the flour will betested by making a bread out of it.

A simple bread will be made to determinethe suitability of the flour and also to detect any flavour enhancing effectbetween the heart of palm flour and conventional flour. This experiment will bedivided into two parts, first one is fully usage of the heart of palm flour inthe bread making and the second part is to use conventional wheat flour, wherethe heart of palm flour will act as added high protein flour. 3.5.1 MATERIALS AND METHODES  Materials Active dry yeast Warm water between 43 to 45 Sugar Salt Heart of palm flour All-purpose flour Canola Oil Amount 7 g 570 ml (2 ¼ cups) 55 g (3 tbsp) 18 g (1 tbsp) 1.7 kg (6 cups) 1.7 kg (6 cups) 35 ml (2 tbsp)  Table 2          : List of materials for bread makingprocess  Apparatus Bowl Electronic Balance Oven Bread Mould Mixer Amount 1 1 1 1 1  Table 3          : List of apparatus for bread makingprocess  3.

5.2 HEART OF PALMBREAD MAKING PROCEDURES General Bread MakingProcedure / Controli              Yeast will bedissolve in warm water. Sugar, salt, oil and 1.7 kg g all-purpose flour will beadded and beat until smooth. The dough will be stirred with remaining flourlittle by little, to form a soft dough. ii            The dough will bekneaded until smooth and elastic for about 8 to 10 minutes. It will later on betransferred to a greased bowl, covered and is set to rise in a warm place forabout 1 to 1 ½ hours.  iii           The doubled doughwill be divided into half and will be placed in two greased bread mould,covered and set to rise for 30 to 45 minutes.

 iv           The dough will bebaked at 190  for 35 minute until golden brown.The bread will be set to rest until cool. Treatment All-purpose flour Heart of palm flour Yeast Warm water Salt Sugar Oil A – 1.7 kg 7 g 570 ml 18 g 55 g 35 ml B 340 g 1.36 kg 7 g 570 ml 18 g 55 g 35 ml C 680 g 1.02 kg 7 g 570 ml 18 g 55 g 35 ml D 1.

02 kg 680 g 7 g 570 ml 18 g 55 g 35 ml E 1.36 kg 340 g 7 g 570 ml 18 g 55 g 35 ml     CHAPTER 4 :EXPECTED RESULT At the end of experiment, the objectivewhich is to make substitute high protein flour from heart of palm of ElaesGuineensis is successfully achieved, and the null hypothesis is accepted.             Ifthere is a possibility that the experiment failed, it might happen so becausethere is a slight miscalculation at the methods section either there is amistake when conducting the experiment.

The experiment will be conducted againif the objective is not achievable, where some steps will be changed to suitthe experiment requirement.     CHAPTER 5 :REFERENCES1.    About FELDA . (n.d.).

Retrieved 1118, 2017, from Federal Land Development Authority :http://www.felda.net.my/index.php/en/felda/mengenai-felda2.   Fern, K.

(2014). UsefulTropical Plant. Retrieved 11 2, 2017, from Useful Tropical Plant Database:http://tropical.theferns.

info/viewtropical.php?id=Elaeis+guineensis3.    Hagenimana, V., & Owori, C. (n.d.).

 Process Of Producing Sweet PotatoFlour Scholarly project.Retrieved October 22, 2017, from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.

uk/media/57a08d76e5274a31e0001890/R7036_sweetpotato_flour.pdf4.    Hearts of palm, canned Nutrition Facts . (n.d.

). Retrieved November 18, 2017, fromhttp://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/3027/25.    Kahele,R.

(n.d.). Hana Hou ! The Magazine of Hawaiian Airlines. Retrieved 1112, 2017, from Hana Hou ! The Magazine of Hawaiian Airlines:http://www.hanahou.com/pages/Magazine.asp?Action=DrawArticle=591=386.

    Office of Dietary Supplements – Dietary Supplement FactSheet: Folate. (n.d.).

Retrieved November 18, 2017, fromhttps://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-HealthProfessional/7.

    Palmatier,R. A. (2000). Food, Dictionary Of Literal And Non Literal Terms.

Connecticut: Greedwood Press.8.    Zeldes,L. (2010, November 17). Eat this! Heart of palm, an exotic taste of thetropics. Retrieved 11 17, 2017, from Dining Chicago Restaurants, Nightlifeand More:http://www.diningchicago.com/blog/2010/11/17/eat-this-heart-of-palm-an-exotic-taste-of-the-tropics/9.

    Vaile, E.(2016, February 9). Elaeis Guineensis. Retrieved 11 2, 2017, from Palm Pedia:http://www.palmpedia.net/wiki/Elaeis_guineensis 

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