CHAPTER owned by the Government of Telangana

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION The Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL) is a Government coal mining company jointly owned by the Government of Telangana and Government of India on a 5149 equity basis. The Singareni coal reserves stretch across 350 Km of the Pranahita Godavari Valley of Telangana with a proven geological reserves aggregating to whopping 8791 million tonnes. SCCL is currently operating 18 opencast and 29 underground mines in 4 districts of Telangana with a manpower around 56,282. 1.1 The Spirit of Singareni… One family – One vision – One mission While historically technology has been a critical factor in SCCLs ability to reduce environmental impacts and occupational hazards, the need to constantly increase productivity and cut costs has demanded that the company goes in for phased mechanization and adapts state-of-the-art technologies.SCCL pioneered mechanization of coal mines in India by adopting coal drilling machines as far back as in 1937. In 1950 Shuttle Cars, Gathering Arm Loaders, Conveyors and Coal Plough Equipment were introduced. Later in a path breaking move to replace arduous manual labor, Road Headers, Load Haul Dumpers and Side Dump Loaders were gradually brought in. We care While the benefits of coal are countless, Coal Mining is an inherently environment damaging and degrading activity. Realizing this, SCCL has launched a number of eco-friendly practices to mitigate the damage to environment and improve the quality of life. In all mining areas extensive green belts have been developed, and monitoring of air and water quality is done on a regular basis to assess the impact of mining on the environment and corrective steps are being implemented immediately. Opencast Mines are being restored to pre-mining conditions. To encourage plantation and social forestry, free saplings are supplied to all the employees before the onset of monsoon. To reduce air pollution and also meet the social obligations of SCCL, the company supplies free LPG to its employees. SCCL is perhaps the only PSU to have introduced environment as part of the curriculum in all its schools. In another innovative move, company has also introduced Eco Samman Awards to motivate employees who contribute to all round improvement of the environment. A number of other key initiatives taken in the last four years include setting up of Sewage Treatment Plants, Effluent Treatment Plants, Bio-engineering of Over Burdens, Clonal Plantations, Medicinal Plantations and development of Eco-parks for which the company was conferred the Golden Peacock Award from the Institute of Directors in 2005 and became the first Coal Company in the country to bag this prestigious honor. The company also bagged the National Fly Ash Utilization Award in 2005 for its unique contributions towards Fly Ash Utilization. SCCL has for the first time also brought out a book titled Eco-friendly Coal Mining – The Singareni Approach highlighting the various innovative practices initiated at SCCL for environmentally sustainable coal mining. 1.2 HISTORY In the year 1871, Dr. King of the Geological Survey of India discovered coal near the village of Yellandu in Khammam district and one of the important coal seams bore his name. The Hyderabad (Deccan) Company Limited incorporated in England acquired mining rights in 1886 to exploit coal found in Yellandu area. The present Company was incorporated on 23rd December 1920 under the Hyderabad Companies Act as a public limited company with the name The Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL). It acquired all the assets and liabilities of the Hyderabad (Deccan) Co. Ltd. Best Co., acted as Secretaries and Selling Agents. The State of Hyderabad purchased majority shares of the Company in 1945. From 1945 to 1949, the Hyderabad Construction Co., Ltd., was acting as Managing Agent. In 1949 this function was entrusted to Industrial Trust Fund by the then Government of Hyderabad. The controlling interest of the Company devolved on the Government of Andhra Pradesh in 1956 pursuant to the reorganization of States. Thus, the SCCL became a Government Company under the Companies Act in 1956. Large-scale expansion of SCCL was undertaken during the initial Five-year plans. In 1960 the Govt. of India started its participation in the equity of the Company and also started extending loan assistance. Thus since March 1960 it has been jointly owned by the Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Govt. of India. In 1974 the Government of India transferred its share capital to the Coal Mines Authority Limited. The manner of extending financial assistance for expansion of SCCL by the Govt. of A.P., and the Govt. of India during V plan period was agreed upon in the Four party Agreement executed on 10th June 1974. Subsequently, the Govt. of India decided to control its equity directly in SCCL. Accordingly, agreement was concluded on 13th December 1977. The SCCL, the Government of A.P., the Government of India and Coal India Limited were parties to the agreement. These two agreements are popularly called quadripartite agreements. For financial and other assistance during VI, VII, VIII, IX X Plan periods, separate agreements were executed on 31st March, 1985, 10th February 1989, 24th September 1994, 11th January 2002 ,19th October 2004 and 11th June 2010 between the Government of India, the Government of Andhra Pradesh and SCCL. These agreements are called tripartite agreements. The Companys accredited function is to explore and exploit the coal deposits in the Godavari valley coalfield, which is the only repository of coal in South India. Mining activities of SCCL are presently spread over four districts of Andhra Pradesh Viz. Adilabad, Karimnagar, Khammam and Warangal. 1.3 OBJECTIVES To retain strategic role of a premier coal producing company in the country and excel in a competitive business environments. To strive for self-reliance by optimum utilization of existing resources and earn adequate returns on capital employed. To exploit the available mining blocks with maximum conservation and utmost safety by adopting suitable technologies and practices and constantly upgrading them against international bench marks To supply reliable and qualitative coal in adequate quantities and strive to satisfy customers needs by constantly sharing their experience and customizing our product. 1.4 Vision, mission and principles guiding sustainable development. The Vision of Singareni is, Singareni Collieries to produce coal qualitatively and cost effectively in a socially and environmentally sustainable manner, valued by customers, employees, and the community. To achieve this vision, It aims to achieve a best safety performance, adopt best environmental practices strive to bring back the nature to the best possible original extent, attain a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace, align production to meet market demand and, continuously improve operational performance. SCCL- MISSION To retain strategic role of a premier coal producing company in the country and excel in a competitive business environments. To strive for the self reliance by optimum utilization of resources and earn adequate returns on capital employed. To exploit the available mining blocks with maximum conservation and utmost safety by adopting suitable technologies and practices and constantly upgrading them against international bench marks. To supply reliable and qualitative coal in adequate quantities and strive to satisfy customers needs by sharing their experience customizing our product. To emerge as a model employer and maintain harmonious industrial relations with the legal and social frame work of the state. To emerge as a responsible company through good corporate governance, by laying emphasis on protection of environment ecology and with due to regard for corporate social obligations. CHAPTER-II INDUSTRY PROFILE 2.1 INTRODUCTION OF COAL MINING IN INDIA Man had blessed with abundance of natural resources, including mineral wealth that play a vital role in the development of a country and promote the economic growth when explored and made best use of them. Man knows coal, which is one of the important materials, since ages and this natural wealth have put to diverse use in the modern world. Coal regarded as the fuel of growth. The coal is an important input for power generation and many other industries like iron and steel, railway, shipping and construction industries etc, a vital infrastructure from the economic development. Despite the development of alternative fuel material in many industries. Thus coal industry plays an important role in the industrial development of any country, like India. The world coal consumption is projected to go up from 4.7 billion tones in 1999 to 6.4 billion tones by 2020. Primarily in India and China, which are expected to account for 75 of the increased consumption. In India , coal mining was started in 1774 and still significantly under the government control and ownership with Coal India Limited ( CIL) , along with its following subsidiaries are become number one coal producer in India. India Coal Industry – History The first coal mining operation commenced in 1774 in the Raniganj coalfield on the banks of River Damodar. The introduction of steam locomotives stimulated demand for coal, and production peaked at 18 million tons (mts) during the 1920s. Till independence, the Indian coal industry witnessed periodic phases of growth. Since the private sector followed unscientific methods, productivity was low. The Indian government took steps to correct this and improve the working conditions in the nations coal industry. National Coal Development Corporation (NCDC), comprising of railway owned collieries, was established. In the early 1970s, all privately owned coal producing companies were nationalized under the Coal Mines (Nationalization) Act. India Coal Industry – Issues Most of the coal deposits occur in the north-eastern part of the Indian peninsula.Other parts of the country either have no coal deposits or limited reserves of poor quality coal. Coal distribution is highly uneven throughout India. Coal has to bear very high cost of transportation from the mines to the consuming centres. Thus, the coal-consuming industries have to pay a high price for coal. Much of the Indian coal is non-coking grade. This is unsuitable for metallurgical industries. The Gondwana coal has high ash content, while the Tertiary coal has high sulphur content. More than 90 per cent of the coal is transported by railways. The problem in transportation arises due to lack of railway facilities, variation in gauges, shortage of wagons, slow movement of trains, pilferage, etc. The coal mining techniques are old and outdated and most of the work is done through manual labour. This leads to high production cost in India. The coal dust in the mines and near the pit-heads creates environmental pollution, adversely affecting the miners and their families. The burning of coal in factories and thermal plants releases many toxic gases in the atmosphere. The safety measures are expensive. There are heavy losses due to pilferage, and fire in the coal mines and at pit-heads. This leads to a hike in the coal prices. India Coal Industry – Major Players The leading players of the Indian coal industry include Coal India Limited A public sector undertaking with 390 mines, it controls 88 of the domestic coal production. Singareni Collieries Company Ltd It operates through a network of 55 mines. Minerals and Metals Trading Corp It is responsible for the conversion of imported coal into coke for metallurgical and industrial purposes. NLC (Neyveli Lignite Corporation) 2.2 Formation of coal Coal is believed to have been formed about 300 million years ago under the Earth by a process called carbonization. Carbonization is the process of slow conversion of vegetable matter to coal under the earth due to the action of high pressure, high temperature, anaerobic bacteria and absence of oxygen. Types of coal Depending upon the extent of carbonization, coal can be classified into four types as follows Types of Coal Carbon contentCommonly known asPeat 11-Lignite 38Soft coal / brown coalBituminous 65Household coalAnthracite 96Hard coalTable 1 Types of Coal Classification of coal Indian Coal, in spite of the handicap of high ash, has many positive characteristics particularly with respect to environmental aspects and end-use. These are Low Sulphur content High Ash Fusion Temperature Low Iron Content in Ash Refractory Nature of Ash Low chlorine content Low Toxic Trace Elements In 1972-73, the Indian government nationalized the coal industry, primarily to develop the sector, since it was considered to be of strategic importance for rapid industrial development. Coal India Ltd (CIL) was incorporated as a holding company for seven coal producing subsidiaries and a planning and design-focused company. Indian coal is of mostly sub-bituminous rank, followed by bituminous and lignite (brown coal). The ash content in Indian coal ranges from 35 to 50. Consumption. Coal is the dominant commercial fuel in India, satisfying more than half of Indias energy demand. Power generation accounts for about 70 of Indias coal consumption, followed by heavy industry. Coal consumption is projected in the International Energy Annual 2004 to increase to 430 million short tons (Mmst) in 2010, up from 359 million short tons (Mmst) in 2000. Demand has been rising at an annual rate of 5 per cent since 1992-93. Demand from the power sector, which accounts for over 70 per cent of coal off take, was 214 million tonnes in 1997-98. Other users include iron and steel mills, cement plants, foundries, fertilizer producers, paper manufacturers, brick kilns etc. Coal consuming sectors comprising Thermal power plants accounting for nearly 68 of the total coal off-take. Steel plants, cement plants, railway, fertilizer plants etc. accounting for over 14 of the total coal off-take Textiles, refractors, foundries, paper mills, chemical industries etc. numbering over 20,000 units. Over a 100,000 brick-kiln, tobacco growers, tea garden and millions of households. Electricity India is trying to expand electric power generation capacity, as current generation is seriously below peak demand. Although about 80 of the population has access to electricity, power outages are common, and the unreliability of electricity supplies is severe enough to constitute a constraint on the countrys overall economic development. The government had targeted capacity increases of 100,000 megawatts (MW) over the next ten years. As of January 2002, total installed Indian power generating capacity was 120,000 MW. Owing to population growth and economic development, Indias energy consumption has been increasing at one of the fastest rates in the world. 2.3 Why Coal as Fuel Worldwide, coal is enormously important. It is the worlds most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. It is economic. Coal is the major fuel for generating electricity worldwide. More than 45 percent of the worlds electricity is generated from Coal. Coal is used in at least three-quarters of all steel making and it has other industrial uses as well. Around four thousand million tones of coal are mined every year in more than proved environment in the developed world or an improved standard of living in the developing world, the fact is that 87 or more of the worlds primary energy is derived at present from fossil fuels, oil, gas and coal. And the greatest of these three energy, coal is expected to continue its primary role in the world scenario in the near future also. Advanced coal-fired power generation technologies should be developed worldwide to generate at minimum economic coal, improve thermal efficiency and meet environmental requirements. World Coal Reserves Coal is one of the most significant natural resources in the world, with extensive reserves in almost 100 countries, estimated in 1996 at around one thousand billion (1 x 1012) tonnes of coal reserves economically accessible using current mining technology. The worlds major hard coal producers are China, the USA, India, South Africa, Australia, Russia, Poland, Kazakhstan and the Ukraine. Coal is mostly used in the region it is produced but about 12 is traded between countries. Australia, the USA and South Africa are the largest exporters of coal. At current production levels, there is enough coal to last over 200 years, not taking in account other reserves which might be proved by on-going exploration or become accessible through improvements in mining technology. Known world oil and gas reserves will be largely exhausted within 45 to 60 years time. Growth in demand for coal for energy and steel making is expected to drive increased worldwide coal use from around 5.3 billion tons per annum (btpa) at present to 7.6 btpa by 2020. COAL PRODUCING SUBSIDIARIES 1. Eastern Coal fields LTD. 2. Bharat coking coal LTD. 3. Central Coal fields LTD 4. Northern Coal fields LTD 5. Western Coal fields LTD 6. South eastern COALFIELDS LTD. 7. Mahanadi COALFIELDS LTD. 8. North eastern Coal fields ( A unit under CIL(HQ) ) 9. Singareni collieries co. ltd 10. Neyveli lignite CORPORATION 2.4 NUMBER OF COAL MINES IN INDIA Assam4Chhattisgarh57Jammu Kashmir4Jharkhand140Madhya Pradesh70Maharashtra60Odisha29Telangana48Uttar Pradesh4West Bengal75 Table 2 Number of Coal mines 2.5 COAL INDUSTRY IN TELANGANA Coal belts of Godavari valley coal field 1. Kagaz area 2. Bellampalli area 3. Mandamarri area 4. Chinnur area 5. Ramagundam area 6. Bhupal paali area 7. Lingala, koyagudem area 8. Manuguru area 9. Yellandu area 10. Kothagudem area 11. Sathupally area ORIGINS 1870 Dr. William King discovered coal in Singareni village (Khammam Dt.). 1889 Hyderabad (Deccan) co. incorporated in England and stocks were traded in London Stock Exchange. Coal mining started. 1920 Coal mining operations transferred to the new company and renamed as The Singareni Collieries Company Limited. 1945 Nizam of Hyderabad took over, thus Singareni became first Government managed Coal Company. 1960 Govt. of India participated with 49 equity. 1948 Machine Mining (Joy loader and shuttle cars). 1951 Electric coal drills. 1953 Electric cap lamps 1954 Flameproof electric equipment RICH HERITAGE Mile Stones. 1975 Opencast mining. 1979 Side Discharge Loaders. 1981 Load Haul Dumpers and Road Headers. 1983 Long wall mining. 1986 Walking Dragline. 1989 French Blasting Gallery method. 1994 In-pit crushing and conveying. 2002 Man-riding system in conventional mines. 2003 Phasing out Manual Coal filling launched. OWNERSHIP SCCL is the oldest PSU in the country in coal sector. Only Coal Company in Joint Sector with equity participation by Telangana,State Government, Government of India. 51 Equity is held by Government of Telangana. 49 Equity is held by Government of India. The Company is governed by a Plan-wise Tripartite Agreement between the Government of Telangana, Government of India and SCCL. CHAPTER III ORGANIZATION IN DETAIL 3.1 GENERAL INFORMATION SINGARENI COLLIRIES COMPANY LIMITED Type public Industry coal Founded 23.12.1920 Founder Government of India Headquarters Kotagudem,Telangana, India Area Served South India CMDShri. Nadimatla Sridhar Nature of Business Coal Mining, consultancy services Power generation No. of coal producing mines48 Products Coal Mining Power Number of Employees 56,282 (2018) Website HYPERLINK http// The operation areas of SCCL are as follows Khammam District Kothagudem, Yellandu and Manuguru Adilabad District Bellampalli, Mandamarri, and Srirampur. Karimnagar District Ramagundam I, II, III Warangal District Bhoopalpally. Board of Directors Chairman Managing Director 1. Sri N. Sridhar Whole-time Directors 2. Sri S. Shankar Electrical Mechanical and (Finanace)(FAC) 3. Sri Chandrasekhar Operations and (PAW)(FAC) 4. Sri B.Bhaskara Rao Planning Projects Directors 5. Sri Ajay Misra Special Chief Secretary, Energy Dept., Govt. of Telangana, Hyderabad. 6. Sri K.Rama Krishna Rao Principal Secretary to Govt., Finance Dept., Govt. of Telangana, Hyderabad. 7. Sri R.R.Mishra Chairman-cum-Managing Director, Western Coalfields Limited, Coal Estate, Civil Lines, Nagpur – 440 001 (M.S). 8. Sri Syed Ashraf Director, Ministry of coal, Govt. of India, New Delhi. 9. Sri J.S.Bindra Director, Ministry of coal, Govt. of India, New Delhi. 3.2 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE WITH CHART Organization chart of SCCL The SCCL is a monolithic organisation with its administrative office located at Kothagudem in Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh. For the purpose of administrative convenience, it set up three-tier structure such as Organisation Structure at Corporate Level, Organisation Structure at Area level and organisation structure at Mine (Unit) level. Chart-3.2 depicts the organisation structure at corporate level. Chairman Managing Director is the Executive Head of the company. He is appointed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh from among the senior officers of Indian Administrative Service (IAS). He is the Administrative Head of the company and responsible for its overall performance. He is assisted by various functional Directors such as Director (Operations), Director (Personnel Administration Welfare), Director (Finance), Executive Director (Marketing Movement), Director (Electrical Mechanical) and Director (Planning Projects) while discharging his duties. SHAPE MERGEFORMAT Roles And Responsibilities All the Directors such as functional directors, Directors nominated by the Government of Telangana and Directors nominated by the Government of India perform various functions. In this regard, a brief discussion would do well about the functions of each of the directors. A) Director (Operations) He is in-charge of mines located at Ramagundam-II, III and IV areas of Ramagundam region and Yellandu, Manuguru and Kothagudem areas of Kothagudem region. He looks into various areas such as quality management, research and development and civil engineering works. In fact, he looks into almost all the operations except the activities related to welfare. B) Director (Finance) He is in-charge of Finance and Accounts, Audit and Secretarial Departments. C) Director (Planning Projects) He is in-charge of mines located in Bellampalli, Mandamarri, Srirampur areas and Indaramkhani and Chennur group of mines of Bellampalli region and Ramagundam-I and Bhoopalapalli areas of Ramagundam region. He examines activities like corporate planning projects, safety, Information Technology, and forestry departments. D) Director (Personnel Administration Welfare) He is in-charge of Personnel Administration, Welfare, HRD, Estates, Medical Health, Education, Industrial Engineering, Security, Law Civil Engineering Departments. E) Executive Director (Marketing Movement) The Executive Director is the head of the marketing and movement. He also acts as in charge to Public Relations Department. F) Director (Electrical Mechanical) He is in-charge of all activities relating to electrical mechanical engineering, materials procurement, and inventory management. 3.3 DEPARTMENTS AND WINGS SCCL in order to carry on its operations effectively and efficiently has created various departments such as Coal Exploration Department, Coal Mine Planning Department, Coal Mine Survey Department, Industrial Engineering Department, Marketing Department, Civil Engineering Department, Personnel Department etc. In this regard, the functions of different departments and wings have been elaborated hereunder. A) Coal Exploration Department The Coal Exploration Department has been carrying out successful exploration for more than 115 years. The Department has highly qualified, academically brilliant and strong interdisciplinary experts. It comprises 39 geologists, 15 drilling engineers, 8 geo-physicists, and 4 hydro-geologists. The strength of the exploration department lies in the preparation of geological reports in Minex, Geo-engineering and Geo-physical logging with the latest logger. The department offers various services to entrepreneurs. Drilling with and without core. Preparation of geological reports. Geo-physical logging and Geo interpretation. Preparation of hydro-geological tests and reports. Testing of core samples of rocks for physico-mechanical properties. Geo-technical mapping. B) Coal Mine Planning Department SCCL has an ISO 90012001 accredited Project Planning Department capable of undertaking coal mine planning in detail. It has 50 professionals in the fields of Opencast mining, Underground mining, Mine Environmental Engineering, Mine Mechanical Electrical Engineering, Econometrics, Finance, Industrial engineering, Geology and Minex. The coal mine planning department formulates 15 project reports every year besides offering consultancy services for the following works. Preparation of technical and conceptual reports for coal blocks. Preparation of project reports for open cast and underground mines. Techno-economic evaluation of mining projects. Preparation of mine plans. Preparation of environmental management plans. Project management and Implementation. Strategic planning and Implementation. C) Coal Mine Survey Department The Coal Mine Survey Department is well known for its skills and cutting edge technologies such as auto set levels and precise levels. At present, all the work of the department is computerised with AutoCAD software. The company has an army of 195 well experienced Surveyors. In addition, the department has already taken up works connected with mines survey for private and government companies. The department offers the following works. Mine survey and preparation of mine plans for planning and operation. Estimation of volumes and quantities besides undertaking check surveys. D) Industrial Engineering Department The company recognised the fact that improvement of productivity, quality, and reduction of cost are the saviors of the coal industry. In view of this, it established Industrial Engineering Department in 1950 to stay competitive and progress further. The IED of SCCL is the oldest in the mining industry. In fact, it is older than the IE professional body, namely Indian Institute of Industrial Engineering. It is a pioneer in scientifically establishing job standards, crew sizes, and job evaluation in coal mining, which helped the company in improving its productivity over years. It also evolved various performance parameters for measurement of productivity. Further, it introduced productivity linked wage incentive plans developed on scientific basis for the first time in the mining industry. Besides this, it played a vital role in the computerisation of pay rolls and materials management system. Above all, it provides consultancy services to coal India Limited, APMDC, Power plants etc. The department staffed with over 50 well trained industrial engineers constantly analyses the performance of the company for overall improvement. The various national rewards received by the company stand testimony to the same. The department undertakes the following activities. Work study and motion study for jobs related to mining Preparation of incentive schemes for various jobs Study and establishment of work norms. E) Marketing Department Executive Director heads the marketing department. He also acts as in charge of Finance Accounts and Public Relations Departments. He is responsible for marketing the coal of the company. Besides this, he liaisons with Railways for movement of coal to customers. He also participates in all the meetings of Standing Linkages Committees (SLCs). Further, he associates with SLC for coal linkages to core sector or linked customers such as power plants, major and mini cement plants, defence, railways etc. All the same, he co-ordinates with Industries Department for the supply of coal to non-core sector or unlinked customers such as paper textile companies, chemical companies, drugs and pharmaceutical companies etc. The Executive Director makes deliberations with customers for the finalisation of fuel supply agreements besides formulating various reports such as dispatch report, stock report etc., on a daily and monthly basis and submit the same to the Government of Andhra Pradesh, and Government of India. The Executive Director attends to customers complaints such as quality and short supply of coal. He also initiates action against customers and transporters for mis-utilisation of coal. Further, he coordinates with Accounts Department so as to know the credit and debit balances of existing customers and ex-customers and also coordinates with the Law Department for taking action against erring customers. The Executive Director also issues delivery orders for Rail movement and Road dispatches depending on the availability of coal at each dispatch point. He also attends to all the queries as asked by the State and Central Governments during the assembly and parliament sessions. Further, he furnishes all the information pertaining to the marketing of coal to all the government agencies as per their requisition from time to time. F) Civil Engineering Department Chief General Manager (Civil) heads the department. The Civil Engineering Department is concerned with civil works right from mine opening to dispatch of coal. The main activities of the department are mine development works, construction of houses, provision of water, and laying of roads and railway sidings. In this regard, a brief discussion is made hereunder about the various activities of civil engineering department. a) Mine Development Works The Department undertakes mine development works related to open cast mining and underground mining. It lays approach roads besides making arrangements for the provision of water to mines and employee colonies. It also undertakes activities such as open excavation and arching. Further, it provides infrastructure facilities like pit-head coal handling arrangements and filter beds. It also attends to all the day to day activities for the smooth functioning of the production in mines. b) Housing and Amenities The Department takes up activities such as construction of quarters, schools, colleges, hospitals, super bazaars, clubs, community halls etc. c) Water Supply Schemes The Civil Engineering Department ensures perennial supply of water to all the mines, colonies etc. It provides individual taps to all the company quarters. In addition to this, it provided 4,564 community taps in all the mining areas. It is to be noted that the company supplies 259.03 lakh gallons of water per day. d) Railway Sidings The Civil Engineering Department maintains railway sidings for the transport of coal. It also monitors the railway sidings continuously for the smooth dispatch of coal. SCCL has a total of 101.40 KM railway sidings out of which 36.175 KM are assisted and 65.223 KM are private sidings. G).Corporate Personnel Department The Corporate Personnel Department functions under the overall control and guidance of Director, Personnel Administration and Welfare (PAW) with General Manager (Personnel) as head of the department. The department has different wings namely recruitment cell, Industrial relations wing, personnel management wing, welfare wing and each of these wings is headed by senior officer. The General Manager (Personnel) oversees and coordinates the functions of each wing. The department plays a key role in streamlining industrial relations, personnel policies and in implementing all the measures being initiated by the management as a part of bringing about reforms in the company in the changed scenario in coal industry and the process involves constant communication with workmen and trade unions with a view to make them agree to the proposed measures. The department makes all efforts for timely implementation of the agreed items in the past settlements so as to avoid usual complaints from the unions regarding the non-implementation of agreed items. It implements all the policies relating to promotions, transfers, up-gradations, punitive actions in a transparent manner so as to create credibility to the management in the perceptions of workmen. Further, it makes constant efforts to improve the existing systems so as to keep pace with the changes by focusing on key result areas like improving discipline among workmen, minimising flash strikes, and taking action against chronic absentees who are not contributing to the growth of the company. The corporate personnel department as mentioned earlier consists of various wings such as Recruitment Cell, Industrial Relations Wing, Personnel Management wing and Welfare wing. In this regard, a brief discussion is made hereunder. a) Recruitment Cell The Recruitment Cell fills up regular and backlog vacancies in the executive and non-executive cadres. It undertakes recruitment and selection process within the framework of Telangana rules of reservation as issued by Government of Andhra Pradesh from time to time. The selection process is being carried on transparently and the procedures followed are fool-proof and the results are announced on the same day. Besides the recruitment of personnel, it analyses the matters to be placed before the Andhra Pradesh Legislature Committee on welfare of Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), Backward Castes and also National Commission for SCs. and STs. It also maintains reservation roster registers. Further, it takes necessary steps for arranging walk-in-interviews to fill up medical specialist vacancies. Above all, it undertakes special drive recruitments for the filling up of SC and ST backlog vacancies. Recruitment and selection tests require lot of preparatory work right from the stage of issue of circular to the stage of offering appointment to the selected candidates. It is heartening to note that not withstanding the large number of candidates aspiring for employment in the company, all efforts are being made to ensure error-free conduct of test without any scope for unfair practices in the evaluation of answer sheets. In fact, the whole process has been computerised minimising the human intervention to the bare minimum. b) Industrial Relations Wing The Industrial Relations Wing plans and evolves strategies to meet the situations arising out of industrial unrest in mines and departments. The wing, which is under the control of General Manager (Personnel) holds discussions with Trade Unions so as to solve problems through consultation rather than confrontation. The wing performs various functions such as handling strike notices, industrial disputes, court cases, age disputes, and disciplinary actions. It also conducts elections to the trade unions through secret ballot method. Above all, it implements the voluntary retirement (Golden Handshake) scheme from time to time complying with the provisions of labour legislations. c) Personnel Management Wing The Personnel Management Wing deals with the service matters of employees. The major function of the wing is redeployment of workmen from surplus mining areas to deficit mining areas. The wing also undertakes various matters related to placements, promotions in respect of employees who fall in the grade C and above cadres. Besides the above, it takes up various activities like processing of resignations, pay anomalies, granting of study leave etc. Above all, it submits various reports to the legislature of Andhra Pradesh and parliament as directed by the respective Governments. d) Welfare Wing Welfare Officer heads the welfare wing. The wing implements all the provisions relating to the welfare of employees. It carries out various functions such as processing the cases of dependants for employment or Monthly Monetary Compensation (MMC), chalking out programs for conducting sports and games in the areas as per the sports calendar. Further, it chalks out welfare related programs like provision of Special Welfare Amenities Program (SWAP) in the workmen colonies. All the same, it follows up with Insurance Companies for settlement of claims under Janata Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (JPIAS) and Family Benefit-cumInsurance Scheme (FBIS). It also ensures interaction between workmen and officers through the Communication Cell and the same is telecast through the local Siti Cable to bring about awareness about the activities of the company among the workmen and their families so that there will be positive attitudinal change. The welfare wing organises Scouts and Guides through Singareni Collieries District Association, Khammam by involving the children studying in company schools and also in other schools in coal field areas. It also undertakes processing of applications of children of employees for sanction of merit scholarships to the extent of Rs.6,000 per annum for admission of their children in Medicine and Engineering courses through EAMCET. 3.4 ORIGIN GROWTH OF SINGARENI COLLERIES COMPANY LIMITED ORIGIN A remarkable little adventure gave a birth to this giant corporate entity that us today the Singareni collieries company limited. Way back on a dark night in 1870, a group of pilgrims who on their way to have a darshan of lord Rama at Badrachalam temple (near Singareni village) has lit a fire to prepare for the meal. One of the supporting stones on their makeshift stove caught fire. The incident was immediately reported to the local government. This led to an extensive survey by Dr. William King, an eminent geologist, which confirmed the revolutionary discovery of coal in the Godavari valley. 3.5 GLOOM TO GLORY The SCCL was receiving budgetary support from both government of India and government of Andhra Pradesh till some time age, but they later abandoned. Also the pricing of coal was decided by government of India keeping its impact on the major sectors like power, railways, cement, and etc. the prices were not revised regularly also hike in input cost due to periodical revisions of National Coal Wage Agreements (NCWA) , stores and interest were also not fully compensated by government. The frequent strikes by the workers, law and order problems, low productivity, apart from un-remunerative coal price vise- a versa cost of production during the period 1989-90 to 1991-1992 affected the financial health of the company and refer to BIFR in may 1992. But due to liberal financial package extended by the govt of India in consultation with govt of AP, and sustained efforts made by the management of SCCL and trade unions, a modest financial turnaround was achieved. The company earned profit of Rs 17.76 crore and 26.64 crore in 1993-94 respectively. By March 1994, SCCL became out of the BIFR purview. The company for success took following remedial measures/ reforms. Unifying trade unions through path breaking elections. High pitch communication drives harnessing media, launching literacy programmers. Focused multi-faceted workers welfare program. Establishing outsourcing of non-core and ancillary activities. Innovative programmers launched (Dial your GM, Fields visits, interactions, follow ups). Fuel supply agreements technology infusion for quality testing, work force visits to client sites. Focus on safety, environment protection and labor welfare. Sl. No.ParticularsUnitsPre-1997 (1996-97)Post-1997 (2002-03)Gain/ Reduction 1.Coal Production M.Tonnes 28.7333.24() 162.Coal Dispatches M.Tonnes 28.8333.37() 163.Overall output per man shift (OMS)Tonnes 0.981.51() 544.Man Power Nos. 1,14,48697,053(-) 155.No. of strikes Nos. 31035() 836.Turn over Rs. in Crores21143689() 757.Gross Investment Rs. in Crores33394115() 238.Earnings per man Shift Rs. in Crores .345.66679.86() 979.Welfare Exp. Per employee Rs. in Crores.14,40230,195() 110 Table 3 Comparision of performance of SCCL The process of turning around a sick company which commenced in 1997 98 reached its logical conclusion when SCCL, totally wiped out its accumulated losses and entered the financial year 2003-04 with a net profit of 80.45 crore after issuing dividend of 86.70 crore. Singareni at a Glance MinesUnder Ground – 29 Opencast 19Manpower (as on 31-03-2013)Targeted Production (2013-14)54.3 Million tonnesTargeted Production (2012-13)53.10 Million tonnes Actual Production (2012-13)53.19 Million tonnesOutput per manshift (Mines Depts)(2012-13)3.15 TonnesMajor consumersPower,Cement and othersTable 4 Singareni at a Glance UNDERGROUND MINESOPENCAST MINESConventional Mining Side Discharge Loader(SDL) Load Haul Dumper(LHD) Road Header Longwall Blasting Gallery Continuous MinerSurface Miner Dragline Shovel Dumper Inpit crusher Conveyer Spreader Highwall Table 5 TECHNOLOGIES ADOPTED MILE STONES OF TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION 1889 Commencement of mining operations. 1948 Introduction of machine mining (Shuttle Car). 1951 Electric Coal Drills. 1951 Introduction of incentive schemes 1951 Introduction of Electric Coal Drills 1952 Introduction of Electric Cal Lamps 1953 Electric Cap Lamps. 1954 Introduction of Frame Proof Mining Machinery 1975 Commencement of Open Cast Mining projects 1979 Side Dump Loaders (SDLs). 1981 Introduction of latest underground machine. 1981 Load Haul Dumpers. 1983 Mechanized Long Wall. 1983 Introduction of Long Wall face machinery. 1984 Introduction of first 132/33 KYA substation. 1986 Introduction of computers and walking dragline in Open cast mines. 1989 Introduction of French Blasting Gallery Technology 1991 Computerized information system. 1994 Introduction of in-put crushing conveying technology in OCP mines. 1995 Singareni coal work graded from C to G grade. 2002 Surface Miner Technology. 2007 Strike Free Year with the Cooperation of all the Unions. 2008 Introduction of SAP. 2009 Continuous Miner 2012 Shortwall Technology Technologies their output DURING 2017-18 in SCCL Presently, 29 Underground mines and 19 Opencast mines are in operations in SCCL- The coal production share from Opencast and Underground mines ( Hand section Machine mining) during 2012-13 are shown below Name of the TechnologyOutput (M.T)Percentage of total output in 2017-18Open cast mining 53.7076.15Underground Mining8.3113Side Dischrge Loader (SDL) and Load Haul Dumper6.99.24Traditional Mining (hand Section)0.150.21LW, BG Others1.271.40Total70.33100 Table 6 Technologies their output during 2017-18 in SCCL Production Manpower in SCCL SCCL- MANPOWERYearExecutivesMonthly Rated StaffDaily Rated WorkersPiece Rated WorkersBadli FillersBadli WorkersTotal2002-032,34117,01848,02325,9243,51623197,0532003-042,37117,46044,75125,2603,69118993,7222004-052,37218,82143,24123,6883,67817091,9702005-062,46318,49444,05517,0653,78616286,0252006-072,50918,94143,26214,868249015482,2242007-082,66817,73841,64411,4132,0199175,5732008-092,60616,83340,3279,7311,08970,5862009-102,55016,32040,9177,9281,32869,0432010-112,47315,71841,8776,57996867,6152011-122,46818,03239,9545,09092266,4662012-132,42718,41638,5663,9751,21664,600Table 7 Production manpower in SCCL This forms the basis for expansion/modernization/creation of training facilities. Investments also will be made in this direction. We are planning to buy equipment simulators for training based on these projections. Production PerformanceY E A RNO. OF MINESPRODUCTION (Lakh Tonnes)UGOpen CastTotalUNDERGROUNDOPENCASTTOTALTargetActualTargetActualTargetActual2002-03551267130.00128.08195.00204.28325.00332.362003-04541266149.50133.14185.50205.40335.00338.542004-05531164163.00129.73197.00223.29350.00353.022005-06471158142.51127.11217.49234.27360.00361.382006-07461460132.35118.76242.65258.31375.00377.072007-08421759131.08126.45273.92279.59405.00406.042008-09371855133.10120.87302.50324.59435.60445.462009-10371956153.60119.69350.40384.56504.00504.252010-11361652158.70116.07354.30397.26513.00513.332011-12361450148.30104.77373.70417.34522.00522.112012-13351550146.80113.18393.20418.72540.00531.90Table 8 Production performance PERFORMANCE OF SCCL AT A GLANCE Details2009-102010-112011-122012-13Coal Production (Mill. Tons)50.4251.3352.2153.19Coal Dispatches (Mill. Tons)44.92Productivity (OMS)2.732.903.113.15OB Removal (Mill. Cu. Mtr)247.30215.65209.47176.00Man Power69,043 (As on 31-03-2010)67615 (As on 31-03-2011)66754 (As on 31-03-2012)64660 (As on 31-03-2013)Table 9 Performance of SCCL at a glance COMPUTERIZATION IN SCCL SCCL has initiated computerization activity in the early eighties utilizing outside faculties and installation of in-house computer in the corporate office in 1986 since then number of systems is developed such as pay roll, stores. Accounting Management Information System, Personnel, Personnel data (EPR), inventory Management etc. Computerization has been introduced in the supply and allotment of coal to the industries in the non-crore sector by the marketing Department. All documentation of data pertaining to over 2000 industrial consumers has been totally computerized. The marketing department has been issuing computerized sale notes to all the industrial consumers with in 24 hours of receipt of requests from the consumers. Daily a computerized statement indicates the sale notes issued to consumers and the requests pending at the each day is displayed on the Notice Board of the Marketing Department. Computerized recruitment system by which selection of candidates was completed within 24 hours of written test evolved to remove the subjectivity in the selection process and this was appreciated by the candidates as well as the general public. Wage Incentives Monthly wage incentives plans will be prepared by IED basing on the scientifically fixed performance levels and will be paid to the individual employees and group of employees for Underground mines/ Open casts/ CSPs etc. Performance Linked Reward As decided by the CIL, the PLR will be paid once in a financial year. Special Performance Incentive As decided by the Government of A.P. every financial year basing on the profits earned since 1999-2000 onwards. Motivational Techniques Performance of the Company depends upon the motivational levels of its Employees. Hence Company is motivating the employees by introducing various Wage Incentive Plans. Management is monitoring revising and introducing new schemes to keep in place with the changing needs. 42 Wage Incentive Plans are in operation Mining success Honors The company has deservedly won many awards prominent among them are. 2001-02 Best Management Award in the state National safety award Best payroll savings award in the state. 2004-05 Best Workers Welfare Activity Award from FAPCCI. 2005-06 Golden Peacock Environment Management Award from World Environment Management Foundation. Coal India Award for Fly Ash Utilisation from Ministry of Env. Forests, Power, Science Technology. Golden Peacock Innovation Management Award from World Environment Management Foundation. 2006-07 Greentech Environment Excellence Award- 2006 from Green tech Foundation. 2nd Prize in First Aid overall 5th position in the International Rescue Competitions 2007-08 Black Diamond Award – 2007 for Corporate Excellence in Coal Sector from Infraline Energy. Indira Gandhi Vriksha Mitra Award – 2004 from Government of India on 5th June 2007 at New Delhi. SINGARENI – NEW BUSINESS Underground Coal Gasification, Surface Coal Gasification Coal Bed Methane Power Generation 20 MW Captive Power Plant 500 MW Merchant Power Plant. Explosives Manufacturing of Site Mixed Slurry (SMS) Explosives. Mining of Iron ore and other minerals. Development of SEZ. BUSINESS PARTNERS OF SINGARENI Andhra Pradesh Gas Power Corporation Ltd To co-operate and promote one or more Joint Venture Companies with the aim of jointly undertaking Coal Mining, Mining Beneficiation, processing, operation maintenance in India. Carbon Energy Pty. Ltd (CEPL), Australia For investigation of the potential for Underground Coal Gasification in SCCL command areas. National Thermal Power Corporation For co-operation and promotion for Joint Venture companies for jointly undertaking various activities related to coal mining, integrated coal based power projects and related consultancies, in India and abroad. Oil Natural Gas Commission To Cooperate in the service, operation, process Development and Research related to Underground Coal Gasification (UGC), Surface Coal Gasification (SCG) and Coal Bed Methane(CBM). COMMON WEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION (CSIRO), Australia To facilitate R D projects in Strata Mechanics, ventilation and other related subjects with specific reference to Longwall Mining. 3.6 AWARDS Singareni Collieries company Limited (SCCL) has been awarded Ingrained Energy Excellence Award 2007 under company category-Black Diamond Award for coal sector development on 12th October 2007 New Delhi. SCCL received India Gandhi Vriksha mitra Award-2004 for outstare made in the field of a forestation and waste land development on 5th June 2007 at New Delhi. Environmental Excellence Award for 2005-06 from Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable Technology Institute (SRISTI), New Delhi. Environmental Excellence Award from green Tech Foundation in 2005-06. Golden peacock Innovation Management award from world Environmental Foundation, New Delhi. National Fly ash Utilization award 2005 jointly instituted by the Ministry of Environmental and forests, Power Technology Government of India. The second best corporate film award 2005 by public relations society of India, Hyderabad forsharmika bandham. Three of the fourteen National Safely Awards (Mines) in instituted by the Directorate General of Mines safely, Government (pertaining to 2001). Best worker welfare Activity Award for 2002-03 by the Federation of Andhra Pradesh chamber of Commerce and Industrie CHAPTER 4 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION ParticularsNote2015 – 162014 – 15I EQUITY AND LIABILITIES 1. Shareholders Funds a) Share Capital 1 1,733.20 1,733.20 b) Reserves Surplus 2 3,049.75 4,782.952,140.07 3,873.27 2. Non-current Liabilities (a) /RQJWHUPERUURZLQJV 3 3,956.43 3,545.59 (b) Other long term liabilities442.30 38.21 (c) /RQJWHUPSURYLVLRQV 5 11,469.17 15,467.9010,920.08 14,503.88 3. Current Liabilities (a) Short-term borrowings 6 665.81 12.47 (b) Trade payables7624.34 518.95 (c) Other current liabilities83,900.24 2,501.69 II. (d) Short-term provisions TOTAL ASSETS 1. Non-current assets (a) )LHGVVHWV (i) Tangible Assets9 101,284.82 6,475.211,018.73 4,051.84 3,874.17 3,517.1226,726.0622,428.99 (ii) Intangible Assets 10602.76 654.19 (iii) Capital Work-in-Progress10.17,072.78 5,290.26 (iv) Intangible Assets under Development10.2124.89 142.71 (b) Non-current Investments111,816.78 1,818.77 (c) HIHUUHGWDDVVHWVQHW124,421.86 3,861.26 (d) /RQJWHUPORDQVDQGDGYDQFHV 13 694.58 18,607.82659.28 15,943.59 2. Current Assets (a) Inventories141,321.14 1,137.19 (b) Trade Receivables154,195.87 2,149.35 (c) Cash and Bank balances161,708.38 2,549.02 (d) Short-term loans and advances17508.42 320.62 (e) Other current assets 18 384.43 8,118.24329.22 6,485.40 TOTAL 26,726.06 22,428.996LJQLFDQWFFRXQWLQJ3ROLFLHV33 Additional Notes34 CHAPTER-5 SWOT ANALYSIS, McKINSEYs 7S MODEL, PORTERs FIVE FORCE MODEL Swot Analysis in SCCL The SWOT analysis as to five years ago is described below, listing out only more important parameters to portray the then situation. Strengths 1. The organization is more than hundred years old. 2. It has a pool of well trained human resources. 3. The human resources have high and proven level of technology absorption capabilities. 4. Quick and smooth adoption of new technologies SCCL is a pioneer in adopting blasting gallery (BG) technology, input crushing conveying technology Weaknesses 1. High accumulated loss. 2. Became potentially sick . 3. Employees have been displaying low level of commitment/light attitude towards improvement in performance, importance of productivity, work culture, changes and reforms, job satisfaction, wage levels, work norms, concern for aspirations of other sections of public, need for thrift etc. 4. Employees have been exhibiting minimum level of awareness on company parameters, problems in nearby organizations, management processes, role of coal sector on the economy of the down stream organizations, importance of quality, importance of work norms, ownership particulars of the company, reforms process of the company etc. 5. Difficult situations with multiple unions and frequent strikes. 6. Reduced production and wage earned due to IR situation. 7. Assumption of guaranteed employment, irrespective of change in number of mines and firm views about the system of employment of dependents. 8. Drudgery in some of the jobs like manual filling of coal into tubs and such other underground operations. 9. Communication process not upto the mark and needed overhaul. 10. The coal sector is deregulated. 11. Disturbed social fabric-role of extremism in organizational aspect. 12. Limited financially viable reserves, amenable for open cast mining, high stripping ratios in projects. Opportunities 1. High scope for expansion Threats 1. Closure of non-performing organizations in the vicinity and elsewhere. 2. Phasing out of subsidies from Government. 3. Insistence by Government on a minimum I.R.R. (16) for opening of new mines. 4. Erstwhile cost driven pricing structure and its tendency to build up inertia in the organizations. McKinseys 7S MODEL The entire organization is headed by the CMD. company comprises of flat hierarchy at the organizational level but within each department it is a tall hierarchy where every department is headed by its respective executive or manager. While the other staff report to their department heads, the department heads are answerable to the GM. Company follows a participative type of leadership. Every day meetings are held with the help of which the top level managers can take decisions easily. Almost all the matters are discussed with all the department heads and they further discuss it with their respective teams and consider their suggestions for improvements or changes. STRATEGY Strategy formulation entails search for different frame of reference. It is the quest for a new business model. Strategy relates to direction action. The company adopts strategy to achieve its objectives in a competitive situation. Company believes in fair treatment of the employees. They do not make any bias based on anybodys position for providing any assistance to them. Their main motto is also to deliver the best to buyers and to respond to their immediate wants as quickly as possible. 5.3. PORTERs 5 FORCE MODEL CHAPTER 6 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1.The use of coal and its by-products should be increased substantially durinq the next 25 years, with coal being used to provide a substantially larger portion of fixed-base energy requirements. 2. State and local regulations concerning mine operation and the opening of new mines should be limited, consolidated, and coordinated to simplify procedures, permit timely decision-making, and encourage more rapid application of technological advances. 3. The coal industry state governments, the federal government, and the universities should strengthen programs for recruiting, educating, training, retraining, and providing work experience for mining personnel. These programs should focus on high school graduates as well as persons having higher degrees, and funding should be provided for new facilities and for the operating and maintenance expenses of existing mining engineering schools. 4. Underground mining productivity per man-day should be increased at least to the levels achieved in the late 1960s while meeting health and safety standards, through improved labor-management relations, improved regulating climate, improved training programs, and broader application of improved mining technology. 5. Health, safety, and environmental conditions in underground mines should be improved by the application of better methods for removing methane gas from the coal seam prior to mining, the development of better roof control and ventilation and dust control equipment, and the increased utilization of automated equipment. 6. The environmental conditions in existing and new mining areas should be maintained and, if possible, improved. In underground mining, this will involve controlling drainage, acid mine water, refuse piles, dust, noise, and subsidence and in surface mining, maintaining the optimum environmental conditions for reclamation of the mined areas. 7. Clean, low-cost systems for moving coal or transporting its energy from the mine over long distances should be utilized and further developed. CONCLUSIONS 1. Coal is the nations most abundant fossil fuel yet, it is used to fill only 19 percent of the nations energy needs. Well-identified recoverable coal reserves exist within the State in sufficient quantity and with suitable mining characteristics to increase the production to 70MT in 2019. 2. Filling these requirements at a reasonable cost requires that the recent decrease in coal productivity per man-day, particularly in underground mining, be reversed without sacrificing health and safety standards. An increase in productivity will decrease coal mine capital and operating costs, and each ton of increased productivity per man-day can be expected to save price paid for coal over the next 10 years. A reduction in wildcat strikes, absenteeism, and labor turnover and an improvement in worker training and acceptance of grievance procedures would make important contributions to improved productivity. 5. Existing mining systems improved by a greater degree of mechanization and automatic control will continue to be used for at least the next 10 years. Improvements in underground mining systems and machinery are expected to result in increased productivity and improved miner health and safety. 6. Although no urgent coal-mining manpower shortage presently exists, the projected growth, attrition, and retirement replacement rate in the mining population indicates that manpower requirements are likely to increase by 2019. Current education and training programs for new miners and mining engineers are of great value in achieving productivity, health and safety, and environmental objectives. 7. The need to move coal or its energy over increasingly long distances requires that environmentally acceptable, low-cost transportation systems be utilized. Possible methods include greater application of unit trains, water shipments, slurry pipelines, mine-mouth power plants with extra-high-voltage and ultra-high-voltage transmission lines, and mine-mouth conversion of coal to liquid or gaseous fuels with pipeline transmission . 8. More rapid transportation of coal from the mining face and improved roof support are required if productivity is to increase. Coal removal, dust control, and ventilation also are important areas for health and safety research in underground mining. Improved extraction and reclamation equipment, including integrated mining and reclamation systems, are required in surface mining. 9. A national energy policy that defines the role of coal in meeting future energy requirements is needed to encourage industry to make the long-range capital commitments necessary to develop domestic coal reserves to assist the nation in meeting basic energy needs. BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITES HYPERLINK http// HYPERLINK http// HYPERLINK http// SCCL Companys operational statistics manual. HRD manuals of SCCL Monthly magazines/Bulletins of HRD of SCCL PAGE PAGE 44 PAGE MERGEFORMAT 1 SCCL EKw_M)cMjQVs7clQqLku dJEFY)oyof I7XYf_is)[email protected] z(7LYvb6tkuXkU([email protected] eDHCIFqLYswjNYSXSdzKy
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