CHAPTER provides a general procedural framework for

CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.0 IntroductionThis chapter describes the methodology employed for the purpose of this study. Elaboration on the research design provides a general procedural framework for this study. The method used by the researcher to select her participants as samples from the target population is described in detail. Description on the steps taken in developing the instrument for data collection process is included in this chapter. A set of procedure which has been followed by the researcher to carry out the study is further explained. In order to assess the research feasibility, a pilot study was conducted prior to actual study. The selected method of data analysis is discussed accordingly. A section on ethical considerations explains the basis of guidelines for this study in order to remain morally acceptable for both, the researcher and the samples. The findings of this study are further discussed, interpreted and presented in the next chapter.?3.1 Research Design This study used a quantitative descriptive research design to investigate the contributing factors towards disaffection and engagement among students during English lesson by using a survey method. This study used an online questionnaire as the instrument for data collection.  3.2 ParticipantsA population refers to all constitutes of any clearly described group of people, events, or objects who are the focus of an investigation (Drew, Hardman, & Hosp, 2008). In this study, the population comprised Form 4 ESL students from a public secondary school in Shah Alam. The population was chosen in order to further understand their dominant factors contributing to disaffection during English lessons.In selecting the samples to be drawn from the population, the snowballing technique was used due to its small relative cost and time consumption. Snowballing sampling refers to a method used by researcher to collect data from a few members of the target population and ask those individuals to provide the information needed to locate other members of the population (Babbie, 2008).  There were 135 number samples who took part in this study by answering an online questionnaire. ?3.3 InstrumentationSalkind (2010) refers to instrumentations to the tools or means by which researcher attempt to measure variables or items of interest during the data collection process. The instrument used for this study was 30-item online questionnaire. The questionnaire used for this study was adapted from the research of Hart, Steward, & Jimerson (2011) which developed a psychometric of Student Engagements Questionnaire (SESQ). The main attraction in using questionnaire is due to its unprecedented efficiency of (a) researcher time, (b) researcher effort, (c) and financial resources (Dörnyei, 2014). With the advancement of current technology, the questionnaires were self-administrated online by the samples themselves through Google Forms. A copy of online questionnaire can be referred in Appendix 2.The online questionnaire consisted of an electronic consent, seven sections labelled alphabetically (A to F) which include thirty statements relating to the factors contributing to disaffection among students during English lesson. Section A required the samples to state their gender for the purpose of to gather demographic information. From Section B consists of statements related to Cognitive Factors. Section C made up of statements related to affective factors. Section D comprised of statements related to behavioural factors. Section E contains statements related to language activities factors. Section F composed of statements related to student-teacher relationship. A 5-point Likert scale: (1) strongly disagree, (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree, (4) agree and (5) strongly agree was used to measure the samples’ level of agreement concerning the statements provided in the questionnaire. 


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