Chapter3MethodologyIn the first chapters of the thesis I look intothe history of cricket in India, and the gender bias in Indiancricket I argued that due to our historyIndian is Patriarchal society. The situation of women cricket in India is bad due to lack of opportunitiesprovided to women and the lack of support from the family of the women and theway the media frames the Indian cricketer’s is very different for males andfemales. Since the opinion of the public depends on the media as a basic newssource the opinions of the people are generally similar to what the mediaportrays things to be (Shaller, 2006). The media tends to portray men as themore active in sports and more physically strong compare to women, thisreflects in the way news frames portray women and men differently. The media is very biased in a country likeIndia the media of India shows only what it wants to show without a properunderstanding about the actual problems people are facing in Indian societytoday like gender biases in sport.
Women in a country like India are also doingwell but the media never shows success stories of women this due to themindsets of people living in India which is very stereotypical and does notallow women to do something of their choice. In the second chapter of the thesis which is the review of literature Ilooked into the feminist theory, which says men and women should be treatedequally or on par in all spheres of life and society. I also looked into therise of the Indian male cricketer which began as soon as Indian got a nationalcricket team in 1947 and continues tilltoday.
I further look into the Indian women cricketer in the eyes of the mediawhich portrays women and female athletes as very subservient and weak in theeyes of the media and society. I thenlooked into stereotyping of Indian women in sport which again shows women asweaker sex in terms of body image and attitude. I then analysed whether theBoard of Control for Cricket in India is supporting our women cricketers enoughfrom the literature reviewed it shows the board is not doing enough for itswomen cricketers there is no female member on the board as of today andtraining does not begin at the grassroot level for the woman cricketers ascompared to their male counterparts. Most of studies cited in this thesis pointout that there is a gender biases in Women’s sport and the media plays a bigrole in adding to that gender biases. In this chapter I lay out the methodologyfor the dissertation. As Ayres(2008) points out the media plays a big role in shaping the public opinion ofthe viewers and the media is channel of information and understanding to thepeople to perceive and formulate ideas about our society.
The Indian media inthe context to women’s cricket has been very harsh and prejudice. This is due to many reasons the first beingIndia a Patriarchal society which has influenced all aspects of society themedia and sport being at the core. As Kotekar (2013) points out even thoughmany women athletes in India have made a name for themselves our society doesnot encourage women to participate in sports from a young age.
Due to thisreason India does not see many Women athletes take up sport at a national andinternational level. As Fountaine, & McGregor point out even though manyads and tv shows are being made portraying women’s empowerment they are alwaysframed in a way that make them boring or news worthy for the viewers (2001).This in itself tells us that the India media always portrays women in a less newsworthy or less interesting light.
Our Indian media has never given decentcoverage to women’s cricket per say. As Nicely (2007) points out due to theunder representation of women athletes and cricketer’s in the Indian media theaudience also perceive women sports as not so important compare to maleathletes and cricketers. I will analyse videos of how the media frames womencricketers differently. I will use the visual analysis for my methodology as itwill help me understand the hidden meaning in the videos that I will beanalysing as my data. As FitzGerald Elizabeth (2012) explains media videos havehidden meaning in them often subtle but containing a very important messagepertaining to society in a big way.
Visual analysis includes language and wordsused by the reporters and the anchors in the media. Visual analysis alsoincudes the guests on the show, the time slots given to the media show and alsothe different camera angles used by the media. I will analyse all the aspectsand see how NDTV and India Today frame the coverage given tothe men’s cricket world cup 2015, and the women’s cricket world cup differently.
India Today was previously known asHeadlines Today the time the broadcasting of the 2015 men’s cricket world cupwas going on. I will analyse how both the channels frame the men and women’scricket differently. I will be analysing the language and words used by theguests on the show, the time slots on the shows the camera angles and theguests on the show. Kirk Hallahan (1999)defines framing as to frame is to select some aspects of perceived reality andmake them more salient in the communicating text, in such a way as to promote aparticular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and/ortreatment recommendation for the item descend. Frames define common problemsand are portrayed on the television to influence media viewers to watch moretelevision. The whole idea of framing is to hype and portray an elongated viewof the reality which sometimes might be true and sometimes might also be false.Frames differ from culture to culture. As Karen Ayres (2008) points out themedia frames certain issues in a certain way so that the media selects certainstories for public viewership, and the media also shapes how the publicconsiders an issue.
Framing theory is anatural extension of agenda setting theory that in the sense it depends on themedia’s power to influence public opinion. Ayres (2008) states that when themedia focus on a dominant set of characteristics about a given object,consumers focus on those characteristics when considering the situation. Whichmeans what the media focuses on gives more importance to and the publicinterprets that in their own way. In my thesis to analyse the data I will usethe ‘Valence frame’ which attributes a thing or a group as good or bad by themedia. I will also use the ‘fairness and equality frame’ which try tounderstand whether a particular social group for e.
g. whether women are givenequal identity by the media. I will also use the ‘cultural identity frame’which frames certain cultural values by the media for e.g. India being apatriarchal society the media reinforces that by not giving good enoughcoverage to women athletes who are doing well in sports.
In my thesis I will analyse the way the mediaframes Indian women cricketers in different situations on and off the field,the way the media frames certain attributes of India Women cricketers, the waythe media frames certain choices Indian women cricketers make, the way themedia frames the actions of the women cricketers and I will also analysecertain issues in regard to the way media portray India women cricketers ascompare to their male counter parts. The concept of media framing exhibits areporter and editor’s choice as to what aspect of the story should or shouldnot be emphasized says (Shaller, 2006). As Shaller (2006) points out mostsports shows on television have a target audience who are males and areportrayed as strong and masculine who are winners, whereas women are notportrayed as strong by the media that is why the target audience are men whothink of themselves as winners by the media which is not actually true.
Themedia in India does portray a very patriarchal approach when it comes to womenathletes in our country. The media is just a mirror to the actual realitiesfaced by millions of women athletes in India. Since individuals can have biasesthis can also impact the framing. if the editor of a reputed media firm hasseveral biases towards women in sports there will be less shows on the channelfeaturing women in sport.
Framing is the best approach for my study I will beanalyse all the attributes through framing which will give a betterunderstanding as to how the media frames Indian women cricketers which for theviewers. The media works on the television rating point (TRP) which means howmany viewers tune in to watch a particular show at a particular time. The mediato get more TRP’s portrays more male athletes in winning positions. Womenathletes winning does not get as much TRP’s as men winning according to (Crick,2007). The media is a profit making business and wants more viewership at theend of the day. The more TRP’s the more money the media house will generate andmore revenue comes in into further developing business prospects for the futureof the media channel.
As Ayres, (2008) says that news stories mustselect certain aspects of reality and emphasize those issues to convey thestory. Analysing all the frames willhelp me investigate how the gender bias is framed in the Indian media. TheIndian media is a complex structure which requires time to understand how itworks the Indian media itself is male dominated in nature with less femalejournalists as anchors of prime-time news shows. I will be analysing how NDTV and India Today framedthe ICC cricket world cup 2015 which was the men’s world cup in Australia andNew Zealand, and the 2017 ICC women’s cricket world cup 2017 which was for the women and was held in Englandand Wales in 2017. The Indian media in itself does not give to much importanceto sports the broadcast coverage on both NDTVand India Today saw a veryminimal amount of shows for the women’s cricket world cup.
Since framing will be applied as thetheoretical framework for my dissertation I will be analysing videos on thecoverage of both NDTV and India Today particularly how they frame the women cricketers to thegeneral public. The time frame of the men’s cricket world cup was February 14to March 29 2015 and which was played in Australia and New Zealand. The Indianmen’s cricket team reached the semi-finals of the world cup and lost againstAustralia. NDTV and India Today both the media channels fromIndia had sent journalists from India to cover the entire Indian teamscampaign. Whereas the women’s cricket world cup was held from 24 June to 23July 2017 in England and Wales.
The Indian women’s cricket team reached thefinal against England but lost the match. Journalists from both NDTV and India Today were only sent when India reached the finals of women’scricket world cup no journalist was sent to cover the entire campaign of thewomen’s world cup. Framing will help me understand how the media puts forward certain things to the generalpublic. By doing so I will be able to analyse the amount of gender biases andstereotyping that are present in the Indian media at large. I will be analysingthe entire campaigns of the men’s and women’s cricket world cup respectively.
Iwill analyse the words, gesture and the way the news presenter analyses cricketdifferently for the different sexes. the way the media portrays men and womencricketer’s differently through the camera. Framing theory will help mestrengthen my findings on the gender biases that are present in the Indianmedia. The scenes that will be analysedunder my data will be both on and of the field they will include interviewswith players, fans and family also I will analyse the studio setting how thereporters cover the event. To substantiate my argument, I will find a positiveco-relation that there are gender biases in the Indian media between thereviewed literature and the data. The framing theory is best suited tounderstand how the media puts things forward to the public. The media also hascertain targets deadlines and biases which are discussed in the news roombeforehand and contributes a lot to how the media will frame a news show,Interview or news segment.