Chapter 3 Research Methodology Introduction This chapter

Chapter 3
Research Methodology
Introduction
This chapter, based on conclusions like literature review, presents research methodology that has been chosen to answer research questions for this study based on set research objectives.
Various factors influence method that a researcher chooses for their study. These include researcher’s belief, nature like research problem, status like scientific research ; theories, if there are any relevant to problem. When purpose like a research is to test a theory, or to identify or predict factors that would influence an outcome, then it is usually better to use a quantitative approach. Based on these findings, quantitative approach was chosen that preferred methodology for this study.
Research methodology plays significant role in research study. Various factors influence method that a researcher chooses for their study. These include researcher’s belief, nature like research problem, status like scientific research & theories, if there are any relevant to problem. When purpose like a research is to test a theory, or to identify or predict factors that would influence an outcome, then it is usually better to use a quantitative approach. Based on these findings, quantitative approach was chosen that preferred methodology for this study.

3.1 Research Problem
Supply Chain Quality Management .
SCQM is the coordination & integration like supply chain business processes to measure, analyze & continually improve products, services, & processes with the purposes like creating value & achieving satisfaction like intermediate & ultimate customers in the business & market.

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3.2 Research Philosophy
Quantitative research is “empirical research where data is usually in form like numbers”, it tends to involve large scale & representative sets like data which is often thought to be a gathering like facts. Quantitative researches can be used to measure & examine relationships among various factors in a model or frame-work. This study is intended to study Supply Chain Quality Management.
3.3 Hypothesized Research Model
An hypothesis can be testing a concept or it can be developed that a result like study:
• A testing hypothesis is one that can be tested, meaning you can measure both what is being done (variables) & the outcome.
• A tested hypothesis can be tested with the help like research
3.4 Research Hypotheses
1. Research hypothesis is considered that a statement made by researchers when they speculate on the results like a research or experiment. Ho- Quality not put any impact on the supply chain management.
1. H1- Quality always impact on supply chain management.
2. Ho – Quality plays no significant role in improving process like supply chain management.
H1-Quality plays vital role in improving the supply chain management.

3.5 Research Design
The research design contains plan for “collection, measurement & analysis like data” that will enable researcher to answer their research questions & meet research objectives. It is usually objective that each researcher is different & therefore preferred research methods vary from one researcher to another. The research is quantitative & descriptive in nature. Both primary & secondary data sources have been collected.

3.6 Need For Research
” Low Price & High Quality Along With Jit Concept”

• Cost reduction
• Transportation
• Time reduction
• Human resource
• Safety like product
• Information technology
• Logistics

3.7 RESEARCH GAP
• QM plays important role in success like modern advanced management. Approaches such that six sigma, JITs & supply chain management.
• The researcher will study the importance like quality management & its relation with the supply chain management with reference to Gautam Buddha Nagar.

3.7.1 NATURE like RESEARH
Quantitative study has used structured questionnaire to collect response from population. In Quantitative research use like sampling techniques is made such that consumer surveys where findings may be expressed in numeric form & are amenable to mathematical manipulation enabling researcher to estimate future events or quantities. Quantitative survey researchers share excitement that conclusions they would draw from analyzing data would be credible, objective, & reliable. At least, that is what they expect.

3.7.2 CHALLENGES IN RESEARCH
Different type like threats can occur during any stage within research process that can compromise validity to study. Content validity is degree to which survey instrument items are relevant & representative like construct they intended to measure. Criterion validity needs thoroughly testing instrument by comparing values inferred from test to criterion values actually observed or by correlating those values with other measures like similar behavior. Construct validity is ambit to that survey instrument is free from measurement errors & it addresses representativeness like scale, appropriateness like items, & carefulness like their articulation.

3.8 Research Objective
1. To study that how quality management improves the process like supply chain management.
2. What are the causes like failure like supply chain management
3 To study the impact like quality on supply chain management

3.9 Methodology

• The researcher will use both primary & secondary data.
• Primary data-questionnaire to be filled by the employees & employer
• Secondary data-journals, articles, research papers & websites.

The researcher will also use the technique to find out the causes like failure like supply chain management with reference to quality

3.10 Chapterization

1. Introduction
2. Review like literature
3. Issues & challenges
4. Methodology
5. Results & discussion
6. Summary

3.11Questionnaire Reliability & Validity

Research are often very disappointed when questionnaires or surveys they send out that part like their course have a very low response rate, & this may even affect the validity like their research. It is very important, therefore, that questionnaires be well prepared & well constructed in order to minimize non-response.
Our considerations during questionnaire preparation to make it valid & reliable
? Keep the questionnaire that short that possible: Most like the people are busy. If questionnaire is long & complicated, it will greatly lessen the chances like receiving a response.
? Target the questionnaire carefully
We make sure that your questionnaire is completely relevant to the person we are asking to complete it. If they are unable to answer the first few questions, then they are very likely to give up. So we did some research on who would be the most appropriate people to target.
? Use follow-up reminders: Target respondent may have intention like replying, but has got many important things to do to, so a polite reminder was necessary. It was done by email or phone.

3.11.1 QUESTIONNAIRE
This Research is conducted with the authorization like the Noida International University.
Entire work is intended for Academic purpose only no data will be shared or sold there after.
(Please tick responses that appropriate. where necessary tick that many items that you find relevant.)

SECTION A: GENERAL INFORMATION
Section A (i) Demographic information for the Organization

1. Name like the Organization (optional)………………………………

2. Duration that the organization has been in operation

Less than 10 years More than 10 years

3. Number like permanent employees

a). 2– 30 b). 31 – 60 c). 61 – 75 d). Above 75

(Please tick responses that appropriate & where necessary tick that many items that you find relevant.)

Section A (ii): Demographic information like the Respondents

1. What is your current title or position?

a) Supply chain manager

b) c) d)
e)
Assistant supply chain manager

Quality assurance manager

Assistant quality assurance manager

Other (specify)……………………..

2. How long have you worked in your current position?

a) Less than 5 years
b) 5 to 10 years
c) 11 to 15 years
d) Above 15 years
3. How many years have you worked for the organization?

a) Less than 5 years
b) 5 to 10 years
c) 11 to 15 years
d) Above 15 years
4. How do you manage Your Supply chain (Tick all that apply)
1. Close Partnership with supplier
2. Close partnership with customer
3. JIT Supply
4. Out Sourcing
5. E-Procurement
5. What type like system are currently in use in your company
1. Material Requirement Planning
2. Manufacturing Resource Planning
3. Enterprise Resource Planning
4. Warehouse Management System
5. Supply Chain Management
6. Advanced Planning System
7. Just in Time
8. E-Commerce
9. Others

3.11.2 SECTION B: QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES USED BY COMPANIES.
Please indicate the ambit to which you agree with the following statements on the Quality Management Practices used companies. The scale below will be applicable: 1=very small extent, 2= small extent, 3= moderate e extent, 4= Large extent,

No Statement 1 2 3 4
Continuous quality improvement
1 Our organization does not focus that much on creating a corporate

quality culture, but more on the process like quality improvement
2 Our organization attempts to develop a quality system that is never

satisfied
3 Our organization strives for constant innovation to improve work

processes & systems by reducing time-consuming, low value- added activities
4 Our organization focuses on improving processes to enable

companies give customers what they want the first time, every time
5 Our organization ensure effective & efficient supply chain

channels in delivery like value adding goods & services
6 Our organization’s series like standards, define, establish, and

maintain a quality assurance system for our industry
7 Our organization has requirements ; recommendations that

specify how management operations are to be conducted at a company to ensure that quality is the end result.
8 Our organization conforms to a specification that sets standards for

companies to follow by ensuring that quality is achieved
9 Our organization uses Just-in-Time to focus on rapid throughput as

well that reducing inventory to provide improvements on operations
10 Our organization has a continuing process like measuring products,

services, ; practices against your strongest competitors

3.11.3 SECTION C (i): QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ; SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE

Please indicate the ambit to which you concur with the following statements concerning the relationship that exists between quality management practices ; supply chain performance like large scale manufacturing firms in Kenya. Using the following rating; 4 = Large extent, 3 = Moderate extent, 2 = Small extent, 1 = Very small extent

1 Our organisation rely on few dependable suppliers
2 Our organisation consider quality that number one criterion in selecting suppliers
3 Our organisation strive to establish long term relationship with its suppliers
4 Our organisation has continuous improvement programs that include its key suppliers
5 Our organisation regularly solve problems jointly with its suppliers
6 Our organisation frequently interacts with customers to set its reliability, responsiveness, ; other standards
7 Our organisation frequently measures ; evaluates customer satisfaction
8 Our organisation’s trading partners keep your organisation fully
informed about issues that affect its business
9 Our organisation has continuous quality improvement program
10 Our supply chain members are actively involved in standardizing supply chain practices & operations
11 Firms in our supply chain establish more frequent contact with each
Other
12 Our firm participates in the marketing efforts like its customers
13 Your organisation’s goods are stored at appropriate distribution
points close to customers in the supply chain
14 Our supply chain members share risks ; rewards
15 Our organisation streamlines ordering, receiving ; other paper
work from its suppliers
16 How Successful do you think is your company in managing supply chain in general

3.11.4 SECTION C (ii): SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE (MARKET SHARE)

The following measures give an indication like the large manufacturing firms’ supply chain performance. In a scale like 1 – 4 please indicate the ambit like the manufacturing firms’ market share. Using the following rating; 4 = Large extent, 3 = Moderate extent, 2 = Small extent, 1 = Very small extent

Supply Chain Performance 1 2 3 4
Increase in customer loyalty
Increase in profitability
Pricing

3.12 Data Collection
Data collection is considered that a process like gathering ; measuring information for targeted variables in systematic way that will enables to answer the relevant questions ; evaluate outcomes. Survey is a popular form like data collection when we gather information from large groups. Surveys may be constructed in many ways, but they always consist like two components:

? Questions
? Responses

We have prepared the questions regarding Impact like mCRM in business sector ; made survey to get responses. Data Collected has been stored in a database in organized manner where Feedback from customers s, employees has been stored. Most like the questions are objective type have 4 option (yes, no, does not matter, cannot say).
3.12.1 DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Data collection is considered that a process like gathering ; measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer relevant questions ; evaluate outcomes. Data collection component like research is common to all fields like study including physical ; social sciences, humanities ; business. While methods vary by discipline, emphasis on ensuring accurate ; honest collection remains same. Goal for all data collection is to capture quality evidence that then translates to rich data analysis ; allows building like a convincing ; credible answer to questions that have been posed.
3.12.2 IMPORTANCE like DATA COLLECTION
Regardless like field like study or preference for defining data either quantitative or qualitative, accurate data collection is essential to maintaining integrity like research. Both selection like appropriate data collection instruments existing, modified, or newly developed ; clearly delineated instructions for their correct use reduce likelihood like errors occurring. A formal data collection process is necessary that it ensures that data gathered are both defined ; accurate ; that subsequent decisions based on arguments embodied in findings are valid. Process provides both a baseline from which to measure ; in certain cases a target on what to improve. In this research two methods are adopted for collecting data. They are primary ; secondary data.

3.12.3 PRIMARY DATA
Primary data was collected with an aid like a Questionnaire. Questionnaire contains a series like questions arranged in a proper order. Questionnaire was made in order to collect data regarding SCM ; Quality
3.12.3 SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data analysis may save lot like time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in case like quantitative data, can provide larger ; higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own.
Secondary data can be obtained from different sources:
1. Information collected through censuses or government departments like housing, social security, electoral statistics, tax records
2. Internet searches or libraries
3. Progress reports
In addition, analysts like social ; economic change consider secondary data essential, since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or developments. Secondary data was collected from internet, articles from scholarly journals ; books
3.13 Data Analysis
Analysis like data is a process like inspecting, cleaning, transforming, ; modeling data with goal like discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, ; supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets ; approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety like names, in different business, science, ; social science domains.
Analysis means breaking a whole into its separate components for individual examination. Data analysis is a process for obtaining raw data ; converting it into information useful for decision-making by users. Data is collected ; analyzed to answer questions, test hypotheses or disprove theories. There are several phases that can be distinguished, described below.

DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Survey System includes most commonly used survey statistics that includes following techniques:
1. Percents
2. Medians
3. Means
4. Standard Deviations
5. Standard Errors
6. Chi-squares
7. Differences between Proportions
8. t-tests
Advanced Statistics Module adds following techniques:
1. ANOVA – Analysis like Variance (One-way, Two-way, Repeated Measures)
2. Correlation (Pearson ; Partial)
3. Multiple Regression (Standard ; Stepwise)
4. Descriptive Statistics

Chapter 3
Research Methodology
Introduction
This chapter, based on conclusions like literature review, presents research methodology that has been chosen to answer research questions for this study based on set research objectives.
Various factors influence method that a researcher chooses for their study. These include researcher’s belief, nature like research problem, status like scientific research ; theories, if there are any relevant to problem. When purpose like a research is to test a theory, or to identify or predict factors that would influence an outcome, then it is usually better to use a quantitative approach. Based on these findings, quantitative approach was chosen that preferred methodology for this study.
Research methodology plays significant role in research study. Various factors influence method that a researcher chooses for their study. These include researcher’s belief, nature like research problem, status like scientific research & theories, if there are any relevant to problem. When purpose like a research is to test a theory, or to identify or predict factors that would influence an outcome, then it is usually better to use a quantitative approach. Based on these findings, quantitative approach was chosen that preferred methodology for this study.

3.1 Research Problem
Supply Chain Quality Management .
SCQM is the coordination & integration like supply chain business processes to measure, analyze & continually improve products, services, & processes with the purposes like creating value & achieving satisfaction like intermediate & ultimate customers in the business & market.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

3.2 Research Philosophy
Quantitative research is “empirical research where data is usually in form like numbers”, it tends to involve large scale & representative sets like data which is often thought to be a gathering like facts. Quantitative researches can be used to measure & examine relationships among various factors in a model or frame-work. This study is intended to study Supply Chain Quality Management.
3.3 Hypothesized Research Model
An hypothesis can be testing a concept or it can be developed that a result like study:
• A testing hypothesis is one that can be tested, meaning you can measure both what is being done (variables) & the outcome.
• A tested hypothesis can be tested with the help like research
3.4 Research Hypotheses
1. Research hypothesis is considered that a statement made by researchers when they speculate on the results like a research or experiment. Ho- Quality not put any impact on the supply chain management.
1. H1- Quality always impact on supply chain management.
2. Ho – Quality plays no significant role in improving process like supply chain management.
H1-Quality plays vital role in improving the supply chain management.

3.5 Research Design
The research design contains plan for “collection, measurement & analysis like data” that will enable researcher to answer their research questions & meet research objectives. It is usually objective that each researcher is different & therefore preferred research methods vary from one researcher to another. The research is quantitative & descriptive in nature. Both primary & secondary data sources have been collected.

3.6 Need For Research
” Low Price & High Quality Along With Jit Concept”

• Cost reduction
• Transportation
• Time reduction
• Human resource
• Safety like product
• Information technology
• Logistics

3.7 RESEARCH GAP
• QM plays important role in success like modern advanced management. Approaches such that six sigma, JITs & supply chain management.
• The researcher will study the importance like quality management & its relation with the supply chain management with reference to Gautam Buddha Nagar.

3.7.1 NATURE like RESEARH
Quantitative study has used structured questionnaire to collect response from population. In Quantitative research use like sampling techniques is made such that consumer surveys where findings may be expressed in numeric form & are amenable to mathematical manipulation enabling researcher to estimate future events or quantities. Quantitative survey researchers share excitement that conclusions they would draw from analyzing data would be credible, objective, & reliable. At least, that is what they expect.

3.7.2 CHALLENGES IN RESEARCH
Different type like threats can occur during any stage within research process that can compromise validity to study. Content validity is degree to which survey instrument items are relevant & representative like construct they intended to measure. Criterion validity needs thoroughly testing instrument by comparing values inferred from test to criterion values actually observed or by correlating those values with other measures like similar behavior. Construct validity is ambit to that survey instrument is free from measurement errors & it addresses representativeness like scale, appropriateness like items, & carefulness like their articulation.

3.8 Research Objective
1. To study that how quality management improves the process like supply chain management.
2. What are the causes like failure like supply chain management
3 To study the impact like quality on supply chain management

3.9 Methodology

• The researcher will use both primary & secondary data.
• Primary data-questionnaire to be filled by the employees & employer
• Secondary data-journals, articles, research papers & websites.

The researcher will also use the technique to find out the causes like failure like supply chain management with reference to quality

3.10 Chapterization

1. Introduction
2. Review like literature
3. Issues & challenges
4. Methodology
5. Results & discussion
6. Summary

3.11Questionnaire Reliability & Validity

Research are often very disappointed when questionnaires or surveys they send out that part like their course have a very low response rate, & this may even affect the validity like their research. It is very important, therefore, that questionnaires be well prepared & well constructed in order to minimize non-response.
Our considerations during questionnaire preparation to make it valid & reliable
? Keep the questionnaire that short that possible: Most like the people are busy. If questionnaire is long & complicated, it will greatly lessen the chances like receiving a response.
? Target the questionnaire carefully
We make sure that your questionnaire is completely relevant to the person we are asking to complete it. If they are unable to answer the first few questions, then they are very likely to give up. So we did some research on who would be the most appropriate people to target.
? Use follow-up reminders: Target respondent may have intention like replying, but has got many important things to do to, so a polite reminder was necessary. It was done by email or phone.

3.11.1 QUESTIONNAIRE
This Research is conducted with the authorization like the Noida International University.
Entire work is intended for Academic purpose only no data will be shared or sold there after.
(Please tick responses that appropriate. where necessary tick that many items that you find relevant.)

SECTION A: GENERAL INFORMATION
Section A (i) Demographic information for the Organization

1. Name like the Organization (optional)………………………………

2. Duration that the organization has been in operation

Less than 10 years More than 10 years

3. Number like permanent employees

a). 2– 30 b). 31 – 60 c). 61 – 75 d). Above 75

(Please tick responses that appropriate & where necessary tick that many items that you find relevant.)

Section A (ii): Demographic information like the Respondents

1. What is your current title or position?

a) Supply chain manager

b) c) d)
e)
Assistant supply chain manager

Quality assurance manager

Assistant quality assurance manager

Other (specify)……………………..

2. How long have you worked in your current position?

a) Less than 5 years
b) 5 to 10 years
c) 11 to 15 years
d) Above 15 years
3. How many years have you worked for the organization?

a) Less than 5 years
b) 5 to 10 years
c) 11 to 15 years
d) Above 15 years
4. How do you manage Your Supply chain (Tick all that apply)
1. Close Partnership with supplier
2. Close partnership with customer
3. JIT Supply
4. Out Sourcing
5. E-Procurement
5. What type like system are currently in use in your company
1. Material Requirement Planning
2. Manufacturing Resource Planning
3. Enterprise Resource Planning
4. Warehouse Management System
5. Supply Chain Management
6. Advanced Planning System
7. Just in Time
8. E-Commerce
9. Others

3.11.2 SECTION B: QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES USED BY COMPANIES.
Please indicate the ambit to which you agree with the following statements on the Quality Management Practices used companies. The scale below will be applicable: 1=very small extent, 2= small extent, 3= moderate e extent, 4= Large extent,

No Statement 1 2 3 4
Continuous quality improvement
1 Our organization does not focus that much on creating a corporate

quality culture, but more on the process like quality improvement
2 Our organization attempts to develop a quality system that is never

satisfied
3 Our organization strives for constant innovation to improve work

processes & systems by reducing time-consuming, low value- added activities
4 Our organization focuses on improving processes to enable

companies give customers what they want the first time, every time
5 Our organization ensure effective & efficient supply chain

channels in delivery like value adding goods & services
6 Our organization’s series like standards, define, establish, and

maintain a quality assurance system for our industry
7 Our organization has requirements ; recommendations that

specify how management operations are to be conducted at a company to ensure that quality is the end result.
8 Our organization conforms to a specification that sets standards for

companies to follow by ensuring that quality is achieved
9 Our organization uses Just-in-Time to focus on rapid throughput as

well that reducing inventory to provide improvements on operations
10 Our organization has a continuing process like measuring products,

services, ; practices against your strongest competitors

3.11.3 SECTION C (i): QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ; SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE

Please indicate the ambit to which you concur with the following statements concerning the relationship that exists between quality management practices ; supply chain performance like large scale manufacturing firms in Kenya. Using the following rating; 4 = Large extent, 3 = Moderate extent, 2 = Small extent, 1 = Very small extent

1 Our organisation rely on few dependable suppliers
2 Our organisation consider quality that number one criterion in selecting suppliers
3 Our organisation strive to establish long term relationship with its suppliers
4 Our organisation has continuous improvement programs that include its key suppliers
5 Our organisation regularly solve problems jointly with its suppliers
6 Our organisation frequently interacts with customers to set its reliability, responsiveness, ; other standards
7 Our organisation frequently measures ; evaluates customer satisfaction
8 Our organisation’s trading partners keep your organisation fully
informed about issues that affect its business
9 Our organisation has continuous quality improvement program
10 Our supply chain members are actively involved in standardizing supply chain practices & operations
11 Firms in our supply chain establish more frequent contact with each
Other
12 Our firm participates in the marketing efforts like its customers
13 Your organisation’s goods are stored at appropriate distribution
points close to customers in the supply chain
14 Our supply chain members share risks ; rewards
15 Our organisation streamlines ordering, receiving ; other paper
work from its suppliers
16 How Successful do you think is your company in managing supply chain in general

3.11.4 SECTION C (ii): SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE (MARKET SHARE)

The following measures give an indication like the large manufacturing firms’ supply chain performance. In a scale like 1 – 4 please indicate the ambit like the manufacturing firms’ market share. Using the following rating; 4 = Large extent, 3 = Moderate extent, 2 = Small extent, 1 = Very small extent

Supply Chain Performance 1 2 3 4
Increase in customer loyalty
Increase in profitability
Pricing

3.12 Data Collection
Data collection is considered that a process like gathering ; measuring information for targeted variables in systematic way that will enables to answer the relevant questions ; evaluate outcomes. Survey is a popular form like data collection when we gather information from large groups. Surveys may be constructed in many ways, but they always consist like two components:

? Questions
? Responses

We have prepared the questions regarding Impact like mCRM in business sector ; made survey to get responses. Data Collected has been stored in a database in organized manner where Feedback from customers s, employees has been stored. Most like the questions are objective type have 4 option (yes, no, does not matter, cannot say).
3.12.1 DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Data collection is considered that a process like gathering ; measuring information on targeted variables in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer relevant questions ; evaluate outcomes. Data collection component like research is common to all fields like study including physical ; social sciences, humanities ; business. While methods vary by discipline, emphasis on ensuring accurate ; honest collection remains same. Goal for all data collection is to capture quality evidence that then translates to rich data analysis ; allows building like a convincing ; credible answer to questions that have been posed.
3.12.2 IMPORTANCE like DATA COLLECTION
Regardless like field like study or preference for defining data either quantitative or qualitative, accurate data collection is essential to maintaining integrity like research. Both selection like appropriate data collection instruments existing, modified, or newly developed ; clearly delineated instructions for their correct use reduce likelihood like errors occurring. A formal data collection process is necessary that it ensures that data gathered are both defined ; accurate ; that subsequent decisions based on arguments embodied in findings are valid. Process provides both a baseline from which to measure ; in certain cases a target on what to improve. In this research two methods are adopted for collecting data. They are primary ; secondary data.

3.12.3 PRIMARY DATA
Primary data was collected with an aid like a Questionnaire. Questionnaire contains a series like questions arranged in a proper order. Questionnaire was made in order to collect data regarding SCM ; Quality
3.12.3 SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data analysis may save lot like time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in case like quantitative data, can provide larger ; higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own.
Secondary data can be obtained from different sources:
1. Information collected through censuses or government departments like housing, social security, electoral statistics, tax records
2. Internet searches or libraries
3. Progress reports
In addition, analysts like social ; economic change consider secondary data essential, since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or developments. Secondary data was collected from internet, articles from scholarly journals ; books
3.13 Data Analysis
Analysis like data is a process like inspecting, cleaning, transforming, ; modeling data with goal like discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, ; supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets ; approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety like names, in different business, science, ; social science domains.
Analysis means breaking a whole into its separate components for individual examination. Data analysis is a process for obtaining raw data ; converting it into information useful for decision-making by users. Data is collected ; analyzed to answer questions, test hypotheses or disprove theories. There are several phases that can be distinguished, described below.

DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
Survey System includes most commonly used survey statistics that includes following techniques:
1. Percents
2. Medians
3. Means
4. Standard Deviations
5. Standard Errors
6. Chi-squares
7. Differences between Proportions
8. t-tests
Advanced Statistics Module adds following techniques:
1. ANOVA – Analysis like Variance (One-way, Two-way, Repeated Measures)
2. Correlation (Pearson ; Partial)
3. Multiple Regression (Standard ; Stepwise)
4. Descriptive Statistics

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