CHAPTER 3 : TRAINING ACTIVITY
3.1 MEASUREMENT OF MATERIALS
Measurement is the process by which the size of the building items is taken from the drawings that have been prepared and recorded in the paper. These measurements are then multiplied and totalled to obtain the quantities in the set units. Because each calculation for a project is based on the units and building materials used to determine the cost-to be issued.
The primary use of the measurement works is to provide a list of quantities and it is to determine projects that are carried out in accordance with established standards . It is also to provide a rough estimate of the construction cost of a construction project.
For a project that will be implemented and has been provided by the State Government, it should provide plans for the building proposal to make it easier to know the actual costs required. Provided resources planning and allocation to evaluate reports of progress payments and construction work amendments for repayment process to developers or contractors.
3.1.1 Quotation / Tender Form (Specification size)
In this department, it is usually used to measure this building material to determine the size of the contractor’s compliance or non-specs made by the engineer for a project. For example, the measurements made at the start of a project set by the assistant engineer in the quotation or tender form should be measured first to determine the size that needs to be corrected or upgraded.
The contractor should make the building according to the predetermined size. This is because the measurements made prior to the construction work commenced are in accordance with the provisions agreed by both parties, the Jelebu District Council and the contractors who have been selected to build the construction.
3.2 Specification / Type of Equipment Used
Equipment used to measure the progress of a project are various types and ways to measure the building materials before the project is in progress or is already in progress. Student can also measure the progress of a project by measuring the given specification.
3.2.1 Wheel measuring tape
A measuring wheel, formally called a surveyor’s wheel, is a construction measuring tool. The origin of the measuring wheel dates back the 17th Century alongside the evolution of the odometer. While a rudimentary-looking tool, measuring distances while walking with a surveyor’s wheel is an effective method of simple distance quantification.
In modern times, the surveyor’s wheel is primarily used for just that – surveying. Generally, a measuring wheel is constructed using an aluminum (or other metal) body and solid or pneumatic tires. As you walk, you push or pull the device alongside. The wheel rotates and, using basic rotational kinematics (s=r?), you can determine the distance between two points.
The more flat the surface being traveled along, the more accurate your measurement will be. Elevation changes, rough or soft terrain, or ground debris can affect the measurement. Accurate surveyors will compensate for such circumstances by estimating or using surveyor’s tape. Measuring wheels are used largely used for lower accuracy measurements – which is to say, they’re used to get idea of how long a given distance is or used for distances where surveyor’s tape alone would be impractical.
Figure x.xx Wheel Measuring Tape
How to Use a Measuring Wheel
Make sure the wheel surface is clean. Any dirt or loose impediments can affect the measurement. The length is based upon the wheel’s rotation.
Place the tool exactly where the measurement starts. Rotation is proportional to length, so it’s important to keep starting and ending points precise.
As you walk, keep a steady pace. Changing pace can affect the wheel’s rotation.
When you reach your ending point, pick the device up. This avoids any further wheel rotation.
Wheel Measuring tape is a great tool for long distance measurement in a hurry. Some people call the wheels to measure the wheel distance “footage” or “distance calculator wheel”. These tools are very good to estimate:
i. opening of a project,
ii. building size, fence estimation,
iii. utility contracts
iv. other uses when remote measurements are needed quickly
Figure x.xx Shows readings taken of a wheel measuring tape
3.2.2 Laser Measuring Tape
The class 2 Distance Laser Meter Distance Measuring Tool is a digital measuring instrument used to measure the distance, length, area and volume of a site or site construction site. This lithium meter tool is a small-sized measuring instrument that uses high-tech laser beams from up to 250 meters in length to measure distance / length, height, and width.
Figure X.xx: Distance Meter Laser DLE 70 Professional
This laser measuring tape is also used to measure high building materials to determine the distance needed. For example, for a multi-purpose housing project or want to measure the height of the ladder, the walls and the distance of the roof to the base of the floor surface.These laser technology distance gauges are always used by engineers for their needs, real estate development projects such as square meters, stadiums, bus stops and large projects.
The laser measuring device directly measures the horizontal or vertical distance by pressing one button, in almost all light conditions. The internal leveling function ensures accurate measurement, and innovative features such as the laser distance measurement mode activated for awkward position making this laser tape measure the most useful laser measuring device.
3.2.3 Steel or Plastic Measuring Tape
Measuring tape is usually a type of steel or plastic measuring 2 meters to 8 meters(steel) and up 50 meters for plastic measuring tape.This tool is to be used for the work of measuring longer lengths than steel ruler. Also, can measure the height and length and width of something such as measuring height, height of brick width or space according to the standard set.
Figure x.xx shows a plastic measuring tape used at Jelebu District Counsil
This measuring tape also consists of a cloth tape, plastic, or metal with an elongated mark. It is a common measurement tool that is often used. Its flexibility allows a large distance meter to be easily carried in a pocket or hardware box and allows the size to be taken at the corners and. Nowadays this tape can be found everywhere, even as a mini form as a key holder. There are two types of measuring tape that are both closed and open long tape in glass fibre or nylon coated steel tape. When measuring long distance glass fibre tape for maximum tensile strength.
3.2.4 Measurement Of Tar Thickness (Thickness Test)
To measure the tar of the paved road by using a machine that cuts a bit of tar that has been paved to get the thickness of the tar.
Figurex.xx: Testing the paved tar thickness
The process of testing the tar thickness is done on average to ensure that the paved tar fails or passes according to the thickness determined by the engineer. The measurements taken will vary according to the thickness due to the position and surface of the land or the original tar of the road resulting in the unpaved tar quantities.
Figure x.xx Measures taken using steel measuring tape
3.2.5 Tape Accuracy
When it comes to precision work, tape accuracy is a key factor and is determined by standards set by the European Committee, which divide the category in three classes according to their level of accuracy.
EC Class I: they are the most accurate tape measures on the market. They tend to be slightly more expensive than the average DIY tool, but are perfect for professional work where precision is not something to compromise on. The maximum error expected in class I tapes is of 1.1 mm in 10 meters – 0,001 % of margin.
EC Class II: slightly less accurate than class one, but still significantly more precise than the average commercial tape and suitable for all uses and pockets. The maximum error expected over 10 meters total length is 2.30 millimetres – slightly more than the 0.002%.
EC Class III: the least accurate on the scale, therefore they might be preferred where a difference of a few millimetres does not make a difference on the overall result and does not impact the stability or the safety of the project. The maximum margin of error on a 10 metres long measure is 4.60 millimetres – 0.004 % difference.
Deviation ± mm over total length
Length Class I Class II Class III
2m 0.30 0.70 1.40
3m 0.40 0.90 1.80
5m 0.60 1.30 2.60
8m 0.90 1.90 3.80
10m 1.10 2.30 4.60
All of the tapes and instrument used at Jelebu District Council are class II. And these instrument are very less accurate when doing works. The most less accurate instrument is the wheel measuring tape. While the most accurate instrument used here is the distant measuring laser. It shows a difference of 0.002% when it is compared to a new distant measuring laser to measure a 10m length.
3.3 ,DATARAN PERTANG CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
On April 2017 ,Minister of Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government, YB Tan Sri Noh bin Omar made a working visit to several areas at Jelebu .He made a proposal to KPKT to have a multi-purpose recreational place so that the community there can use it since there is none at that area. He also suggested to build it by using state government’s land. MDJ started to make designs on the project on July after been approved by KPKT on May. The construction work begins at early of February 2018 after getting land approval from state government .Figure x.xx shows the plan of Dataran Pertang3.3.2 Wall Inspection
As a practical student of UTem, I was given a task by my HOD to my own research and inspections at the Simpang Pertang square construction project. With the guidance of my HOD, he asked me to do a study regarding on type of wall and the specification.
Load Bearing Wall
It carries loads imposed on it from beams and slabs above including its own weight and transfer it to the foundation. These walls supports structural members such as beams, slabs and walls on above floors above. It can be exterior wall or interior wall. It braces from the roof to the floor.
Types of Load Bearing Wall
Precast Concrete Wall
Pre Panelized Load Bearing Metal Stud Walls
Engineering Brick Wall (115mm, 225mm)
As the height of the building increased, required thickness of wall and resulting stress on foundation will also increase and cause it to be uneconomical.
Figure x.xxAble To Carry Other Structure Weight Beside Its Own Weight
Figure x.xx3.3.3 Retaing Wall
Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass laterally so that the soil can be retained at different levels on the two sides. Retaining walls are structures designed to restrain soil to a slope that it would not naturally keep to (typically a steep, near-vertical or vertical slope). They are used to bound soils between two different elevations often in areas of terrain possessing undesirable slopes or in areas where the landscape needs to be shaped severely and engineered for more specific purposes like hillside farming or roadway overpasses. I asked the help of company X to give me data of calculated retaing wall of Simpang Pertang Square. As shown below is the data provided :
RETAINING WALL ANALYSIS (BS 8002:1994)
TEDDS calculation version 1.2.01.06
Retaining wall type : gravity
Height of wall stem; hstem = 3450 mm; Wall stem thickness; twall = 300 mm
Length of toe; ltoe = 3000 mm; Length of heel; lheel = 0 mm
Overall length of base; lbase = 3300 mm; Base thickness; tbase = 450 mm
Height of retaining wall; hwall = 3900 mm
Depth of downstand; dds = 0 mm; Thickness of downstand; tds = 450 mm
Position of downstand; lds = 650 mm
Depth of cover in front of wall; dcover = 0 mm; Unplanned excavation depth; dexc = 0 mm
Height of ground water; hwater = 0 mm; Density of water; gwater = 9.81 kN/m3
Density of wall construction; gwall = 23.6 kN/m3; Density of base construction; gbase = 23.6 kN/m3
Angle of soil surface; b = 0.0 deg; Effective height at back of wall; heff = 3900 mm
Mobilisation factor; M = 1.5
Moist density; gm = 18.0 kN/m3; Saturated density; gs = 21.0 kN/m3
Design shear strength; f’ = 24.2 deg; Angle of wall friction; d = 0.0 degDesign shear strength; f’b = 24.2 deg; Design base friction; db = 18.6 degMoist density; gmb = 18.0 kN/m3; Allowable bearing; Pbearing = 100 kN/m2
Figure x.xx shows ongoing wall construction
3.3.4 Measurement And Inspection Of Retaining Wall
As the task of inspection of the retaining wall is given to student , I need to make sure the contractors build the walls according to drawing . On the 13th August 2018 , HOD and student went to site to inspect it. We found out that the height of the retaining wall is not even due to the site uneven level . Payment to contractors are made based on quantities that has been done by the contractors . The payment of retainig wall is pay RMxx per meter square. Therefore here is the problem :If student take reading from the lowest (height) x length which is 56.4m , the contractor is going to loss a lot of money . it would be unfair to the contractors while benefitting MDJ
If student take reading from the highest (height ) x length which is 56.4 , MDJ will end up paying a lot of extra money to them .it would be unfair to MDJ while benefitting contractors.
After discussing this issue with student’s HOD , he advised to take average height of the wall for every 10 meters . in this way both parties are in win-win situation .
Figure x.xx shows student is taking measurement on the wall with his HOD
3.4 Simpang Pertang Public Toilet.
The public toilet near the “Gerai MDJ Simpang Pertang ” was in bad condition due to vandalism and unusable for a quite a long time. Therefore MDJ had taken the action to renovate the whole toilet building. During student’s internship program , the project was almost 95% competed. Student’s supervisor (HOD) bring him to the site during his second week as his first small project inspection. The HOD give student a small task to student to calculate the surface area of the wall (length x height) which has been painted newly . This is because , payment need to be done based on amount of work done and familiarises the usage of measurement instrument . The main task given was to study about the paint used for this project.
Figure x.xx shows the toilet before the renovation
3.4.2 Latex Emulsion Paint For Exterior And Interior Use
Most people use the term “weather bond paint” or “weather shield paint”. Its correct term used is latex emulsion paint . Latex-based paint is made with water and an acrylic resin binder, which is used to solidify the paint into a film. The binders are now made from synthetic resins of polyvinyl acetate and styrene butadiene as well as other synthetic binders. Latex-based paint is good for general painting projects such as walls and ceilings.
Latex-based paint using vinyl acrylic is the most popular type. Latex paint uses only one binder, called an elastomer, which means that latex paint has a surface that is not hard, but elastic. After latex paint is applied to a wall, it remains flexible, meaning that as the temperature changes the surface can expand or contract. Latex paint is also porous and allows moisture to escape from the paint surface. This was paint used to paint external and internal wall of the toilet. How ever there are few disadvantage.
Disadvantages of latex-based paint include:
1.Not suitable for painting over steel without first using a primer
2.Does not adhere well to dirty or chalky walls
3.Shrinks more than oil-based paint
4.Takes longer to cure than oil-based paint
Figure x.xx shows the project after painted
3.4.3 MS 134:2007
Technical data for type of paint is very different due to type of brand and mixture. Therefore , CIDB has set a standard for paints. The paint that have to use are paints are in accordance with MS 134:2007 specification .
Latex-based paint is as good as oil-based paint, and in many ways is superior to it. Latex-based paint is easier to work with and dries more quickly than oil-based. Its surface is extremely durable and resists scuffs and scratches. Its washability and breathability provides superior adhesion to the painted surface.
3.5 architectural drawing
An architectural drawing or architect’s drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building project) that falls within the definition of architecture. Architectural drawings are used by architects of MDJ for a number of purposes: to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to communicate ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to enable a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work, and to make a record of a building that already exists.
Architectural drawings are made according to a set of conventions, which include particular views (floor plan, section etc.), sheet sizes, units of measurement and scales, annotation and cross referencing. Conventionally, drawings were made in ink on paper or a similar material, and any copies required had to be laboriously made by hand. The twentieth century saw a shift to drawing on tracing paper, so that mechanical copies could be run off efficiently.Today the vast majority of drawings are created using CAD software.
In MDJ, architects will normally provide plans from small project to medium scale projects. For big projects , MDJ will send the plans to a licensed professional for safety measure and verification.
3.5.2 Size and scale
The size of drawings reflects the materials available and the size that is convenient to transport – rolled up or folded, laid out on a table, or pinned up on a wall. The draughting process may impose limitations on the size that is realistically workable. Sizes are determined by a consistent paper size system, according to local usage. Normally the largest paper size used in modern architectural practice is ISO A0 (841 mm × 1,189 mm or 33.1 in × 46.8 in) or Large E size (915 mm × 1,220 mm or 36 in × 48 in).3
Architectural drawings are drawn to scale, so that relative sizes are correctly represented. The scale is chosen both to ensure the whole building will fit on the chosen sheet size, and to show the required amount of detail. At the scale of one eighth of an inch to one foot (1:96) or the metric equivalent 1 to 100, walls are typically shown as simple outlines corresponding to the overall thickness. At a larger scale, half an inch to one foot (1:24) or the nearest common metric equivalent 1 to 20, the layers of different materials that make up the wall construction are shown. Construction details are drawn to a larger scale, in some cases full size (1 to 1 scale).
Scale drawings enable dimensions to be “read” off the drawing. Imperial scales (feet and inches) are equally readable using an ordinary ruler. On a one-eighth inch to one foot scale drawing, the one-eighth divisions on the ruler can be read off as feet. Architects normally use a scale ruler with different scales marked on each edge. A third method, used by builders in estimating, is to measure directly off the drawing and multiply by the scale factor.
Figure x.xx shows student is learning to read the site plan from Mr.Johan3.5.3 site plan
A site plan is a specific type of plan, showing the whole context of a building or group of buildings. A site plan shows property boundaries and means of access to the site, and nearby structures if they are relevant to the design. For a development on an urban site like Jelebu , the site plan may need to show adjoining streets to demonstrate how the design fits into the urban fabric. Within the site boundary, the site plan gives an overview of the entire scope of work. It shows the buildings (if any) already existing and those that are proposed, usually as a building footprint; roads, parking lots, footpaths, hard landscaping, trees and planting. For a construction project, the site plan also needs to show all the services connections: drainage and sewer lines, water supply, electrical and communications cables.
Figure x.xx shows MDJ ‘s architect Mr.Khaizat guiding student for a site plan using autocad 2007
Site plans are commonly used to represent a building proposal prior to detailed design: drawing up a site plan is a tool for deciding both the site layout and the size and orientation of proposed new buildings. A site plan is used to verify that a proposal complies with local development codes, including restrictions on historical sites. In this context the site plan forms part of a legal agreement, and there may be a requirement for it to be drawn up by a licensed professional: architect, engineer, landscape architect or land surveyor.
3.5.4 floor plan
A floor plan is the most fundamental architectural diagram, a view from above showing the arrangement of spaces in building in the same way as a map, but showing the arrangement at a particular level of a building. Technically it is a horizontal section cut through a building (conventionally at four feet / one metre and twenty centimetres above floor level), showing walls, windows and door openings and other features at that level. The plan view includes anything that could be seen below that level: the floor, stairs (but only up to the plan level), fittings and sometimes furniture. Objects above the plan level (e.g. beams overhead) can be indicated as dashed lines.
Figure x.xx shows a floor plan of MDJ made by student with help of Mr.KhaizatGeometrically, plan view is defined as a vertical orthographic projection of an object on to a horizontal plane, with the horizontal plane cutting through the building.
CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
As conclusion, the industrial training is important subject in every studies course. This medium will give a chance to student to be an employee and gain working experience from this training. The industrial training is the best medium to teach student about the real-life working environment. This type of training will give a chance to student to adapt readily to the real-life working environment. In this training, student will practise the right working attitude and hope student can apply this good attitude in the real-life working soon. Industrial training teach student to settling the task on time and settling the task correctly. Informally, this training will teach student to exploit time perfectly to be a good worker.Through this project, student had gain new skills in handling the project and learned how to install the air conditioner unit.
In this industrial training, student try to identify the industrial problems in mechanical system and suggest possible solution based on her knowledge that her had gain from her studies. This possible solution will be considered by the staff to solve those problems. The problem in industrial training will push student to thinking fast to solve the problem and it can help student to handling that problems without pressure. The sewage plant system in UiTM cannot run properly, where the blower in this system is broke down. To solve this problem student had discussed the best solution to solve this problem with staff of BFP and trying to repair it without contractor’s help.
Student hopeful can use all the knowledge and experience that her had gained in this training in her real-life working environment soon. Those knowledge and experience will help student to be a good worker and be a good engineer in mechanical field.
Suggestion to UTeM