CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 1: WHAT POSITIONING IS ALL ABOUT
SUMMARY: The first chapter of the book talks about on how communication being an important instrument to figure out how a message will reach the other party. We have to think about even the smallest message, it will be delivered whether you like it or not. The most essential part in communicating is focusing on the possible candidate than the product itself. With this, the selection process is much easier and uncomplicated. In advertising and marketing, it is important to convey your message clearly and on-point.
CONCEPT: The first chapter of the book talks about positioning.
COMPANY: Happy Skin
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Happy skin’s strengths are positioning their brand as skin care and makeup in one and they use local endorsers to strengthen the company’s name as a local brand. For the weakness, they are not engaging with different promotional platforms to advertise their product which made them not known to some people.

CHAPTER 2: THE ASSAULT ON THE MIND
SUMMARY: The second chapter of the book shows some interesting facts that can be seen that support their argument about an over-communicated world:
– America consumes 57% of the world’s advertising.
– 30,000 books are published in America annually.
– 98% of all American homes have at least one television set.
– The average American family watches television more than 51 hours a week.
– 5,000 new products are introduced into the American market each year.
This shows how using different advertising platforms are important in communicating with consumers to have an effective and convincing message.
CONCEPT: The second chapter of the book talks about communicating using different advertising platforms and how people respond to it.
COMPANY: Ginebra San Miguel
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Ginebra San Miguel is first ever Philippine gin and the largest selling in the world, they use strong marketing communication programs to persuade people to try their products.
They are losing their international assets.

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CHAPTER 3: GETTING INTO THE MIND
SUMMARY: The third chapter of the book talks about how being first into a person’s mind is beneficial for a firm. Having this advantage over competitors will put you in a good position to compete with other products. For example, Coca Cola was the first when it comes to cola; they have this advantage of being number one when it comes to this industry. It is hard for other competitors to keep up and try to beat the top brand.
CONCEPT: The third chapter of the book talks about positioning strategies
COMPANY: Alaska
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Alaska milk is a truly Filipino product and was first manufactured in the Philippines.
High dependency on imported raw materials.

CHAPTER 4: THOSE LITTLE LADDERS IN YOUR HEAD
SUMMARY: The fourth chapter of the book talks about over-communicated world and how people tend to rank brands like using a series of ladders. It is determined by the brand’s equity to consumers and how they positioned their brands. Companies are competing towards each other to get the top spot, but in the end big companies win and the other party lose. The book stated an example for car rental industry, Hertz might be the top of the ladder to some people while Avis is the second and National at the third spot.
CONCEPT: The fourth chapter of the book talks about product category
COMPANY: Datu Puti
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Datu Puti offers a wide range of varieties that makes people buy their products.
They are not engaging with different marketing communication programs that would thrill the consumers.

CHAPTER 5: YOU CAN’T GET THERE FROM HERE
SUMMARY: The fifth chapter of the book states the importance of knowing when to stop trying and when to quit. A company has to face the truth and accept they cannot go anywhere when they are losing the competition. In the book, they used IBM as an example of how to compete against a big company in an industry where competition is really tough. Firms can take this as an advantage where they take the position they already have in the minds of customers, this is the best strategy in this kind of situation.
CONCEPT: The fifth chapter of the book talks about positioning
COMPANY: Lucky Me
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Lucky Me advertises their products well, they already established their brand to the market.
They only have few variants of their products.

CHAPTER 6: POSITIONING OF A LEADER
SUMMARY: The sixth chapter talks about being the number one company with the highest market share in an industry. It is much easier for a firm to stay at the top of the competition when it comes to maintaining your position rather than climbing your way to the top. Being the leading company does not guarantee a permanent position and being complacent towards a competitive field will not work. You will just end up losing the game and lose the things you worked hard for. Firms should understand that the power of the product is the essential part of the firm not the firm towards the product.
CONCEPT: The sixth chapter of the book talks about market leader
COMPANY: Globe Telecom
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Globe Telecom is a market leader in the Philippines when it comes to telecommunications.
Globe has weak wireless signals that harm their brand.

CHAPTER 7: POSITIONING OF A FOLLOWER
SUMMARY: The philosophy “bigger and better” must be avoided. In the book, they called it “Cherchez le creneau”, which means to look for the hole. You must fill that hole to not fall into the trap that you tried to fill to be perceived as better than others. Under market positioning, they are classified as the leader, challenger, follower and nicher.
CONCEPT: The seventh chapter of the book talks about perception
COMPANY: Penshoppe
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Penshoppe is able to expand from designed shirts to clothing lines and even personal care products.
They use international models to have a perception to Filipinos because they tend to think that when a brand is endorsed by international artists, the products are good quality.

CHAPTER 8: REPOSITIONING THE COMPETITION
SUMMARY: The eight chapter of the book talks about on how you can reposition your brand, basically on how you can replace an idea in the first place into the minds of the consumers, to enter a new idea or replace it. Thus, indeed you must give out a factual and convincing argument to them in order for them to be convince. Moreover, the chapter talks about the repositioning of Aspirin, Lenox, American Vodkas, and Pringle’s. From the book Aspirin move out from the minds of its customers because of the advertisements of Tylenol which directly attack Aspirin, that in order to do a great repositioning strategy you have to say something about your competitor’s product that may cause for the consumers to change their perception about it. It was also talk about that it is ethical and legal on using repositioning. The answer was yes, they are legal but however there is a problem that in the comparative advertising where you differentiate you brand among your competitors, it is not against the law and nor should it be, but it makes as a practice it seems to be in a mockery way.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The chapter eight of the book mainly talk about the repositioning strategy of your brand.
COMPANY: The company that uses this strategy is SCPG Asia Pacific in repositioning their product.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: The company SCPG Asia Pacific use the repositioning strategy onto there product, which there primary product is the Perla Laundry Soap, first of Perla is a soap mainly use for your laundry, thus there strength on having this laundry soap due to that it is a coconut-oil based they used this advantage to reposition there product that this soap can also be used for the face and to the body because it is again coconut-oil based. From that consumers heard of this and due to curiosity, they have used it and from that the company SCPG Asia Pacific have increases their sales. However, due to the increase threats of competitors in the market which is rather bigger than them it lowers their market share because they only produce Perla Soap as they don’t innovate through past years and their competitors keeps on producing different variants of their soap.

CHAPTER 9: THE POWER OF NAME
SUMMARY: The chapter nine of the book talks about the power of a name that can increase your products awareness from the prospects. It is said that naming is what hooks a brand to differentiate you from your competitor, thus this is the most important decision that you have to take along the way if you want to start. Which is in today’s generation the name you should pick must be appealing because your product won’t work if it has say-nothing name in the market, not like before name of a brand is not really that important. Thus, a good name of a brand is the best insurance that you can have for a long-term growth and success. However, due to timing your brand can work if its name doesn’t have any meaningful background especially if it is you are the first in the business people will easily remember you. Moreover, a negative name can rather be positive sometimes.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The concept of the chapter mainly talks about branding or naming your brand to be to introduce it to the market.
COMPANY: A company which I can say that have a applied this thing when naming their brand is the Silver Swan Manufacturing Company, Inc. because its name was derived from its original owner Sy Bun Suan. If we will apprehend the name itself, we would be confused because what is this product all about when we are not familiar with the brand, we won’t know that it is a condiment product. Moreover, the company actually named their product in a timing because there is the first branded soy sauce in the condiment industry that why people where easy to be aware of the product.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: With regards of the strengths of Silver Swan Manufacturing Company, Inc. on how it succeeded in the branding of its name, their strength was there brand name was easily associated that it is a Filipino brand, also they are the number one brand of soy sauce in the Philippines, they also made themselves as high in awareness of the consumers when they make purchase of their products in the market. The branding had made them successful through out the years and even up to this day Silver Swan is the fourth most brought in the Philippines as based on Kantar Worldpanel survey. Moreover, the weaknesses of Silver Swan

CHAPTER 10: THE NO-NAME TRAP
SUMMARY: The chapter ten of the book tackles about the shortening, using initials, syllables, or short handing a brand name. When there is a choice of word that you want to put up or even a set of initials, it must be in phonetic length which can employ a speech of sounds. But usually companies today gone through a lot of things when they go to this phase that in order for them to stay out of trouble, they make sure of looking the name right but without considering it’s sounds it produces in the words it creates. Moreover, this chapter also talk about on how shortcuts of words doesn’t lead straight to success because first a company must be successfully well known first before it will shorten its branding. Also, the chapter talks about the mind works by the ears or through it. As this thing is the most useful concept idea. Thus, through by it we tend to hear advertisement program of other brands when they play with sounds that make us remember them, thus in the book it was seen that using visual program sometimes can create distractions.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: From this what I can derived from the chapter is the concept Rebranding, because as you only use initials on your brand name people especially on a specific place you are targeting, they can easily be aware that it is you brand and you rebrand your name because you feel that it can be much more attract customers.
COMPANY: The company which have done this strategy is the company Globe Telecom from their product TM, which people now associate them as the “Republika ng TM”, they renamed there brand in 2005 from mainly called Touch Mobile, which only few people only know because TM on the other hand is much easier to understand and the awareness of the people by this carrier is high. The company which have done this strategy is the company TM, which people now associate them as Re
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: The strength of the company of Globe Telecom using to rebrand their product TM has been successful as today it is one of the leading cellular service. As TM before is launched to be called Touch Mobile and have gone through a lot of rebranding since then as it is through that shortening doesn’t lead to straight success. Globe Telecom launched TM to serve as a value pricing for the people who are on the middle-income market, their strength is that TM offers a much more affordable promos where consumers kept on coming back. However, the weaknesses of the company as TM rebrand there for a few times is that what if they are still going to rebrand it in the future and people might not be used on calling it in its new way.

CHAPTER 11: THE FREE-RIDE TRAP
SUMMARY: The chapter eleven of the book tackles about the
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT:
COMPANY: The company Universal Foods Corporation on their ketchup products.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES:

CHAPTER 12: THE LINE-EXTENSION TRAP
SUMMARY: The chapter twelve of the book tackles about on how line extension is significant is, when taking an established product name and using it to come up with a new one. Than when introducing a new extension, you must consider on how your customers will see it because as they perceive you as a high quality, therefore you produce a new product line which is in a good quality or even better. Rather the rationale changes when introducing a new line extension of a product which in the same category where you are adding it. Moreover, if you have a generic brand name, you cannot risk ignoring it, thus you must promote where its strategy is at. Which can conclude that the strength of a generic brand name in the market is that it is close with the identification with the other product itself. However, when the line ex-tensioning is not working you can revert and use reverse line extension which is about broadening the base of your product offering where you can easily notice a product with the same packaging a label thus it changes it application process when using the product.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The concept about this chapter is about line-extension of products that you are going to put in in your category
COMPANY: The company that uses this line-extension is the Del Monte Philippines who is a a company in the Philippines which is in the packaged food industry and extends is product extension in producing a new product line in the market.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Del Monte is known for producing the pineapple drink which became their strength because this is their famous product that is nutritious and fresh and throughout the years, they kept on adding a new line-extension of the product which lead them to add a pineapple juice which is a heart smart to target different segment. The weaknesses however of the Del Monte brand is that they have not identified the problems and challenges of the new entrants in the segment, also the inventory of their product depends on the life cycle of there primary raw material which is the pineapples.

CHAPTER 13: WHEN LINE EXTENSION CAN WORK
SUMMARY: The chapter thirteen of the book tackles about the short-term and long-term with regards to their advantages and disadvantages of a line extension. It is an advantage that the reason for line extension is with its short-term goals. However, there is a misinterpretation that might happen when your first announcement or statement about your product is wrong, people could be confused and be distracted. The chapter also talk about the long-term disadvantages that might happen in the run. It is an easy come and easy go for these products line-extension names are however forgettable as they have no independent positioning in the minds of the consumers, they are only a connecting branch of its own main branch. To continue on to act one is a big success, or a big breakthrough when you find a gap you want to fill in or it can result brilliantly.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The concept in this chapter is still about the line extension or we can now say the product concept or innovation.
COMPANY: The company that uses this strategy is that the Davenben Enterprises Corp. which is known for their product Memory plus a natural memory enhancer.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: The company Davenben Enterprise Corp. strength was is that there are primary known in the Philippines as produces a medicine for memory enhancer for kids which is the Memory Plus, however through the years they added and introduce their Memory Plus Gold which now facilitates learning, improves ones learned behavior and delays and also added some new benefits that you van received when take. But there was a weakness on their product on the first product they had which is did not succeed because their Memory Plus Gold product was much more known due to the target market. In their first product they targeted children which parents are the one who will purchase and their perception on it is that what if it is going to had a side effect on their kids especially on a young age. In addition, kids’ memory are still good because they are still young.

CHAPTER 14: POSITIONING A COMPANY: MONSANTO
SUMMARY: The chapter fourteen of the book tackles about the approach Monsanto. First of we can indeed position anything it can be a person, product, place, and even a politician. Moreover, with regards to name there can be a problem if you want to position your company to what it should it be really is, thus there is risk in it. There should be a stand for something, that if you stand to be serving or producing quality your company has the tendency to successful and having a successful company means to having a better people that comes with it other than small companies. Next to it is with diversification of your company but in order to succeed on this your prospects must rather have a view on not only what you offer but what you do in the industry. In addition, a company can gain more profitability when diversifying. Moreover, the Mosanto approach where if you want o start on a good place you must first have a clear and concise of what your company is really is alongside with your mission and vision, and also by acting through it. These chapter tackles about the product leadership, business leadership, and industry leadership.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The concept in this chapter is about the diversification of your brand from its competitors.
COMPANY: The company that uses this kind of strategy is the Suyen Corporation on their brand Bench/.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: The brand bench have been successful through the years as they continue to diversify their product offering and offers a wide variety of product in the market. They are known for apparel industry, cosmetic or beauty product, to salons, and even a restaurant their newest flagship store. From these Bench have succeeded in the market and continues to penetrate the Philippine market in our country. However, their weakness was that as they continue to enter international operations, they must increase there quality of product because they are now competing with the international brands in the market.

CHAPTER 1: WHAT POSITIONING IS ALL ABOUT
SUMMARY: The first chapter of the book talks about on how communication being an important instrument to figure out how a message will reach the other party. We have to think about even the smallest message, it will be delivered whether you like it or not. The most essential part in communicating is focusing on the possible candidate than the product itself. With this, the selection process is much easier and uncomplicated. In advertising and marketing, it is important to convey your message clearly and on-point.
CONCEPT: The first chapter of the book talks about positioning.
COMPANY: Happy Skin
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Happy skin’s strengths are positioning their brand as skin care and makeup in one and they use local endorsers to strengthen the company’s name as a local brand. For the weakness, they are not engaging with different promotional platforms to advertise their product which made them not known to some people.

CHAPTER 2: THE ASSAULT ON THE MIND
SUMMARY: The second chapter of the book shows some interesting facts that can be seen that support their argument about an over-communicated world:
– America consumes 57% of the world’s advertising.
– 30,000 books are published in America annually.
– 98% of all American homes have at least one television set.
– The average American family watches television more than 51 hours a week.
– 5,000 new products are introduced into the American market each year.
This shows how using different advertising platforms are important in communicating with consumers to have an effective and convincing message.
CONCEPT: The second chapter of the book talks about communicating using different advertising platforms and how people respond to it.
COMPANY: Ginebra San Miguel
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Ginebra San Miguel is first ever Philippine gin and the largest selling in the world, they use strong marketing communication programs to persuade people to try their products.
They are losing their international assets.

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CHAPTER 3: GETTING INTO THE MIND
SUMMARY: The third chapter of the book talks about how being first into a person’s mind is beneficial for a firm. Having this advantage over competitors will put you in a good position to compete with other products. For example, Coca Cola was the first when it comes to cola; they have this advantage of being number one when it comes to this industry. It is hard for other competitors to keep up and try to beat the top brand.
CONCEPT: The third chapter of the book talks about positioning strategies
COMPANY: Alaska
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Alaska milk is a truly Filipino product and was first manufactured in the Philippines.
High dependency on imported raw materials.

CHAPTER 4: THOSE LITTLE LADDERS IN YOUR HEAD
SUMMARY: The fourth chapter of the book talks about over-communicated world and how people tend to rank brands like using a series of ladders. It is determined by the brand’s equity to consumers and how they positioned their brands. Companies are competing towards each other to get the top spot, but in the end big companies win and the other party lose. The book stated an example for car rental industry, Hertz might be the top of the ladder to some people while Avis is the second and National at the third spot.
CONCEPT: The fourth chapter of the book talks about product category
COMPANY: Datu Puti
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Datu Puti offers a wide range of varieties that makes people buy their products.
They are not engaging with different marketing communication programs that would thrill the consumers.

CHAPTER 5: YOU CAN’T GET THERE FROM HERE
SUMMARY: The fifth chapter of the book states the importance of knowing when to stop trying and when to quit. A company has to face the truth and accept they cannot go anywhere when they are losing the competition. In the book, they used IBM as an example of how to compete against a big company in an industry where competition is really tough. Firms can take this as an advantage where they take the position they already have in the minds of customers, this is the best strategy in this kind of situation.
CONCEPT: The fifth chapter of the book talks about positioning
COMPANY: Lucky Me
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Lucky Me advertises their products well, they already established their brand to the market.
They only have few variants of their products.

CHAPTER 6: POSITIONING OF A LEADER
SUMMARY: The sixth chapter talks about being the number one company with the highest market share in an industry. It is much easier for a firm to stay at the top of the competition when it comes to maintaining your position rather than climbing your way to the top. Being the leading company does not guarantee a permanent position and being complacent towards a competitive field will not work. You will just end up losing the game and lose the things you worked hard for. Firms should understand that the power of the product is the essential part of the firm not the firm towards the product.
CONCEPT: The sixth chapter of the book talks about market leader
COMPANY: Globe Telecom
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Globe Telecom is a market leader in the Philippines when it comes to telecommunications.
Globe has weak wireless signals that harm their brand.

CHAPTER 7: POSITIONING OF A FOLLOWER
SUMMARY: The philosophy “bigger and better” must be avoided. In the book, they called it “Cherchez le creneau”, which means to look for the hole. You must fill that hole to not fall into the trap that you tried to fill to be perceived as better than others. Under market positioning, they are classified as the leader, challenger, follower and nicher.
CONCEPT: The seventh chapter of the book talks about perception
COMPANY: Penshoppe
STRENGHTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Penshoppe is able to expand from designed shirts to clothing lines and even personal care products.
They use international models to have a perception to Filipinos because they tend to think that when a brand is endorsed by international artists, the products are good quality.

CHAPTER 8: REPOSITIONING THE COMPETITION
SUMMARY: The eight chapter of the book talks about on how you can reposition your brand, basically on how you can replace an idea in the first place into the minds of the consumers, to enter a new idea or replace it. Thus, indeed you must give out a factual and convincing argument to them in order for them to be convince. Moreover, the chapter talks about the repositioning of Aspirin, Lenox, American Vodkas, and Pringle’s. From the book Aspirin move out from the minds of its customers because of the advertisements of Tylenol which directly attack Aspirin, that in order to do a great repositioning strategy you have to say something about your competitor’s product that may cause for the consumers to change their perception about it. It was also talk about that it is ethical and legal on using repositioning. The answer was yes, they are legal but however there is a problem that in the comparative advertising where you differentiate you brand among your competitors, it is not against the law and nor should it be, but it makes as a practice it seems to be in a mockery way.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The chapter eight of the book mainly talk about the repositioning strategy of your brand.
COMPANY: The company that uses this strategy is SCPG Asia Pacific in repositioning their product.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: The company SCPG Asia Pacific use the repositioning strategy onto there product, which there primary product is the Perla Laundry Soap, first of Perla is a soap mainly use for your laundry, thus there strength on having this laundry soap due to that it is a coconut-oil based they used this advantage to reposition there product that this soap can also be used for the face and to the body because it is again coconut-oil based. From that consumers heard of this and due to curiosity, they have used it and from that the company SCPG Asia Pacific have increases their sales. However, due to the increase threats of competitors in the market which is rather bigger than them it lowers their market share because they only produce Perla Soap as they don’t innovate through past years and their competitors keeps on producing different variants of their soap.

CHAPTER 9: THE POWER OF NAME
SUMMARY: The chapter nine of the book talks about the power of a name that can increase your products awareness from the prospects. It is said that naming is what hooks a brand to differentiate you from your competitor, thus this is the most important decision that you have to take along the way if you want to start. Which is in today’s generation the name you should pick must be appealing because your product won’t work if it has say-nothing name in the market, not like before name of a brand is not really that important. Thus, a good name of a brand is the best insurance that you can have for a long-term growth and success. However, due to timing your brand can work if its name doesn’t have any meaningful background especially if it is you are the first in the business people will easily remember you. Moreover, a negative name can rather be positive sometimes.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The concept of the chapter mainly talks about branding or naming your brand to be to introduce it to the market.
COMPANY: A company which I can say that have a applied this thing when naming their brand is the Silver Swan Manufacturing Company, Inc. because its name was derived from its original owner Sy Bun Suan. If we will apprehend the name itself, we would be confused because what is this product all about when we are not familiar with the brand, we won’t know that it is a condiment product. Moreover, the company actually named their product in a timing because there is the first branded soy sauce in the condiment industry that why people where easy to be aware of the product.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: With regards of the strengths of Silver Swan Manufacturing Company, Inc. on how it succeeded in the branding of its name, their strength was there brand name was easily associated that it is a Filipino brand, also they are the number one brand of soy sauce in the Philippines, they also made themselves as high in awareness of the consumers when they make purchase of their products in the market. The branding had made them successful through out the years and even up to this day Silver Swan is the fourth most brought in the Philippines as based on Kantar Worldpanel survey. Moreover, the weaknesses of Silver Swan

CHAPTER 10: THE NO-NAME TRAP
SUMMARY: The chapter ten of the book tackles about the shortening, using initials, syllables, or short handing a brand name. When there is a choice of word that you want to put up or even a set of initials, it must be in phonetic length which can employ a speech of sounds. But usually companies today gone through a lot of things when they go to this phase that in order for them to stay out of trouble, they make sure of looking the name right but without considering it’s sounds it produces in the words it creates. Moreover, this chapter also talk about on how shortcuts of words doesn’t lead straight to success because first a company must be successfully well known first before it will shorten its branding. Also, the chapter talks about the mind works by the ears or through it. As this thing is the most useful concept idea. Thus, through by it we tend to hear advertisement program of other brands when they play with sounds that make us remember them, thus in the book it was seen that using visual program sometimes can create distractions.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: From this what I can derived from the chapter is the concept Rebranding, because as you only use initials on your brand name people especially on a specific place you are targeting, they can easily be aware that it is you brand and you rebrand your name because you feel that it can be much more attract customers.
COMPANY: The company which have done this strategy is the company Globe Telecom from their product TM, which people now associate them as the “Republika ng TM”, they renamed there brand in 2005 from mainly called Touch Mobile, which only few people only know because TM on the other hand is much easier to understand and the awareness of the people by this carrier is high. The company which have done this strategy is the company TM, which people now associate them as Re
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: The strength of the company of Globe Telecom using to rebrand their product TM has been successful as today it is one of the leading cellular service. As TM before is launched to be called Touch Mobile and have gone through a lot of rebranding since then as it is through that shortening doesn’t lead to straight success. Globe Telecom launched TM to serve as a value pricing for the people who are on the middle-income market, their strength is that TM offers a much more affordable promos where consumers kept on coming back. However, the weaknesses of the company as TM rebrand there for a few times is that what if they are still going to rebrand it in the future and people might not be used on calling it in its new way.

CHAPTER 11: THE FREE-RIDE TRAP
SUMMARY: The chapter eleven of the book tackles about the
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT:
COMPANY: The company Universal Foods Corporation on their ketchup products.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES:

CHAPTER 12: THE LINE-EXTENSION TRAP
SUMMARY: The chapter twelve of the book tackles about on how line extension is significant is, when taking an established product name and using it to come up with a new one. Than when introducing a new extension, you must consider on how your customers will see it because as they perceive you as a high quality, therefore you produce a new product line which is in a good quality or even better. Rather the rationale changes when introducing a new line extension of a product which in the same category where you are adding it. Moreover, if you have a generic brand name, you cannot risk ignoring it, thus you must promote where its strategy is at. Which can conclude that the strength of a generic brand name in the market is that it is close with the identification with the other product itself. However, when the line ex-tensioning is not working you can revert and use reverse line extension which is about broadening the base of your product offering where you can easily notice a product with the same packaging a label thus it changes it application process when using the product.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The concept about this chapter is about line-extension of products that you are going to put in in your category
COMPANY: The company that uses this line-extension is the Del Monte Philippines who is a a company in the Philippines which is in the packaged food industry and extends is product extension in producing a new product line in the market.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: Del Monte is known for producing the pineapple drink which became their strength because this is their famous product that is nutritious and fresh and throughout the years, they kept on adding a new line-extension of the product which lead them to add a pineapple juice which is a heart smart to target different segment. The weaknesses however of the Del Monte brand is that they have not identified the problems and challenges of the new entrants in the segment, also the inventory of their product depends on the life cycle of there primary raw material which is the pineapples.

CHAPTER 13: WHEN LINE EXTENSION CAN WORK
SUMMARY: The chapter thirteen of the book tackles about the short-term and long-term with regards to their advantages and disadvantages of a line extension. It is an advantage that the reason for line extension is with its short-term goals. However, there is a misinterpretation that might happen when your first announcement or statement about your product is wrong, people could be confused and be distracted. The chapter also talk about the long-term disadvantages that might happen in the run. It is an easy come and easy go for these products line-extension names are however forgettable as they have no independent positioning in the minds of the consumers, they are only a connecting branch of its own main branch. To continue on to act one is a big success, or a big breakthrough when you find a gap you want to fill in or it can result brilliantly.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The concept in this chapter is still about the line extension or we can now say the product concept or innovation.
COMPANY: The company that uses this strategy is that the Davenben Enterprises Corp. which is known for their product Memory plus a natural memory enhancer.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: The company Davenben Enterprise Corp. strength was is that there are primary known in the Philippines as produces a medicine for memory enhancer for kids which is the Memory Plus, however through the years they added and introduce their Memory Plus Gold which now facilitates learning, improves ones learned behavior and delays and also added some new benefits that you van received when take. But there was a weakness on their product on the first product they had which is did not succeed because their Memory Plus Gold product was much more known due to the target market. In their first product they targeted children which parents are the one who will purchase and their perception on it is that what if it is going to had a side effect on their kids especially on a young age. In addition, kids’ memory are still good because they are still young.

CHAPTER 14: POSITIONING A COMPANY: MONSANTO
SUMMARY: The chapter fourteen of the book tackles about the approach Monsanto. First of we can indeed position anything it can be a person, product, place, and even a politician. Moreover, with regards to name there can be a problem if you want to position your company to what it should it be really is, thus there is risk in it. There should be a stand for something, that if you stand to be serving or producing quality your company has the tendency to successful and having a successful company means to having a better people that comes with it other than small companies. Next to it is with diversification of your company but in order to succeed on this your prospects must rather have a view on not only what you offer but what you do in the industry. In addition, a company can gain more profitability when diversifying. Moreover, the Mosanto approach where if you want o start on a good place you must first have a clear and concise of what your company is really is alongside with your mission and vision, and also by acting through it. These chapter tackles about the product leadership, business leadership, and industry leadership.
STATEMENT OF THE CONCEPT: The concept in this chapter is about the diversification of your brand from its competitors.
COMPANY: The company that uses this kind of strategy is the Suyen Corporation on their brand Bench/.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES: The brand bench have been successful through the years as they continue to diversify their product offering and offers a wide variety of product in the market. They are known for apparel industry, cosmetic or beauty product, to salons, and even a restaurant their newest flagship store. From these Bench have succeeded in the market and continues to penetrate the Philippine market in our country. However, their weakness was that as they continue to enter international operations, they must increase there quality of product because they are now competing with the international brands in the market.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction
This chapter describes about the background of an overview of ventilated car seat, function analysis, problem statements, objective, research methodology, methodology and benefits for the project.
1.2 Overview
According to a press release issued by market research agency Nielsen in the year of 2014 (Nielsen, 2014) Malaysia placing third in the world with 93 percent car ownership, and the country also has the highest incidence of multiple car ownership globally with 54 percent of households having more than one car, thus car seat is the most important integral part of automobile. From the time begin when there existed simple benches until today with massaging chairs, where automobile seats have changed immensely over time.
However, hinder the heat and moisture transport from the human back to the environment bringing thermal discomfort for a seated person. A seated person exposed to air flow while the bottom and the back are well surrounded with the seat structure material. In fact, a seated person dissipates heat from the back and bottom leads to raise in temperature of the seats and adversely rises the temperature of the back (Hatoum et al., 2017). Thus, moisture accumulation at the back affecting thermal comfort.
Ventilated car seat is a feature to cool down seat for improving thermal comfort. This feature has been most commonly offered for the front seats. In recent times, with the implementation of modern three-point seatbelt along with airbags it made drivers safer. Besides, Heating and cooling features has turn car seats into ambient zones on-the-go thus our modification mainly improved thermal comfort and quick vary in temperature. Conclusively, the excessive of features and functions on present car seats turned them into an extremely complex system like automated ventilation car seats.
In order to manufacture our Ventilated Car Seat, fabrication is using low cost material to upgrade existing car seats to ventilated car seats with cooling and heating effects thus applicable to hot and cold weather. Furthermore, for design drawing SOLIDWORK 2017 was used and decision matrix method was used for selection. Besides, Arduino, Powertrain Control Module (PCM), wiring diagram, Matlab and programming maybe needed.
Our targeted customer are car owners and automobiles manufacturer where their goal is to drag attention of the market and provide comfortable car seats to people. Moreover, ventilated car seats could provide people with pleasant journey.
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1.3 Function Analysis
Before solving the problem, building a functional model allow us to analyze the interactions between various components and focus into the problem. Table 1 shows the system, subsystem, and supersystem components of the car seats.
System Subsystem Supersystem
Car Seats Seat track Seat cushion wire User
Headrest Cushion Headrest metal structure Car
Backrest Cushion Seat backrest metal structure Moisture
Seat base Cushion Seat base metal structure Sunlight
Seatbelt Height adjuster components Heat
Seat back inclination adjustment
Table 1: System of Car seats.
Note: Headrest Cushion, Backrest Cushion and Seat base Cushion are named as Cushion.
Figure 1: Function analysis of car seats problems
Based on Figure 1, factor that causes raise in temperature is sunlight and user contact with cushion thus high temperature is harmful to user. Therefore, cushion heat is the problem that make user discomfort since sunlight is unavoidable circumstances.?
1.4 Problem Statements
Scant knowledge in the field, and limited research, has led to very few advancements in regards to ventilation car seat. The system has not much significantly differences over the timespan, their Main parameter value is to cool the occupant more effectively, but constraint is less changes to the current seat structure as possible to maintain comfortability. Besides, observed through multiple scientific articles, the complex biology of the humans combined with the uniqueness of body leads to a challenge in creating a universal ventilated car seats.
When driving long journey sitting on the seat will causes raise in temperature, since the heat are unable to dissipated, hence leads to hips and back feels hot from cushion and uncomfortable, besides it could easily lead to various diseases. Due back and hips without ventilation, the driver can easily get acne, eczema and other health problems on hips. Furthermore, drivers got sweat on hips and back cause driver feels sticky and uncomfortable then driver lost concentration causes traffic safety problems might happens. (Shenzhen car life Technology Co., Ltd., 2016) However, nowadays cars are equipped with air-conditioning, but the cold air are unable to reach driver and passenger hips and back. Although there are some cushion designed to be inflated or filled with water, this type of cushion unable to reduce temperature significantly and when user sitting on it have swing feel, as it’s extremely unsafe.
Besides that, the other reason car seats is hot due to the sunlight coming through the car’s windows. The car acts as a greenhouse, and heats up objects in the car as the car seats, dashboard, and other object can reach up to 40-50 degrees Celsius in direct sunlight (Staff, 2014). Those objects mentioned give off energy, and that is what heats up the air inside the car thereby when user open the car door, user feels the hot air inside the car and the car seats is hot causes user unlike to sit immediately exceptional case will be the user is in a rush yet have no choice but to sit on it. Moreover, the constantly changing driving conditions, and a weather system differing from place to place has put up extreme challenges towards the development of seat ventilation.
Ventilation car seat is a modified car seat to allow users to sit comfortably. This phenomena in turn lead to many problems including the user need to waste time on waiting the car seat to be cold, or by placing something on the car seat.
1.5 Objectives

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1.5.1 The objective of the capstone project are to design a Ventilated Car seat that provides additional cooling ability to the user is the priorities in this modification so that user can have pleasant driving experiences.

1.5.2 To design a ventilated car seats allow users can choose not only cooling effects but also introducing heating effects for chilly late night.

1.5.3 To fabricate the ventilated car seat that can speed up the cooling effects on the car seats.

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1.6 Research Methodology
Research methodology need to be done before beginning the project. To collect useful information for the aim of the capstone project objectives this is important process to go through. Thence, the information collected can be used to develop the project and to achieve the objectives. There are several ways of methodology to be used for research and to run the project. Hence, the information research from articles, journal, patent, book, internet, and survey from people were used in this project.
Information research is a key to develop a ventilated car seats, the history, type, components, materials selection for ventilated car seats, the related information has to be studied and determined. By doing so, the problem statement for the existing car seats can be determined thus improvement can be made to build a comfortable ventilated car seats.
Moreover, survey form is conducted in this project. This survey form is to research on what customers need and ask for their ideas on improvement. Nowadays google survey form is common used to gather opinions from society and environmentally friendly. Therefore, to achieve and improve the project will be more liable.

Furthermore, SOLIDWORK 2017 will be used for design purpose. This is a powerful tools to draw 3D design, SOLIDWORKS is well known 3D CAD software tool. Besides, it consists of simulation allow us to test the designs and make the decisions to improve quality. Moreover, enables us to determine product mechanical resistance, product durability, natural frequencies, and test heat transfer.

In addition, the software Mindview 7 can be used in drawing the Gantt chart for the milestone and the timeline of the project. Ensure the project was complete on time, perform this is to arrange the time wisely and accurately.
1.7 Methodology

(Excellent product design methods/routes are described in detail, and practicable. Clear process flow and various modern tools are utilised to solve all anticipate problems.)

1.8 Benefits of the project
An innovative ventilated car seats will improve customer satisfaction, safety and health benefits. Moreover, able to drag the attention of market in automobiles owners and manufacturer.
On the other hand, the benefits of the project will be the opportunity to demonstrate the skills and knowledge we have learned. Besides, allow us to build skills in problem analysis, market research, problem analysis, product development, business case preparation, presentation and public speaking. In addition, enhance project management, teamwork and problem solving skills. Furthermore, develop expertise in car seats problem area while understanding circumstance and constraints, for example social, legal, economic, cultural conditions and etc.?
Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction
This chapter describes about the history of a ventilated car seat, type of car seat, component of ventilated car seat and material used and type of material duct for ventilated car seat.
2.2 History
Car was invented before modern car seat is created. The origin of the idea of the automobile came from Europe. Inventors began to test automobiles with engines operate using steam during the eighteenth century. Nicolas Cugnot from France had designed, constructed and operated a tractor that powered by a steam engine back in 1769. Unfortunately, the funding for Cugnot’s road vehicle trails presumably ended with one of Cugnot’s supporter deceased after a series of automobile accident. During the early 1800s, Richard Trevithick from England constructed a steam-powered carriage which leads to various other British engineers creating and commercially operated steam vehicles which can carry passengers. However, the limitation of uses of such vehicles on the public roads hindered their efforts of constructing steam operated vehicles. Innovation of railroads was made when they were forced to turn their attention to conducting trains or carriages on private rails. During 1860, a French engineer named Etienne Lenoir invented an internal combustion engine that used illuminating gas as the fuel and ignition with electric sparks. This engine was used to drive machinery and rapidly became the first commercial gas engine. In 1866, Otto and Langen from Germany developed the four-stroke cycle which is widely known today when they tried to improve the gas engine which is previously made by Etienne Lenoir. A German named Daimler used the Otto cycle in a gas vapor engine and the following year he applied his petrol engine to a motor car in 1885. The very first car or automobile was built and sold in 1892 by the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. Daimler’s engine was used in France by Emile Levassor who then designed a vehicle which set the basic mechanical pattern for modern automobiles (Nyamwange et al., 2014).
Many modifications and changes had been made on automobile since then to improve the safety of those who drive or ride on a motorized vehicle. The first car seat appeared in the 1930s. Since the main purpose of the car seat is to keep the children in place when car was moving, there was no any safety consideration on it. A company named Bunny Bear Company produced a seat which is basically a booster seat that hooks onto the back of an actual car seat in 1933. The main purpose of this seat is for the parents to keep an eye on their children. In the 1940s, another type of car seat which has a metal frame attached to it. This type of car seat allows children to get a better view out from the window but it was not designed for safety but more to convenience. Safety of car seat was not prioritized until 1960s. Briton Jean Ames and Leonard Rivkin took child safety in their mind while creating car seat which include seat belts on it. Briton Jean Ames designed a rear-facing seat that featured a Y-strap which is similar to the modern seat while Leonard Rivkin created a seat that had a metal frame surrounded by a buckle like a high chair. But their idea was not well received by people since the public were not educated on the benefits of safety in a moving vehicle. After that, Ford developed the Tot-Guard in 1968 which is a plastic chair that contains padded area in front of the child’s face. Shortly after that, General Motors (GM) also released ‘Love Seats’ that came in two versions, one for children and one for infants. Seat belts were meant to keep children in place. Then there came the Bobby Mac convertible seat. Several laws and regulations were then adopted to improve the safety of car seats. Seat belt is one of the most common and important feature of modern car seat. The use of seat belts on car seat enhances the safety of vehicle by a lot. Vehicles are now produced which have a significant safety content for occupant restraint, crash-worthiness and crash avoidance. The major developments in restraint systems during the early 1980s were focused to improve their comfort in order to increase the likelihood of the seat belt being worn. From the mid-1980s onwards, enhancement of the occupant safety has been emphasised. Seat belts help to link the occupant directly to the passenger compartment or the car seat which then allow the occupant to ride down the crash as the vehicle’s front-end crushes. Later product introductions aim to control occupant trajectories in accidents which prevent the driver to get thrown out of the car due to inertia and limit the effects of contact with vehicle interior to prevent additional injuries. Usage of seat belt on car seat had significantly improves the effectiveness of the total occupant protection system of car seat. (King et al,. 1996)
2.3 Type of car seat
2.3.1 Side-Slip Seat
Side-slip seat is a relatively new type of seat founded in 2007 by Molon Labe, LLC (company). This type of seat was introduced because of its potential to reduce the aircraft boarding time under operational conditions. Side-slip seat is a seat where the middle seat is fixed and the 2 seat beside can be move.

(a) (b) (c)
Figure 2.1: Side-slip seat
With the innovative technology of the Side-Slip Seat, the available infrastructure could be dynamically changed to support the boarding process by providing a wider aisle that allow two passengers to pass each other in a convenient way. During boarding phase, the aisle seat or the outer seat is hand-pushed half over the middle seat, which is in a staggered position like shown in figure 2.1(c). The passenger or stewardess can simply grabs the seat at the side and pull out into a locked position to unfold the seat to normal position. Before the aircraft takes off, all seats have to be in the normal position and locked which need the passenger or crew to press a mechanical button on the side which lock the seat and prevent it from being pushed or pulled during the flight.

Figure 2.2: Example of Side-slip seat
The developed boarding model is adapted to allow the parallel movement of two passengers along the aisle. Furthermore, the dynamic status of the seat row (folded/unfolded) is implemented to enable or disable the parallel movement. If both sides of the aisle are in the initial folded condition, a second passenger can pass without reducing the walking speed. If only one side is folded, the walking speed is reduced to 50%. If both sides are used by passengers and the Side-Slip Seats are unfolded, only one passenger is allowed to move in the aisle (Schultz, 2017).

2.3.2 Infant Car Seat
The rear-facing Infant Car Seat (ICS) was designed to meet the federal and state legal requirements for transporting children which is less than 1 year old. Infant Car Seat is a type of seat which main purpose is to protect an infant in the event of a crash or car accident. However, since they are used for child which is 1 year old when they could not move effectively on their own, they also often serve as a form of transport for infant over short distances since the infant car seat is portable and convenient. Most of the modern ICSs can be attached to a stroller to create a so called “travel system” so that it can be carried around easily. To remove ICS from a car, we need to rotate the carrying handle from a locked position to carrying position, then unlock ICS from the secure base, lift and place it in a stroller. A review of ICSs available in the market (from large retailers) revealed that the weight of ICS is approximately 4.5kg and it can hold infant with maximum weight of 13.6kg.

Figure 2.3: Infant car seat (ICS).
There is also a problem where it is difficult and potentially dangerous task to lift the infant car seat because of the awkwardness of the posture combined with the weight of baby and the ICS itself (Clamann et al, 2012).

2.3.3 Ergonomics Seat
Ergonomics or human factors engineering can simply be defined as the science of designing for people. Knowledge about human characteristics and capabilities were being applied to the design of car seat. Gathering knowledge about people involves multiple approaches with emphasis on anthropometry, biomechanics, psychology, statistic and so forth. Every discipline has an important role in the car seat development process. Ergonomic chair or seat is a critical step in preventing health problems in people who is in a sitting position for a long period of time. With the ergonomics approach, sitting is viewed as a specific, specialized activity which is influenced by the way that a person who is sitting interacts with his environment. Car seat is just one of the features contributing to automotive ergonomics. Automotive ergonomics used formula to optimize the car environment like the positioning of the driver, height of the waistline of the car relative to the driver’s hips and eyes, form of the bonnet and etc (Gkikas, 2013).

2.3.4 Folding Seat
Folding seat is a type of seat where one can fold it down. This type of seat is usually used by big cars.

Figure 2.4: Folding seat
Some of the rear right seats are foldable to enhance movement of passengers during boarding and alighting as shown in the figure above (Tetteh et al, 2017).

2.3.5 Bench Seat
The bench seat was the traditional seat installed in most of the American or Australian automobiles. Bench seats are usually supported by metallic frames and upholstered. A bench seat usually only reaches up to about the shoulder level of an adult sitting on it. Bench seats are only being used in the second row of seating in most of the common cars or the third row of SUVs and minivans (Tetteh et al, 2017).

Figure 2.5: Bench seat.

2.3.6 Bucket Seat
A bucket seat is a type of seat found in motorized vehicles that is intended for a single person and is usually defined in contrast to a bench seat where bench seat is intended for more than 1 person. Bucket seat has head and neck support compare to bench seat. It also often equipped with a head rest. Bucket seat is the most common kind of driver’s seat for common cars but this is not the case for driver’s seats in trucks. Many trucks are designed with a bench seat in the front.

Figure 2.6: Bucket Seat

Summarize of all type of car seat:
Type of seat Safety Comfort Convenience Health Cost
Side-slip seat – – + – –
Infant car seat + + – – –
Ergonomics seat + + – + –
Folding seat – – + – +
Bench seat – – – – +
Bucket seat – + – – +
Table 2.1: Overall view for type of seats

From Table 2.1, pros from each seat were chosen and integrated into the design. From side-slip seat, no feature could be taken into the design because this type of seat is designed for airplane and allow passenger to board with ease. Seat belt is a must for safety purpose, so seat belt feature from the type of seat above was taken and put into the design. For folding seat, the folding feature which allows driver or passenger to fold the car seat is good and was taken into consideration of our design. For bucket seat, we use this type of seat as the basic model of our design as this is the most commonly seen type of car seat on the market now.
2.4 Component of ventilated car seat
The main purpose of seat ventilation is to prevent perspiring occupants from feeling uncomfortable by sticking to leather-covered seats, for example. At the same time, thermal regulation creates an agreeable microclimate that keeps the driver comfortable longer. The processes that take place where the seat and occupant are in contact are vitally important for efficient moisture removal. The surface of the seat receives no direct airflow, only ventilation from behind. In order to allow the airflow here to run parallel to the seat surface, the structure below the seat cover must also be sufficiently permeable. For example like the picture below shows a configuration with eight fans on the Mercedes SL driver’s seat, where the fans draw in air from below or, in the case of the seat back, from behind and blow it out over the two exposed seat surfaces. A reverse flow of direction can also be achieved without any major difference in the resulting flow volume.

2.4.1 Car seat backrest

Figure 2.4.1 upholstery of a backrest.
A plastic front seat backrest is shown in Figure 2.4.1 are made of high-strength composite material, enabling design freedom on seat backrest for new premium interior styling. For example, The combined first-row composite seatbacks like Weigh almost 20% less than conventional seatbacks, reducing CO2 emissions over the life of the vehicle by an estimated 100 kilograms and Are 15% thinner than the industry’s thinnest seats, leading to 10 litters of additional interior cabin volume. The lighter weight can yield improved fuel performance for internal combustion, hybrid and all-electric vehicles; and less fuel consumption means fewer emissions of greenhouse gases. At the same time, the significantly thinner seatbacks allow designers either to provide more leg room to the second-row occupants or to shorten the overall length of the vehicle, thereby further reducing its total weight. The seatback is a technically mature system that has been fully validated for reliability, safety and comfort. Designers now have entirely new opportunities to customize and adapt seatbacks in vehicles. Since they are created with injection molding systems, the composite seatbacks allow for novel shapes and accessories to be added for the comfort of front seat occupants and the convenience of second-row passengers (Vinod, 2016).
2.4.2 Thermoelectric device
A thermoelectric device as shown in Figure 2.4.2 was used to control the temperature of the car-seat surface: the warm temperature in the summer and cold temperature in the winter. The characteristics of the thermoelectric device for the car-seat were analysed in relation to the input voltage and output temperature of the device (Bell. 2013).

Figure 2.4.2 thermoelectric cooling system

2.4.3 Compact centrifugal fan or radial fan for car seat ventilation
A fan device is show in Figure 2.4.3 which is built into a vehicle chair, and is arrange to ventilate away air that is drawn through the covering and filling of the vehicle chair, which has an electrically driven fan of radial type attached at the bottom of the chair. The fan wheel extends from the driving cover of the motoer, which extends up into the inlet of the fan. The fan is attached to a carrying means in the chair which is located on the underside of the filling and has passages for the ventilating air adjacent to the fan inlet.

Figure 2.4.3 radial fan device
2.4.4 SPA Seat Cushion

Figure 2.4.4 Backrest of an SPA seat Figure 2.4.5 Ventilated cushion of an SPA seat
Ventilated backrest from an SPA seat without massage function. The bigger cluster of holes is in the upper back area, while the lower back area has only four small holes. Another typical feature is grooves around various holes. These help to guide the flow in a desired direction.
When removing the foams from the frame, the only attachment is a rubber duct for seat ventilation. These two parts, like the upholstery, can be quickly assembled and disassembled without any special tools. The frame contains the attachment for the foams. The backrest is mounted to a plastic plate, where valves for the bolsters and massage bladders are.
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2.4.5 Flexible Aluminium Foil Air Ducting

Figure 2.4.6 Flexible ducting Figure 2.4.7 Flexible Aluminium Ducting Ventilation Vent Tube
To optimize the airflow through the system, a significant factor is to understand the design of the ductwork is shown in Figure 2.4.7 and Figure 2.4.8 Even though the B-side is not strictly pipes, it can be assumed to be so, for engineering purposes. Crucial parts are the outlets, inlets and areas where the flow separates. Most literature focuses on fans with as pushing system. Throughout the system, it is not relevant if the fluid is pushed or pulled through the pipe (Cory, 2005). Included in performance enhancements, one factor is to reduce the noise. This increases the performance without compromising airflow. The noise is not the most essential part for this project, but it cannot be increased. If the noise reaches a lower level the comfort increases. An essential factor is that the noise is directly coupled with duct design. This means that a good duct can improve both airflow, and reduce the noise (Tsai, 1982).

2.4.6 Pneumatic Systems (Pneumatic Seat Control)

Figure 2.4.9 Pneumatic Seat Systems for Maximum Driving Comfort
Pneumatic Seat Systems with many added functions are especially comfortable and offer clear technical advantages. The multi-contour seat function allows vehicle occupants to adapt the contour of the seat to their individual requirements. Via air cells integrated into the backrest and seat cushion the seat adjusts to fit the body. The optional massage function further enhances comfort for vehicle occupants on long journeys by means of alternate inflation and deflation of the air cells. The drive dynamic function automatically adapts the side bolsters of the seat to the current driving situation, ensuring optimum stability for occupants at all times, even when cornering. The advantages of a comfort seat are thus combined with those of a sports car seat (Tsai, 1982).

2.4.7 Seat Foam
The angle of the seat surface is about 17° from the horizontal with an extra slightly softer area to resist forward slipping of the seat bones. The area behind the seat bones has been carefully designed to provide an upward force on the buttock behind the seat bones to provide extra pelvis support, i.e. to resist backward rolling of the pelvis. The example show in Figure 2.4.10.

Figure 2.4.10 Seat foam sectioned down the centre line
Figure 2.4.12 Arduino Uno
2.4.8 Ambient Temperature sensor
The ambient air temperature sensor is located behind the bumper or grill of many vehicles and monitors the air temperature outside of the vehicle. The ambient (ATC) or outside air temperature sensor is an (NTC) negative temperature coefficient sensor that informs the semiautomatic/automatic temperature control system of outside air temperature. The NTC sensor’s resistance decreases as the outside air temperature increases. The computer uses this input, along with other in-car temperature sensors to control temperature and blower speed. When there’s a problem with this sensor, performance will suffer and the compressor’s clutch may not engage.
Ambient air temperature sensor symptoms, like an inoperative clutch or input problems are diagnosed with a scan tool and a multi meter. Use a multi meter and verify manufacturer’s specifications, (~ 220-240 ohms at 70°-80° F), to test this sensor for proper resistance. So, the sensor when it reads 80°F (27°C) or higher, it will allow the operation of the ventilated seats during a remote start. When it reads 50°F (10°C) or lower, the system will allow operation of the heated seat during a remote start (Rosh 2013).

2.5 Type of car seat material
To fabricate a ventilated car seat Nylon Fabric, Faux Vinyl, PCV, Vinyl, Faux Leather, Suede and Brushed Nylon is the common material used. Each material is described briefly in section 2.5.1 to 2.5.7.
2.5.1 Nylon Fabric
Nylon can come of many colour because it has a durable, hard-wearing upholstery fabric. fabrics can also be drawn into most shapes and are readily dyed to colour key with other parts of vehicle interior. Because nylon is weaved, it is harder to tear than some fabrics. It is also very stain resistant, providing you can wash out any spills before the dry. It is also the most popular form of fabric found in most automobiles. It is available in many colours and is the least expensive form of trim for your vehicle (Willis, 2014).
2.5.2 Faux Vinyl
This is actually a vinyl which takes on the characteristics of leather or suede or other types of material. It is hard-wearing and can have the appearance and shine of soft leather or the dullness of fabric trim. Faux vinyl is a mock vinyl which emulates the real article at a fraction of the cost (Willis, 2014).
2.5.3 PCV Leather
Commonly known as soft plastic, this is a vinyl style-material that is pliable and easy to form. It stretches well and is used in lower-end models of cars and vans. It can be coloured or made in black and white, but it is notorious for being sticky to sit on during the summer. Heat has a tendency to make the upholstery sweat and the driver of the vehicle is best advised not to wear shorts in the summer if their vehicle is lined with PVC (Willis, 2014).
2.5.4 Vinyl
Easy to wipe clean, durable and hard wearing, vinyl is another coonly used material in the making of automobile upholstery. It has similar properties to PVC but vinyl can soft, hard, pliable or firm. You might be aware that old LP records were made from vinyl but, because it is used in a different capacity for upholstery, it can be as soft as velvet although it will still make the skin sweat during hot periods of weather (Willis, 2014).
2.5.5 Faux Leather
Faux leather is a very versatile material that can be made to appear like almost anything. People have covered their car seats in fake crocodile skin, fake snake’s skin and even dinosaur prints. It behaves like leather and is easy to wipe clean. Spillages can be quickly dealt with so faux leather doesn’t stain easily and is very durable (Willis, 2014).
2.5.6 Suede
Cloth-based suede fabrics are a nice choice for an automobile interior. Suede is soft to the touch and feels like brushed cotton. This automobile fabric is not used as often because it stains easily and it not as durable for many types of automobile use (Willis, 2014).
2.5.7 Brushed Nylon
Brushed nylon is soft and warm and ideal for an interior seat cover or door trim. It is a thick fabric that is usually just under a ¼ thick when used in vehicles. It seems well and is a firm, durable material which is quite hard to tear (Willis, 2014).

2.6 Type of material duct
Ducts are conduits or passages used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) to deliver and remove air. The needed airflows include, for example, supply air, return air, and exhaust air. Ducts commonly also deliver ventilation air as part of the supply air. As such, air ducts are one method of ensuring acceptable indoor air quality as well as thermal comfort. Each material is show in section 2.51 to 2.5.4.we decided the flexible duct with aluminium is our material use to connect the airflow to the car seat.
2.6.1 Fabric Hose
This is actually an air distribution device and is not intended as a conduit for conditioned air. The term fabric duct is therefore somehow misleading; fabric air dispersion system would be the more definitive name. However, as it often replaces hard ductwork, it is easy to perceive it simply as a duct. Usually made of polyester material, fabric ducts can provide a more even distribution and blending of the conditioned air in a given space than a conventional duct system. They may also be manufactured with vents or orifices. Fabric duct offers also many benefits such as low cost, lightweight and easy installation, a uniform distribution of air, and a wide spectrum of available colours and sizes.
2.6.2 Metal ducts
Such ducts are made from sheet metal (galvanized or stainless steel, copper, aluminium), cut and shaped to the required geometry for the air distribution system. Since metal is a good thermal conductor, such ducts require thermal insulation, the commonest material for which is glass wool, usually in roll form (known as ‘wraps’ or ‘wrapped insulation’), wrapped around the outer duct wall. Wraps incorporate an aluminium foil facing that acts as a vapour barrier. Insulation can also be installed on the inner wall of the duct (‘duct liners’), as glass wool duct wraps or duct slabs faced with a glass matting or mesh providing acoustic insulation and strengthening the inner face of the duct.
2.6.3 Flexible duct
Flexible ducts these usually consist of two aluminium and polyester concentric tubes. A glass wool layer is inserted between the two tubes as thermal insulation. Their use is generally limited to short lengths, due to high pressure drop-off and the acoustic. The ducts can be deployed in hardly accessible places of the building and when it is difficult to plan how to connect boxes to the suspended ceiling. With 10-metre sections you can save time, as you do not have to work with short sections, and 120cm large cartons make their handling and storage quite easy. With its 25mm thick mineral wool insulation and a perforated tube inside, the duct also serves as a silencer.
2.6.4 Plastic ducts
This category includes ducts made from plastic or foam boards, shaped by cutting and folded to produce the required cross-sectional geometry. Boards are faced usually with an aluminium coating both internally and external. The main drawback of this type of ducting is their fire classification. Even if they comply with local standards, when exposed to fire they often exhibit poor performance in terms of the production of both smoke and flaming droplets.

2.7 Decision Matrix for duct
Decision matrix was used to make decision for conceptual design later, a few criteria was included in our decision matrix. These criteria included are insulation, safety, cost, weight, heat resistance, appearance.
Criteria % Fabric hose Flexible duct( aluminium) Plastic duct Metal duct
Insulation 20 2 3 2 1
Safety 20 2 2 3 1
Heat resistance 20 2 3 2 1
Cost 20 2 2 3 1
Weight 10 2 2 3 1
Appearance 10 3 3 1 2
Total 100 13 15 14 10
Table 2.2 Decision Matrix for duct table
1=bad/ high cost /high weight, 2=median, 3= good/low cost/ low weight
Based on the decision matrix table, we can conclude that the aluminium flexible duct has the highest total value among all the material of duct. Fabric hose has a scored 13 while metal duct only scored 10 and the plastic scored 14. Conclusion, the flexible aluminium duct will be choosen in design.?
Chapter 3: Conceptual Design
3.1 Introduction
This chapter comprises of considering factors on conceptual design such as compliance with standard, environmental and sustainability, and ethical consideration. Also, the detailed conceptual for different designs and the decision matrix to select the best conceptual design for our project.
3.2 Compliance with Standard
3.2.1 Comfort
A ventilated car seat able to impact the society by increasing comfort on passengers. The car seat is commonly used during day-to-day driving, hence it is an influential factor on drivers and passengers. Individuals mostly spend long periods of time sitting on the seat in the same position. In addition, the car seat will trapped the hot air while exposing long time under sunlight and thus causing discomfort on users. Besides, the material of car seat does not often meet the thermal comfort needs of users. The main purpose of ventilation car seat is to provide comfortable seat while driving.
In Malaysia, once the driver get into the vehicle after a car parked at outdoors, they will experience thermal discomfort. Temperatue in a closed car after exposed under the sun will increases more than 20°C above the ambient temperature. Therefore, with our product of ventilated car seat, the user could experience thermal comfort. Thermal comfort is defined as the state of mind is expressing satisfaction and comfortable with the surrounding environment (Eduard, 2016).
Individuals can be easily visualize the temperature of the car seat on their smart devices. As the development of wireless technology is improving, the integration of connected cars from impossible become possible. Recently, Apple has launched the car platform as named as “CarPlay”. The driver able to get directions, listen to music, make calls or even send and receive messages that directly shows on car’s built in display (Jihoon, 2016). Thus, the performance of ventilated car seat are enhanced and improve the design and also its features by cooling the temperature of seat that requested from outside the car. With this features, ventilated car seat enable individual to remain comfortable over different range of ambient temperatures of the car seat.
In addition, ventilated car seat able to remove the heat absorption effectively and remain at desired temperature. It allows the user to control the thermal seat with the smart devices and alter the temperature of car seat immediately from outside the car without affecting the thermal environment. Thus, this ventilated car seat able to increase the level of comfort in the most efficient way.
Furthermore, the drivers or passengers able sit on the car seat at comfort temperature without opening the windows when they feel uncomfortably hot while sitting on the seat. As they sit on the car seat after some period, the energy dissipation from the under thighs and lower back will cause the temperature of car seat to increase. With the ventilated car seat, it able to maintain the temperature between the individual and the seat until it reaches thermal equilibrium. Hence, driver and passenger are ensured to be comfort during the distance travelled.
As a conclusion, ventilated car seat will enable the user to have a comfort seat during driving. It able to view and control the temperature of seat from outside the car by just connecting with the smart devices. Not only that, it able to maintain the seat at desired temperature no matter how long the user sit on it. Thus, it will increase and improve the level of comfort easily and effectively (Aniket et al, 2016).
3.2.2 Health
The others impact of ventilated car seat on society such as health issues. It may increase the seated person’s overall thermal comfort and reduce the transfer of heat to the back of driver. The hot air that trap inside the car might affect the health of user and performance of driving. Thus the ventilated car seat is very important and bring a lot of benefits to the vehicle user.
First of all, the car that parked outdoor mostly would absorb the solar radiation from sun and eventually increases the inlet vehicle temperature. Besides, the temperature of pelvis and the back of driver and car passenger also rises once they sit on the car seat that has absorbed the heat trap from surrounding. When the body temperature rises more than the body optimal temperature, it may causes thermal discomfort to an individual. However, if the body temperature continue rises more than 37°C, the individual might experience heat exhaustion and heat stroke and are a part of continuum. Heat exhaustion on individual when his or her temperature reaches in the range of 37°C to 40°C will experience headache, dizziness, malaise, thirsty and weakness. Meanwhile, the core temperature in heat stroke is greater than 40°C and it is a life-threatening illness. When a victim sitting inside a vehicle at high core temperature, the victim will trigger neurological dysfunction, delirium, nausea and coma (Chan, 2015). Hence, with the ventilated car seat, the heat would dissipates faster and would not trap on the car seat. The user would not experience body temperature rises, sweating in order to dissipated heat out from body, increase in heart rate as organ works in order to cool down and lowering core body temperature. At the same time, the performance in driving long journey is not affected and thus bringing thermal comfort for a seated person. Obviously, ventilated car seat would not causing the user to experience heat related illness.
Moreover, the design of the prototype enable to cool the back which are well in contact surface with the seat. In fact, when the user sitting on the seat in the same position more than half an hour in a journey, the seated person might dissipates heat from the back of body to the car seat and thus causing the temperature of the car seat also increases. If the heat does not escape from the car seat, the temperature of the seated person adversely increases and causes thermal discomfort. However, the concept of ventilated car seat may solve this problem of heat flow from the back of the seated person. It able to transfer the heat and cooling the human back at desired temperature. Hence, ventilated car seat able to achieve the concept of body cooling and enhance the thermal comfort in body health.
Furthermore, prolonged periods of sitting may causes postural problems and damage to the potential skin tissue. In order to improve the posture performance, ventilated car seat are designed in a contoured shape which are matching to our shape of vertebra. Good position of sitting would enhanced the postural problems and the comfort of seating is improved. Thus, the pressure that developed from sitting in a long period and the risk of skin damage are reduced. The contoured surface of the ventilated car seat are allowed the air from air conditioning are draws and flow along the contoured shape in order to cool the back of seated person. Thus, heat is no longer trap at the contact surface with the user (Liu, 2017).
As a result, the ventilated car seat interface temperature has played a vital role in the evaluation of comfort perceived by the user. It can enhance thermal comfort, dissipates heat loss, reduce the heat trap on the car seat and reduce overall heat related illness.
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3.2.3 Safety
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3.3 Environmental and Sustainability

Environmental requirements also consider as one of the impact on society. Citizen in Malaysia normally experience thermal discomfort in car due to Malaysia experiences summer in four seasons. Eduard demonstrated that in order to cool the inlet car which is parked under the sun in prolonged period, the driver might turned on the air conditioning in high speed of cool air flow. Apparently, fuel consumption of the car increases and eventually increases the emissions of carbon dioxide to the surrounding and causes pollution in environment (Eduard, 2016).
Meanwhile, the components of the prototype ventilated car seat are selected as material that friendly use and eco-friendly. The ventilated car seat able to cool down the seated person and thus reduce further emissions of carbon dioxide to the environment. Therefore, all the part of ventilated car seat are considering this criterion and further enhanced the performance.
Besides, the consideration for the components of the prototype such as material are selected wisely. This is to ensure that the materials of PU foam, seat cushion and others are well absorb heat from the seated person in order to achieve the thermal comfort. In addition, the material selected for the prototype would not causes toxic to the user and polluted to the environment. The seat cover’s material can be reusable which can be used on other car seat instead of throwing away or dispose straightly. Consequently, it can continues to be a useful and valuable item that able to reduce heat absorption on the car seat when in use. Hence, it can fully utilize the product and reduce amount of waste to the landfills.
Furthermore, the material selected for the prototype is high standard and good quality. The strength of material for the prototype could withstand the stress from any possible occurrence and beyond the elastic limit. This is to ensure our product is durable and reliable. Thus, the product can be used at a certain long lasting period. In consequence, maintenance and extra material used to repair the product can be reduced further, thus reduce harmful effect on the environment.
In conclusion, environmental factor encourage the proper design of ventilated car seat and material are ensured to be selected wisely. This is to achieve the environmental requirement and reduce further pollution to our living.

3.4 Ethical Consideration
The consideration of ethics is concerned and forms the major element in the research. According to Shuriye (2011), ethics is refer to the systematic study of values, standard of conduct, evaluate moral concept and identify between the right and wrong. With the ethics, engineers able to critically understand and reflect the moral issues in engineering practices.
One of the ethical consideration is the research information should be authentic and any misleading information is avoided. The data collection from the resources or participants is accurate and any insufficient data or information is not included in the research. The research is done carefully to ensure the information provided is reliable and any careless errors that may lead to research misconduct. All the information of the research is done with transparency and honesty.
Moreover, the research respondents or research participants are voluntary and had not been subject to any coercion for participation in the research through online surveying method. They are ensured not subjected to any harmful threat when they not willing to participate in surveying. Also, the respondents or participants have the right to withdraw from the research process at any time. Their recorded data will automatically been removed from the analysis once they withdraw from involving in the research.
Furthermore, all the respondents are ensured to be fully informed and understand the implication of their participation in the research. The interpretations of the research that presented should be done honestly and transparency. The research finding are communicated in nontechnical language and in compact narration when face to face interview or through online surveying form. Any possible conflicts of interest in the research have to declare to prevent any possible risk happens on respondents that may affect the study result in the research.
Besides that, the privacy of the respondents or research participants is protected. The responses obtained from the participants without permission will not be disclosed to others publicly. The researcher has the responsibility to protect the respondents and avoid causing any discomfort on them due to their involvement in the research process. Thus, the trustworthy relationship between the respondents and the researcher is built.
Generally, ethical considerations should be aware and concerned when the research is carried out by the researcher. When the ethics is considered, the respondents or participants in the research project is protected. Thus, the research able to be done smoothly and any mistake or misrepresentation of the research is avoided.

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3.5 Sketching
Design A

Design B

Design C

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3.6 Explanation design how ventilated car seats work
Based the all design sketches in Figure 3.5 it shows 3 different design types of ventilated car seats thereby will further elaborate more on these individual design about working principles, pros and cons, and comparison.
3.6.1 Design A
Design A is shown in Figure 3.5.1(a) to 3.5.1(c). This design come with radial fan and thermoelectric device (TED) as it placed on centre of backrest cushion and bottom seats cushion. The extra components used on normal car seats are radial fan, TED, wiring harness, exhaust tube, exhaust tube bezel, bottle of water, power supply and control switch. The working principles to achieve ventilated car seats is to rely radial fan blow air to the TED, then TED produce cold air to vent tube and flow to cushion as it reduces the temperature of cushion. When engine ignite, the power supply generate electricity to Arduino, radial fan, TED, and control switch as it connected to Arduino by programming code and wiring.
Furthermore, in order to allow the car seats to cool efficiently several hole was drilled on the seat cushion to reduce temperature effectively since the air flow is easier to transfer from bottom to top surface. On the other hand, TED will produce cool and hot air at different exhaust port but our intention is to retain cold air and eliminate ambient hot air by using vent tube to exhaust hot air to bottom of the car seats then enter bottle of water to reject hot air and bezel was installed to get nice looking. While backrest cushion will be similar to bottom seats cushion.
Overall, this design has great reduction in temperature due to TED was used with radial fan thus it has greater air flow than axial fan since a radial fan typically has a fan characteristic with a steeper pressure curve. Cons of the air system, for example by heavy user or dirty air ducts resulting in reduced fan performance. Since the radial fan is located in the foot well of a passenger sitting behind the seat, it can be damaged accidentally if its construction is not sufficiently sturdy. This is largely prevented by the robust design and the anchoring to the seat frame.

3.6.2 Design B
Design B is show in Figure 3.5.2(a) to 3.5.2(c) emphasis on modification of material and axial fan. This design is to change material to coconut fibre due to the ability of heat dissipated is great and recyclable material. Besides, axial fan was used while it was bind on centre of seats cushion with the common size of 100mm*100mm and using duct tube to allow air flow to cushion easily. Small hole was drilled on cushion to let the air flow pass through and reduce upper surface of car seats temperature effectively. Furthermore, fan, switch, power supply, and Arduino were connected similar to design A.
For the backrest cushion two axial fan were used yet it placed at above and below of the centre as reference due to the size of backrest cushion is definitely larger than the bottom cushion since axial fan performance is low. Besides that, everything is similar to bottom seats. Benefits of coconut fibre is weak heat absorption and great heat dissipated but it cost more than normal material. Cons of the design B is similar to design A.

3.6.3 Design C
Design C is show in Figure 3.5.3(a) to 3.5.3(d). This design concept is able to generate two states which is heating and cooling effect as the air flow is from automobiles air conditioning system since the air flowing through dashboard compartment and to the foot compartment are commonly known thus a flexible aluminium duct tube was connected between air conditioning system to lower surface of backrest, and bottom seats cushion. Since air conditioning will produce small amount of water vapour due to sudden vary in temperatures, it will bring harmful effects to cushion thus a sponge was used to absorb water and prevent it damaged the cushion. Since user sit on cushion will apply pressure to sponge leads to water eject from sponge before it dry, so at the lower surface centre part of cushion need to remove it to some thickness in order for sponge to be fitted in.
Furthermore, since using flexible aluminium duct tube hence no worry about the position of duct tube as it can be placed side or middle then meet to centre part of cushion. Moreover, cushion have few small hole (d?15mm) to let the air flow from duct tube to pass through cushion and hit on the seats cover surface then temperature will vary significantly.
The design can be used as automated or manual, if automated ventilated car seats are made, a temperature sensors is required to put into the seat cushion to detect the desired temperature range from user setting through radio system screen as it will send to Powertrain Control Module (PCM) acts as the brains of the car system thus the air conditioning system will flow air to car seats. Moreover, it can be controlled wirelessly by using smartphone with the apps Carplay and before entering the car all it needs is to take out smartphones then the car seats temperature is control at desired temperature. On the other hand, if manual ventilated car seats are made, basically just turn the switch to foot compartment or maybe new compartment as car seats on dashboard then the air conditioning system will flow air to car seats. Therefore, automated and manual is suitable for modern and former automobiles.
Overall, this design is applicable to all country whether you live in hot weather states or cold weather states, heated and cooled seats (or ventilated seats) are perfect for a hot day or a chilly late night. Safety, cheaper, better and comfortable has achieved in this design.
3.7 Decision Matrix
Decision matrix was used to make decision from the 3 conceptual ideas previously, a few criteria are include in our decision matrix. These criteria are comfort, safety, cost, weight, ventilation effect, appearance. Comfort, safety, ventilation effect are given priorities compare to the other criteria.
Criteria % Design A Design B Design C
Comfort 20 3 60 3 60 4 80
Safety 20 2 40 2 40 4 80
Ventilation 20 4 80 3 60 4 80
Cost 20 2 40 3 60 3 60
Weight 10 4 80 4 80 4 80
Appearance 10 4 80 3 60 2 40
Total 380 360 420
Table 3.7 Decision Matrix Table
Based on the decision matrix table, we can conclude that design C has the highest total value among all the designs. Design A scored 380 while Design B only scored 360. In conclusion, Design C was chosen.
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Chapter 4: Final Design

4.1 Introduction
This chapter involves the detailed of

4.2 Final Design (SolidWorks)

Figure 4.2(a): Front view of the design.

Figure 4.2(b): Side view of the design.

Figure 4.2(c): Top view of the design.

Figure 4.2 (d): side view of the inside

Figure 4.2 (e): overview of the final design

In the Sitting Position (Low), four of the rear wheels and two of the front wheels touch the surface of the ground. The seat is sitting………………………………………………….
(explain)
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4.3 Prototype

Chapter 5: Analysis and Discussion
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5.2 Calculation and Results

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction
This chapter describes about the background of an overview of ventilated car seat, function analysis, problem statements, objective, research methodology, methodology and benefits for the project.
1.2 Overview
According to a press release issued by market research agency Nielsen in the year of 2014 (Nielsen, 2014) Malaysia placing third in the world with 93 percent car ownership, and the country also has the highest incidence of multiple car ownership globally with 54 percent of households having more than one car, thus car seat is the most important integral part of automobile. From the time begin when there existed simple benches until today with massaging chairs, where automobile seats have changed immensely over time.
However, hinder the heat and moisture transport from the human back to the environment bringing thermal discomfort for a seated person. A seated person exposed to air flow while the bottom and the back are well surrounded with the seat structure material. In fact, a seated person dissipates heat from the back and bottom leads to raise in temperature of the seats and adversely rises the temperature of the back (Hatoum et al., 2017). Thus, moisture accumulation at the back affecting thermal comfort.
Ventilated car seat is a feature to cool down seat for improving thermal comfort. This feature has been most commonly offered for the front seats. In recent times, with the implementation of modern three-point seatbelt along with airbags it made drivers safer. Besides, Heating and cooling features has turn car seats into ambient zones on-the-go thus our modification mainly improved thermal comfort and quick vary in temperature. Conclusively, the excessive of features and functions on present car seats turned them into an extremely complex system like automated ventilation car seats.
In order to manufacture our Ventilated Car Seat, fabrication is using low cost material to upgrade existing car seats to ventilated car seats with cooling and heating effects thus applicable to hot and cold weather. Furthermore, for design drawing SOLIDWORK 2017 was used and decision matrix method was used for selection. Besides, Arduino, Powertrain Control Module (PCM), wiring diagram, Matlab and programming maybe needed.
Our targeted customer are car owners and automobiles manufacturer where their goal is to drag attention of the market and provide comfortable car seats to people. Moreover, ventilated car seats could provide people with pleasant journey.
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1.3 Function Analysis
Before solving the problem, building a functional model allow us to analyze the interactions between various components and focus into the problem. Table 1 shows the system, subsystem, and supersystem components of the car seats.
System Subsystem Supersystem
Car Seats Seat track Seat cushion wire User
Headrest Cushion Headrest metal structure Car
Backrest Cushion Seat backrest metal structure Moisture
Seat base Cushion Seat base metal structure Sunlight
Seatbelt Height adjuster components Heat
Seat back inclination adjustment
Table 1: System of Car seats.
Note: Headrest Cushion, Backrest Cushion and Seat base Cushion are named as Cushion.
Figure 1: Function analysis of car seats problems
Based on Figure 1, factor that causes raise in temperature is sunlight and user contact with cushion thus high temperature is harmful to user. Therefore, cushion heat is the problem that make user discomfort since sunlight is unavoidable circumstances.?
1.4 Problem Statements
Scant knowledge in the field, and limited research, has led to very few advancements in regards to ventilation car seat. The system has not much significantly differences over the timespan, their Main parameter value is to cool the occupant more effectively, but constraint is less changes to the current seat structure as possible to maintain comfortability. Besides, observed through multiple scientific articles, the complex biology of the humans combined with the uniqueness of body leads to a challenge in creating a universal ventilated car seats.
When driving long journey sitting on the seat will causes raise in temperature, since the heat are unable to dissipated, hence leads to hips and back feels hot from cushion and uncomfortable, besides it could easily lead to various diseases. Due back and hips without ventilation, the driver can easily get acne, eczema and other health problems on hips. Furthermore, drivers got sweat on hips and back cause driver feels sticky and uncomfortable then driver lost concentration causes traffic safety problems might happens. (Shenzhen car life Technology Co., Ltd., 2016) However, nowadays cars are equipped with air-conditioning, but the cold air are unable to reach driver and passenger hips and back. Although there are some cushion designed to be inflated or filled with water, this type of cushion unable to reduce temperature significantly and when user sitting on it have swing feel, as it’s extremely unsafe.
Besides that, the other reason car seats is hot due to the sunlight coming through the car’s windows. The car acts as a greenhouse, and heats up objects in the car as the car seats, dashboard, and other object can reach up to 40-50 degrees Celsius in direct sunlight (Staff, 2014). Those objects mentioned give off energy, and that is what heats up the air inside the car thereby when user open the car door, user feels the hot air inside the car and the car seats is hot causes user unlike to sit immediately exceptional case will be the user is in a rush yet have no choice but to sit on it. Moreover, the constantly changing driving conditions, and a weather system differing from place to place has put up extreme challenges towards the development of seat ventilation.
Ventilation car seat is a modified car seat to allow users to sit comfortably. This phenomena in turn lead to many problems including the user need to waste time on waiting the car seat to be cold, or by placing something on the car seat.
1.5 Objectives

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1.5.1 The objective of the capstone project are to design a Ventilated Car seat that provides additional cooling ability to the user is the priorities in this modification so that user can have pleasant driving experiences.

1.5.2 To design a ventilated car seats allow users can choose not only cooling effects but also introducing heating effects for chilly late night.

1.5.3 To fabricate the ventilated car seat that can speed up the cooling effects on the car seats.

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1.6 Research Methodology
Research methodology need to be done before beginning the project. To collect useful information for the aim of the capstone project objectives this is important process to go through. Thence, the information collected can be used to develop the project and to achieve the objectives. There are several ways of methodology to be used for research and to run the project. Hence, the information research from articles, journal, patent, book, internet, and survey from people were used in this project.
Information research is a key to develop a ventilated car seats, the history, type, components, materials selection for ventilated car seats, the related information has to be studied and determined. By doing so, the problem statement for the existing car seats can be determined thus improvement can be made to build a comfortable ventilated car seats.
Moreover, survey form is conducted in this project. This survey form is to research on what customers need and ask for their ideas on improvement. Nowadays google survey form is common used to gather opinions from society and environmentally friendly. Therefore, to achieve and improve the project will be more liable.

Furthermore, SOLIDWORK 2017 will be used for design purpose. This is a powerful tools to draw 3D design, SOLIDWORKS is well known 3D CAD software tool. Besides, it consists of simulation allow us to test the designs and make the decisions to improve quality. Moreover, enables us to determine product mechanical resistance, product durability, natural frequencies, and test heat transfer.

In addition, the software Mindview 7 can be used in drawing the Gantt chart for the milestone and the timeline of the project. Ensure the project was complete on time, perform this is to arrange the time wisely and accurately.
1.7 Methodology

(Excellent product design methods/routes are described in detail, and practicable. Clear process flow and various modern tools are utilised to solve all anticipate problems.)

1.8 Benefits of the project
An innovative ventilated car seats will improve customer satisfaction, safety and health benefits. Moreover, able to drag the attention of market in automobiles owners and manufacturer.
On the other hand, the benefits of the project will be the opportunity to demonstrate the skills and knowledge we have learned. Besides, allow us to build skills in problem analysis, market research, problem analysis, product development, business case preparation, presentation and public speaking. In addition, enhance project management, teamwork and problem solving skills. Furthermore, develop expertise in car seats problem area while understanding circumstance and constraints, for example social, legal, economic, cultural conditions and etc.?
Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction
This chapter describes about the history of a ventilated car seat, type of car seat, component of ventilated car seat and material used and type of material duct for ventilated car seat.
2.2 History
Car was invented before modern car seat is created. The origin of the idea of the automobile came from Europe. Inventors began to test automobiles with engines operate using steam during the eighteenth century. Nicolas Cugnot from France had designed, constructed and operated a tractor that powered by a steam engine back in 1769. Unfortunately, the funding for Cugnot’s road vehicle trails presumably ended with one of Cugnot’s supporter deceased after a series of automobile accident. During the early 1800s, Richard Trevithick from England constructed a steam-powered carriage which leads to various other British engineers creating and commercially operated steam vehicles which can carry passengers. However, the limitation of uses of such vehicles on the public roads hindered their efforts of constructing steam operated vehicles. Innovation of railroads was made when they were forced to turn their attention to conducting trains or carriages on private rails. During 1860, a French engineer named Etienne Lenoir invented an internal combustion engine that used illuminating gas as the fuel and ignition with electric sparks. This engine was used to drive machinery and rapidly became the first commercial gas engine. In 1866, Otto and Langen from Germany developed the four-stroke cycle which is widely known today when they tried to improve the gas engine which is previously made by Etienne Lenoir. A German named Daimler used the Otto cycle in a gas vapor engine and the following year he applied his petrol engine to a motor car in 1885. The very first car or automobile was built and sold in 1892 by the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. Daimler’s engine was used in France by Emile Levassor who then designed a vehicle which set the basic mechanical pattern for modern automobiles (Nyamwange et al., 2014).
Many modifications and changes had been made on automobile since then to improve the safety of those who drive or ride on a motorized vehicle. The first car seat appeared in the 1930s. Since the main purpose of the car seat is to keep the children in place when car was moving, there was no any safety consideration on it. A company named Bunny Bear Company produced a seat which is basically a booster seat that hooks onto the back of an actual car seat in 1933. The main purpose of this seat is for the parents to keep an eye on their children. In the 1940s, another type of car seat which has a metal frame attached to it. This type of car seat allows children to get a better view out from the window but it was not designed for safety but more to convenience. Safety of car seat was not prioritized until 1960s. Briton Jean Ames and Leonard Rivkin took child safety in their mind while creating car seat which include seat belts on it. Briton Jean Ames designed a rear-facing seat that featured a Y-strap which is similar to the modern seat while Leonard Rivkin created a seat that had a metal frame surrounded by a buckle like a high chair. But their idea was not well received by people since the public were not educated on the benefits of safety in a moving vehicle. After that, Ford developed the Tot-Guard in 1968 which is a plastic chair that contains padded area in front of the child’s face. Shortly after that, General Motors (GM) also released ‘Love Seats’ that came in two versions, one for children and one for infants. Seat belts were meant to keep children in place. Then there came the Bobby Mac convertible seat. Several laws and regulations were then adopted to improve the safety of car seats. Seat belt is one of the most common and important feature of modern car seat. The use of seat belts on car seat enhances the safety of vehicle by a lot. Vehicles are now produced which have a significant safety content for occupant restraint, crash-worthiness and crash avoidance. The major developments in restraint systems during the early 1980s were focused to improve their comfort in order to increase the likelihood of the seat belt being worn. From the mid-1980s onwards, enhancement of the occupant safety has been emphasised. Seat belts help to link the occupant directly to the passenger compartment or the car seat which then allow the occupant to ride down the crash as the vehicle’s front-end crushes. Later product introductions aim to control occupant trajectories in accidents which prevent the driver to get thrown out of the car due to inertia and limit the effects of contact with vehicle interior to prevent additional injuries. Usage of seat belt on car seat had significantly improves the effectiveness of the total occupant protection system of car seat. (King et al,. 1996)
2.3 Type of car seat
2.3.1 Side-Slip Seat
Side-slip seat is a relatively new type of seat founded in 2007 by Molon Labe, LLC (company). This type of seat was introduced because of its potential to reduce the aircraft boarding time under operational conditions. Side-slip seat is a seat where the middle seat is fixed and the 2 seat beside can be move.

(a) (b) (c)
Figure 2.1: Side-slip seat
With the innovative technology of the Side-Slip Seat, the available infrastructure could be dynamically changed to support the boarding process by providing a wider aisle that allow two passengers to pass each other in a convenient way. During boarding phase, the aisle seat or the outer seat is hand-pushed half over the middle seat, which is in a staggered position like shown in figure 2.1(c). The passenger or stewardess can simply grabs the seat at the side and pull out into a locked position to unfold the seat to normal position. Before the aircraft takes off, all seats have to be in the normal position and locked which need the passenger or crew to press a mechanical button on the side which lock the seat and prevent it from being pushed or pulled during the flight.

Figure 2.2: Example of Side-slip seat
The developed boarding model is adapted to allow the parallel movement of two passengers along the aisle. Furthermore, the dynamic status of the seat row (folded/unfolded) is implemented to enable or disable the parallel movement. If both sides of the aisle are in the initial folded condition, a second passenger can pass without reducing the walking speed. If only one side is folded, the walking speed is reduced to 50%. If both sides are used by passengers and the Side-Slip Seats are unfolded, only one passenger is allowed to move in the aisle (Schultz, 2017).

2.3.2 Infant Car Seat
The rear-facing Infant Car Seat (ICS) was designed to meet the federal and state legal requirements for transporting children which is less than 1 year old. Infant Car Seat is a type of seat which main purpose is to protect an infant in the event of a crash or car accident. However, since they are used for child which is 1 year old when they could not move effectively on their own, they also often serve as a form of transport for infant over short distances since the infant car seat is portable and convenient. Most of the modern ICSs can be attached to a stroller to create a so called “travel system” so that it can be carried around easily. To remove ICS from a car, we need to rotate the carrying handle from a locked position to carrying position, then unlock ICS from the secure base, lift and place it in a stroller. A review of ICSs available in the market (from large retailers) revealed that the weight of ICS is approximately 4.5kg and it can hold infant with maximum weight of 13.6kg.

Figure 2.3: Infant car seat (ICS).
There is also a problem where it is difficult and potentially dangerous task to lift the infant car seat because of the awkwardness of the posture combined with the weight of baby and the ICS itself (Clamann et al, 2012).

2.3.3 Ergonomics Seat
Ergonomics or human factors engineering can simply be defined as the science of designing for people. Knowledge about human characteristics and capabilities were being applied to the design of car seat. Gathering knowledge about people involves multiple approaches with emphasis on anthropometry, biomechanics, psychology, statistic and so forth. Every discipline has an important role in the car seat development process. Ergonomic chair or seat is a critical step in preventing health problems in people who is in a sitting position for a long period of time. With the ergonomics approach, sitting is viewed as a specific, specialized activity which is influenced by the way that a person who is sitting interacts with his environment. Car seat is just one of the features contributing to automotive ergonomics. Automotive ergonomics used formula to optimize the car environment like the positioning of the driver, height of the waistline of the car relative to the driver’s hips and eyes, form of the bonnet and etc (Gkikas, 2013).

2.3.4 Folding Seat
Folding seat is a type of seat where one can fold it down. This type of seat is usually used by big cars.

Figure 2.4: Folding seat
Some of the rear right seats are foldable to enhance movement of passengers during boarding and alighting as shown in the figure above (Tetteh et al, 2017).

2.3.5 Bench Seat
The bench seat was the traditional seat installed in most of the American or Australian automobiles. Bench seats are usually supported by metallic frames and upholstered. A bench seat usually only reaches up to about the shoulder level of an adult sitting on it. Bench seats are only being used in the second row of seating in most of the common cars or the third row of SUVs and minivans (Tetteh et al, 2017).

Figure 2.5: Bench seat.

2.3.6 Bucket Seat
A bucket seat is a type of seat found in motorized vehicles that is intended for a single person and is usually defined in contrast to a bench seat where bench seat is intended for more than 1 person. Bucket seat has head and neck support compare to bench seat. It also often equipped with a head rest. Bucket seat is the most common kind of driver’s seat for common cars but this is not the case for driver’s seats in trucks. Many trucks are designed with a bench seat in the front.

Figure 2.6: Bucket Seat

Summarize of all type of car seat:
Type of seat Safety Comfort Convenience Health Cost
Side-slip seat – – + – –
Infant car seat + + – – –
Ergonomics seat + + – + –
Folding seat – – + – +
Bench seat – – – – +
Bucket seat – + – – +
Table 2.1: Overall view for type of seats

From Table 2.1, pros from each seat were chosen and integrated into the design. From side-slip seat, no feature could be taken into the design because this type of seat is designed for airplane and allow passenger to board with ease. Seat belt is a must for safety purpose, so seat belt feature from the type of seat above was taken and put into the design. For folding seat, the folding feature which allows driver or passenger to fold the car seat is good and was taken into consideration of our design. For bucket seat, we use this type of seat as the basic model of our design as this is the most commonly seen type of car seat on the market now.
2.4 Component of ventilated car seat
The main purpose of seat ventilation is to prevent perspiring occupants from feeling uncomfortable by sticking to leather-covered seats, for example. At the same time, thermal regulation creates an agreeable microclimate that keeps the driver comfortable longer. The processes that take place where the seat and occupant are in contact are vitally important for efficient moisture removal. The surface of the seat receives no direct airflow, only ventilation from behind. In order to allow the airflow here to run parallel to the seat surface, the structure below the seat cover must also be sufficiently permeable. For example like the picture below shows a configuration with eight fans on the Mercedes SL driver’s seat, where the fans draw in air from below or, in the case of the seat back, from behind and blow it out over the two exposed seat surfaces. A reverse flow of direction can also be achieved without any major difference in the resulting flow volume.

2.4.1 Car seat backrest

Figure 2.4.1 upholstery of a backrest.
A plastic front seat backrest is shown in Figure 2.4.1 are made of high-strength composite material, enabling design freedom on seat backrest for new premium interior styling. For example, The combined first-row composite seatbacks like Weigh almost 20% less than conventional seatbacks, reducing CO2 emissions over the life of the vehicle by an estimated 100 kilograms and Are 15% thinner than the industry’s thinnest seats, leading to 10 litters of additional interior cabin volume. The lighter weight can yield improved fuel performance for internal combustion, hybrid and all-electric vehicles; and less fuel consumption means fewer emissions of greenhouse gases. At the same time, the significantly thinner seatbacks allow designers either to provide more leg room to the second-row occupants or to shorten the overall length of the vehicle, thereby further reducing its total weight. The seatback is a technically mature system that has been fully validated for reliability, safety and comfort. Designers now have entirely new opportunities to customize and adapt seatbacks in vehicles. Since they are created with injection molding systems, the composite seatbacks allow for novel shapes and accessories to be added for the comfort of front seat occupants and the convenience of second-row passengers (Vinod, 2016).
2.4.2 Thermoelectric device
A thermoelectric device as shown in Figure 2.4.2 was used to control the temperature of the car-seat surface: the warm temperature in the summer and cold temperature in the winter. The characteristics of the thermoelectric device for the car-seat were analysed in relation to the input voltage and output temperature of the device (Bell. 2013).

Figure 2.4.2 thermoelectric cooling system

2.4.3 Compact centrifugal fan or radial fan for car seat ventilation
A fan device is show in Figure 2.4.3 which is built into a vehicle chair, and is arrange to ventilate away air that is drawn through the covering and filling of the vehicle chair, which has an electrically driven fan of radial type attached at the bottom of the chair. The fan wheel extends from the driving cover of the motoer, which extends up into the inlet of the fan. The fan is attached to a carrying means in the chair which is located on the underside of the filling and has passages for the ventilating air adjacent to the fan inlet.

Figure 2.4.3 radial fan device
2.4.4 SPA Seat Cushion

Figure 2.4.4 Backrest of an SPA seat Figure 2.4.5 Ventilated cushion of an SPA seat
Ventilated backrest from an SPA seat without massage function. The bigger cluster of holes is in the upper back area, while the lower back area has only four small holes. Another typical feature is grooves around various holes. These help to guide the flow in a desired direction.
When removing the foams from the frame, the only attachment is a rubber duct for seat ventilation. These two parts, like the upholstery, can be quickly assembled and disassembled without any special tools. The frame contains the attachment for the foams. The backrest is mounted to a plastic plate, where valves for the bolsters and massage bladders are.
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2.4.5 Flexible Aluminium Foil Air Ducting

Figure 2.4.6 Flexible ducting Figure 2.4.7 Flexible Aluminium Ducting Ventilation Vent Tube
To optimize the airflow through the system, a significant factor is to understand the design of the ductwork is shown in Figure 2.4.7 and Figure 2.4.8 Even though the B-side is not strictly pipes, it can be assumed to be so, for engineering purposes. Crucial parts are the outlets, inlets and areas where the flow separates. Most literature focuses on fans with as pushing system. Throughout the system, it is not relevant if the fluid is pushed or pulled through the pipe (Cory, 2005). Included in performance enhancements, one factor is to reduce the noise. This increases the performance without compromising airflow. The noise is not the most essential part for this project, but it cannot be increased. If the noise reaches a lower level the comfort increases. An essential factor is that the noise is directly coupled with duct design. This means that a good duct can improve both airflow, and reduce the noise (Tsai, 1982).

2.4.6 Pneumatic Systems (Pneumatic Seat Control)

Figure 2.4.9 Pneumatic Seat Systems for Maximum Driving Comfort
Pneumatic Seat Systems with many added functions are especially comfortable and offer clear technical advantages. The multi-contour seat function allows vehicle occupants to adapt the contour of the seat to their individual requirements. Via air cells integrated into the backrest and seat cushion the seat adjusts to fit the body. The optional massage function further enhances comfort for vehicle occupants on long journeys by means of alternate inflation and deflation of the air cells. The drive dynamic function automatically adapts the side bolsters of the seat to the current driving situation, ensuring optimum stability for occupants at all times, even when cornering. The advantages of a comfort seat are thus combined with those of a sports car seat (Tsai, 1982).

2.4.7 Seat Foam
The angle of the seat surface is about 17° from the horizontal with an extra slightly softer area to resist forward slipping of the seat bones. The area behind the seat bones has been carefully designed to provide an upward force on the buttock behind the seat bones to provide extra pelvis support, i.e. to resist backward rolling of the pelvis. The example show in Figure 2.4.10.

Figure 2.4.10 Seat foam sectioned down the centre line
Figure 2.4.12 Arduino Uno
2.4.8 Ambient Temperature sensor
The ambient air temperature sensor is located behind the bumper or grill of many vehicles and monitors the air temperature outside of the vehicle. The ambient (ATC) or outside air temperature sensor is an (NTC) negative temperature coefficient sensor that informs the semiautomatic/automatic temperature control system of outside air temperature. The NTC sensor’s resistance decreases as the outside air temperature increases. The computer uses this input, along with other in-car temperature sensors to control temperature and blower speed. When there’s a problem with this sensor, performance will suffer and the compressor’s clutch may not engage.
Ambient air temperature sensor symptoms, like an inoperative clutch or input problems are diagnosed with a scan tool and a multi meter. Use a multi meter and verify manufacturer’s specifications, (~ 220-240 ohms at 70°-80° F), to test this sensor for proper resistance. So, the sensor when it reads 80°F (27°C) or higher, it will allow the operation of the ventilated seats during a remote start. When it reads 50°F (10°C) or lower, the system will allow operation of the heated seat during a remote start (Rosh 2013).

2.5 Type of car seat material
To fabricate a ventilated car seat Nylon Fabric, Faux Vinyl, PCV, Vinyl, Faux Leather, Suede and Brushed Nylon is the common material used. Each material is described briefly in section 2.5.1 to 2.5.7.
2.5.1 Nylon Fabric
Nylon can come of many colour because it has a durable, hard-wearing upholstery fabric. fabrics can also be drawn into most shapes and are readily dyed to colour key with other parts of vehicle interior. Because nylon is weaved, it is harder to tear than some fabrics. It is also very stain resistant, providing you can wash out any spills before the dry. It is also the most popular form of fabric found in most automobiles. It is available in many colours and is the least expensive form of trim for your vehicle (Willis, 2014).
2.5.2 Faux Vinyl
This is actually a vinyl which takes on the characteristics of leather or suede or other types of material. It is hard-wearing and can have the appearance and shine of soft leather or the dullness of fabric trim. Faux vinyl is a mock vinyl which emulates the real article at a fraction of the cost (Willis, 2014).
2.5.3 PCV Leather
Commonly known as soft plastic, this is a vinyl style-material that is pliable and easy to form. It stretches well and is used in lower-end models of cars and vans. It can be coloured or made in black and white, but it is notorious for being sticky to sit on during the summer. Heat has a tendency to make the upholstery sweat and the driver of the vehicle is best advised not to wear shorts in the summer if their vehicle is lined with PVC (Willis, 2014).
2.5.4 Vinyl
Easy to wipe clean, durable and hard wearing, vinyl is another coonly used material in the making of automobile upholstery. It has similar properties to PVC but vinyl can soft, hard, pliable or firm. You might be aware that old LP records were made from vinyl but, because it is used in a different capacity for upholstery, it can be as soft as velvet although it will still make the skin sweat during hot periods of weather (Willis, 2014).
2.5.5 Faux Leather
Faux leather is a very versatile material that can be made to appear like almost anything. People have covered their car seats in fake crocodile skin, fake snake’s skin and even dinosaur prints. It behaves like leather and is easy to wipe clean. Spillages can be quickly dealt with so faux leather doesn’t stain easily and is very durable (Willis, 2014).
2.5.6 Suede
Cloth-based suede fabrics are a nice choice for an automobile interior. Suede is soft to the touch and feels like brushed cotton. This automobile fabric is not used as often because it stains easily and it not as durable for many types of automobile use (Willis, 2014).
2.5.7 Brushed Nylon
Brushed nylon is soft and warm and ideal for an interior seat cover or door trim. It is a thick fabric that is usually just under a ¼ thick when used in vehicles. It seems well and is a firm, durable material which is quite hard to tear (Willis, 2014).

2.6 Type of material duct
Ducts are conduits or passages used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) to deliver and remove air. The needed airflows include, for example, supply air, return air, and exhaust air. Ducts commonly also deliver ventilation air as part of the supply air. As such, air ducts are one method of ensuring acceptable indoor air quality as well as thermal comfort. Each material is show in section 2.51 to 2.5.4.we decided the flexible duct with aluminium is our material use to connect the airflow to the car seat.
2.6.1 Fabric Hose
This is actually an air distribution device and is not intended as a conduit for conditioned air. The term fabric duct is therefore somehow misleading; fabric air dispersion system would be the more definitive name. However, as it often replaces hard ductwork, it is easy to perceive it simply as a duct. Usually made of polyester material, fabric ducts can provide a more even distribution and blending of the conditioned air in a given space than a conventional duct system. They may also be manufactured with vents or orifices. Fabric duct offers also many benefits such as low cost, lightweight and easy installation, a uniform distribution of air, and a wide spectrum of available colours and sizes.
2.6.2 Metal ducts
Such ducts are made from sheet metal (galvanized or stainless steel, copper, aluminium), cut and shaped to the required geometry for the air distribution system. Since metal is a good thermal conductor, such ducts require thermal insulation, the commonest material for which is glass wool, usually in roll form (known as ‘wraps’ or ‘wrapped insulation’), wrapped around the outer duct wall. Wraps incorporate an aluminium foil facing that acts as a vapour barrier. Insulation can also be installed on the inner wall of the duct (‘duct liners’), as glass wool duct wraps or duct slabs faced with a glass matting or mesh providing acoustic insulation and strengthening the inner face of the duct.
2.6.3 Flexible duct
Flexible ducts these usually consist of two aluminium and polyester concentric tubes. A glass wool layer is inserted between the two tubes as thermal insulation. Their use is generally limited to short lengths, due to high pressure drop-off and the acoustic. The ducts can be deployed in hardly accessible places of the building and when it is difficult to plan how to connect boxes to the suspended ceiling. With 10-metre sections you can save time, as you do not have to work with short sections, and 120cm large cartons make their handling and storage quite easy. With its 25mm thick mineral wool insulation and a perforated tube inside, the duct also serves as a silencer.
2.6.4 Plastic ducts
This category includes ducts made from plastic or foam boards, shaped by cutting and folded to produce the required cross-sectional geometry. Boards are faced usually with an aluminium coating both internally and external. The main drawback of this type of ducting is their fire classification. Even if they comply with local standards, when exposed to fire they often exhibit poor performance in terms of the production of both smoke and flaming droplets.

2.7 Decision Matrix for duct
Decision matrix was used to make decision for conceptual design later, a few criteria was included in our decision matrix. These criteria included are insulation, safety, cost, weight, heat resistance, appearance.
Criteria % Fabric hose Flexible duct( aluminium) Plastic duct Metal duct
Insulation 20 2 3 2 1
Safety 20 2 2 3 1
Heat resistance 20 2 3 2 1
Cost 20 2 2 3 1
Weight 10 2 2 3 1
Appearance 10 3 3 1 2
Total 100 13 15 14 10
Table 2.2 Decision Matrix for duct table
1=bad/ high cost /high weight, 2=median, 3= good/low cost/ low weight
Based on the decision matrix table, we can conclude that the aluminium flexible duct has the highest total value among all the material of duct. Fabric hose has a scored 13 while metal duct only scored 10 and the plastic scored 14. Conclusion, the flexible aluminium duct will be choosen in design.?
Chapter 3: Conceptual Design
3.1 Introduction
This chapter comprises of considering factors on conceptual design such as compliance with standard, environmental and sustainability, and ethical consideration. Also, the detailed conceptual for different designs and the decision matrix to select the best conceptual design for our project.
3.2 Compliance with Standard
3.2.1 Comfort
A ventilated car seat able to impact the society by increasing comfort on passengers. The car seat is commonly used during day-to-day driving, hence it is an influential factor on drivers and passengers. Individuals mostly spend long periods of time sitting on the seat in the same position. In addition, the car seat will trapped the hot air while exposing long time under sunlight and thus causing discomfort on users. Besides, the material of car seat does not often meet the thermal comfort needs of users. The main purpose of ventilation car seat is to provide comfortable seat while driving.
In Malaysia, once the driver get into the vehicle after a car parked at outdoors, they will experience thermal discomfort. Temperatue in a closed car after exposed under the sun will increases more than 20°C above the ambient temperature. Therefore, with our product of ventilated car seat, the user could experience thermal comfort. Thermal comfort is defined as the state of mind is expressing satisfaction and comfortable with the surrounding environment (Eduard, 2016).
Individuals can be easily visualize the temperature of the car seat on their smart devices. As the development of wireless technology is improving, the integration of connected cars from impossible become possible. Recently, Apple has launched the car platform as named as “CarPlay”. The driver able to get directions, listen to music, make calls or even send and receive messages that directly shows on car’s built in display (Jihoon, 2016). Thus, the performance of ventilated car seat are enhanced and improve the design and also its features by cooling the temperature of seat that requested from outside the car. With this features, ventilated car seat enable individual to remain comfortable over different range of ambient temperatures of the car seat.
In addition, ventilated car seat able to remove the heat absorption effectively and remain at desired temperature. It allows the user to control the thermal seat with the smart devices and alter the temperature of car seat immediately from outside the car without affecting the thermal environment. Thus, this ventilated car seat able to increase the level of comfort in the most efficient way.
Furthermore, the drivers or passengers able sit on the car seat at comfort temperature without opening the windows when they feel uncomfortably hot while sitting on the seat. As they sit on the car seat after some period, the energy dissipation from the under thighs and lower back will cause the temperature of car seat to increase. With the ventilated car seat, it able to maintain the temperature between the individual and the seat until it reaches thermal equilibrium. Hence, driver and passenger are ensured to be comfort during the distance travelled.
As a conclusion, ventilated car seat will enable the user to have a comfort seat during driving. It able to view and control the temperature of seat from outside the car by just connecting with the smart devices. Not only that, it able to maintain the seat at desired temperature no matter how long the user sit on it. Thus, it will increase and improve the level of comfort easily and effectively (Aniket et al, 2016).
3.2.2 Health
The others impact of ventilated car seat on society such as health issues. It may increase the seated person’s overall thermal comfort and reduce the transfer of heat to the back of driver. The hot air that trap inside the car might affect the health of user and performance of driving. Thus the ventilated car seat is very important and bring a lot of benefits to the vehicle user.
First of all, the car that parked outdoor mostly would absorb the solar radiation from sun and eventually increases the inlet vehicle temperature. Besides, the temperature of pelvis and the back of driver and car passenger also rises once they sit on the car seat that has absorbed the heat trap from surrounding. When the body temperature rises more than the body optimal temperature, it may causes thermal discomfort to an individual. However, if the body temperature continue rises more than 37°C, the individual might experience heat exhaustion and heat stroke and are a part of continuum. Heat exhaustion on individual when his or her temperature reaches in the range of 37°C to 40°C will experience headache, dizziness, malaise, thirsty and weakness. Meanwhile, the core temperature in heat stroke is greater than 40°C and it is a life-threatening illness. When a victim sitting inside a vehicle at high core temperature, the victim will trigger neurological dysfunction, delirium, nausea and coma (Chan, 2015). Hence, with the ventilated car seat, the heat would dissipates faster and would not trap on the car seat. The user would not experience body temperature rises, sweating in order to dissipated heat out from body, increase in heart rate as organ works in order to cool down and lowering core body temperature. At the same time, the performance in driving long journey is not affected and thus bringing thermal comfort for a seated person. Obviously, ventilated car seat would not causing the user to experience heat related illness.
Moreover, the design of the prototype enable to cool the back which are well in contact surface with the seat. In fact, when the user sitting on the seat in the same position more than half an hour in a journey, the seated person might dissipates heat from the back of body to the car seat and thus causing the temperature of the car seat also increases. If the heat does not escape from the car seat, the temperature of the seated person adversely increases and causes thermal discomfort. However, the concept of ventilated car seat may solve this problem of heat flow from the back of the seated person. It able to transfer the heat and cooling the human back at desired temperature. Hence, ventilated car seat able to achieve the concept of body cooling and enhance the thermal comfort in body health.
Furthermore, prolonged periods of sitting may causes postural problems and damage to the potential skin tissue. In order to improve the posture performance, ventilated car seat are designed in a contoured shape which are matching to our shape of vertebra. Good position of sitting would enhanced the postural problems and the comfort of seating is improved. Thus, the pressure that developed from sitting in a long period and the risk of skin damage are reduced. The contoured surface of the ventilated car seat are allowed the air from air conditioning are draws and flow along the contoured shape in order to cool the back of seated person. Thus, heat is no longer trap at the contact surface with the user (Liu, 2017).
As a result, the ventilated car seat interface temperature has played a vital role in the evaluation of comfort perceived by the user. It can enhance thermal comfort, dissipates heat loss, reduce the heat trap on the car seat and reduce overall heat related illness.
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3.2.3 Safety
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3.3 Environmental and Sustainability

Environmental requirements also consider as one of the impact on society. Citizen in Malaysia normally experience thermal discomfort in car due to Malaysia experiences summer in four seasons. Eduard demonstrated that in order to cool the inlet car which is parked under the sun in prolonged period, the driver might turned on the air conditioning in high speed of cool air flow. Apparently, fuel consumption of the car increases and eventually increases the emissions of carbon dioxide to the surrounding and causes pollution in environment (Eduard, 2016).
Meanwhile, the components of the prototype ventilated car seat are selected as material that friendly use and eco-friendly. The ventilated car seat able to cool down the seated person and thus reduce further emissions of carbon dioxide to the environment. Therefore, all the part of ventilated car seat are considering this criterion and further enhanced the performance.
Besides, the consideration for the components of the prototype such as material are selected wisely. This is to ensure that the materials of PU foam, seat cushion and others are well absorb heat from the seated person in order to achieve the thermal comfort. In addition, the material selected for the prototype would not causes toxic to the user and polluted to the environment. The seat cover’s material can be reusable which can be used on other car seat instead of throwing away or dispose straightly. Consequently, it can continues to be a useful and valuable item that able to reduce heat absorption on the car seat when in use. Hence, it can fully utilize the product and reduce amount of waste to the landfills.
Furthermore, the material selected for the prototype is high standard and good quality. The strength of material for the prototype could withstand the stress from any possible occurrence and beyond the elastic limit. This is to ensure our product is durable and reliable. Thus, the product can be used at a certain long lasting period. In consequence, maintenance and extra material used to repair the product can be reduced further, thus reduce harmful effect on the environment.
In conclusion, environmental factor encourage the proper design of ventilated car seat and material are ensured to be selected wisely. This is to achieve the environmental requirement and reduce further pollution to our living.

3.4 Ethical Consideration
The consideration of ethics is concerned and forms the major element in the research. According to Shuriye (2011), ethics is refer to the systematic study of values, standard of conduct, evaluate moral concept and identify between the right and wrong. With the ethics, engineers able to critically understand and reflect the moral issues in engineering practices.
One of the ethical consideration is the research information should be authentic and any misleading information is avoided. The data collection from the resources or participants is accurate and any insufficient data or information is not included in the research. The research is done carefully to ensure the information provided is reliable and any careless errors that may lead to research misconduct. All the information of the research is done with transparency and honesty.
Moreover, the research respondents or research participants are voluntary and had not been subject to any coercion for participation in the research through online surveying method. They are ensured not subjected to any harmful threat when they not willing to participate in surveying. Also, the respondents or participants have the right to withdraw from the research process at any time. Their recorded data will automatically been removed from the analysis once they withdraw from involving in the research.
Furthermore, all the respondents are ensured to be fully informed and understand the implication of their participation in the research. The interpretations of the research that presented should be done honestly and transparency. The research finding are communicated in nontechnical language and in compact narration when face to face interview or through online surveying form. Any possible conflicts of interest in the research have to declare to prevent any possible risk happens on respondents that may affect the study result in the research.
Besides that, the privacy of the respondents or research participants is protected. The responses obtained from the participants without permission will not be disclosed to others publicly. The researcher has the responsibility to protect the respondents and avoid causing any discomfort on them due to their involvement in the research process. Thus, the trustworthy relationship between the respondents and the researcher is built.
Generally, ethical considerations should be aware and concerned when the research is carried out by the researcher. When the ethics is considered, the respondents or participants in the research project is protected. Thus, the research able to be done smoothly and any mistake or misrepresentation of the research is avoided.

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3.5 Sketching
Design A

Design B

Design C

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3.6 Explanation design how ventilated car seats work
Based the all design sketches in Figure 3.5 it shows 3 different design types of ventilated car seats thereby will further elaborate more on these individual design about working principles, pros and cons, and comparison.
3.6.1 Design A
Design A is shown in Figure 3.5.1(a) to 3.5.1(c). This design come with radial fan and thermoelectric device (TED) as it placed on centre of backrest cushion and bottom seats cushion. The extra components used on normal car seats are radial fan, TED, wiring harness, exhaust tube, exhaust tube bezel, bottle of water, power supply and control switch. The working principles to achieve ventilated car seats is to rely radial fan blow air to the TED, then TED produce cold air to vent tube and flow to cushion as it reduces the temperature of cushion. When engine ignite, the power supply generate electricity to Arduino, radial fan, TED, and control switch as it connected to Arduino by programming code and wiring.
Furthermore, in order to allow the car seats to cool efficiently several hole was drilled on the seat cushion to reduce temperature effectively since the air flow is easier to transfer from bottom to top surface. On the other hand, TED will produce cool and hot air at different exhaust port but our intention is to retain cold air and eliminate ambient hot air by using vent tube to exhaust hot air to bottom of the car seats then enter bottle of water to reject hot air and bezel was installed to get nice looking. While backrest cushion will be similar to bottom seats cushion.
Overall, this design has great reduction in temperature due to TED was used with radial fan thus it has greater air flow than axial fan since a radial fan typically has a fan characteristic with a steeper pressure curve. Cons of the air system, for example by heavy user or dirty air ducts resulting in reduced fan performance. Since the radial fan is located in the foot well of a passenger sitting behind the seat, it can be damaged accidentally if its construction is not sufficiently sturdy. This is largely prevented by the robust design and the anchoring to the seat frame.

3.6.2 Design B
Design B is show in Figure 3.5.2(a) to 3.5.2(c) emphasis on modification of material and axial fan. This design is to change material to coconut fibre due to the ability of heat dissipated is great and recyclable material. Besides, axial fan was used while it was bind on centre of seats cushion with the common size of 100mm*100mm and using duct tube to allow air flow to cushion easily. Small hole was drilled on cushion to let the air flow pass through and reduce upper surface of car seats temperature effectively. Furthermore, fan, switch, power supply, and Arduino were connected similar to design A.
For the backrest cushion two axial fan were used yet it placed at above and below of the centre as reference due to the size of backrest cushion is definitely larger than the bottom cushion since axial fan performance is low. Besides that, everything is similar to bottom seats. Benefits of coconut fibre is weak heat absorption and great heat dissipated but it cost more than normal material. Cons of the design B is similar to design A.

3.6.3 Design C
Design C is show in Figure 3.5.3(a) to 3.5.3(d). This design concept is able to generate two states which is heating and cooling effect as the air flow is from automobiles air conditioning system since the air flowing through dashboard compartment and to the foot compartment are commonly known thus a flexible aluminium duct tube was connected between air conditioning system to lower surface of backrest, and bottom seats cushion. Since air conditioning will produce small amount of water vapour due to sudden vary in temperatures, it will bring harmful effects to cushion thus a sponge was used to absorb water and prevent it damaged the cushion. Since user sit on cushion will apply pressure to sponge leads to water eject from sponge before it dry, so at the lower surface centre part of cushion need to remove it to some thickness in order for sponge to be fitted in.
Furthermore, since using flexible aluminium duct tube hence no worry about the position of duct tube as it can be placed side or middle then meet to centre part of cushion. Moreover, cushion have few small hole (d?15mm) to let the air flow from duct tube to pass through cushion and hit on the seats cover surface then temperature will vary significantly.
The design can be used as automated or manual, if automated ventilated car seats are made, a temperature sensors is required to put into the seat cushion to detect the desired temperature range from user setting through radio system screen as it will send to Powertrain Control Module (PCM) acts as the brains of the car system thus the air conditioning system will flow air to car seats. Moreover, it can be controlled wirelessly by using smartphone with the apps Carplay and before entering the car all it needs is to take out smartphones then the car seats temperature is control at desired temperature. On the other hand, if manual ventilated car seats are made, basically just turn the switch to foot compartment or maybe new compartment as car seats on dashboard then the air conditioning system will flow air to car seats. Therefore, automated and manual is suitable for modern and former automobiles.
Overall, this design is applicable to all country whether you live in hot weather states or cold weather states, heated and cooled seats (or ventilated seats) are perfect for a hot day or a chilly late night. Safety, cheaper, better and comfortable has achieved in this design.
3.7 Decision Matrix
Decision matrix was used to make decision from the 3 conceptual ideas previously, a few criteria are include in our decision matrix. These criteria are comfort, safety, cost, weight, ventilation effect, appearance. Comfort, safety, ventilation effect are given priorities compare to the other criteria.
Criteria % Design A Design B Design C
Comfort 20 3 60 3 60 4 80
Safety 20 2 40 2 40 4 80
Ventilation 20 4 80 3 60 4 80
Cost 20 2 40 3 60 3 60
Weight 10 4 80 4 80 4 80
Appearance 10 4 80 3 60 2 40
Total 380 360 420
Table 3.7 Decision Matrix Table
Based on the decision matrix table, we can conclude that design C has the highest total value among all the designs. Design A scored 380 while Design B only scored 360. In conclusion, Design C was chosen.
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Chapter 4: Final Design

4.1 Introduction
This chapter involves the detailed of

4.2 Final Design (SolidWorks)

Figure 4.2(a): Front view of the design.

Figure 4.2(b): Side view of the design.

Figure 4.2(c): Top view of the design.

Figure 4.2 (d): side view of the inside

Figure 4.2 (e): overview of the final design

In the Sitting Position (Low), four of the rear wheels and two of the front wheels touch the surface of the ground. The seat is sitting………………………………………………….
(explain)
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4.3 Prototype

Chapter 5: Analysis and Discussion
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5.2 Calculation and Results

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1: RESEARCH BACKGROUND
Marine algae are one of the members that include in the plant kingdom. It plays important roles for ecosystem of marine life. Firstly, algae provide a source of oxygen to other organisms. During the growing seasons, algae absorb and synthesize nutrients and trace metal. After that, algae are one of the photosynthetic organisms which can convert sunlight to food and energy. Then, algae as the basic aquatic food web that function as source of food and energy for other organisms in aquatic ecosystem (Marynia Kolak, 2017). Besides, certain algae also use for commercial and industrial purpose (Carla Jean McKinney, 2017). Algae are very simple chlorophyll not categories as plant that contains organisms with many cells. When algae grouped together that grow up out of control, it can cause the occurrence of a natural phenomenon which called Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs). HABs bring a harmful effect toward other organisms such as human, fish, shellfish, marine mammals and birds because it produce marine toxin under certain condition. One of the marine toxic that can cause harmful effect is Domoic Acid (DA)

Figure 1: the marine toxins
DA is one of the marine toxins produced by certain organisms. It is a marine –based neurotoxin that produced by some diatom species of the genus pseudo-nitzchia in bloom condition such as N.Pseudodelicatissma. This diatom can be found in the shellfish. According to Olga M. Pulido, domoic acid is structurally similar to the kainate acid that naturally occurs in some seaweed. This toxin was bioaccumulate through feeding on prey that feed on the algae such as shellfish and anchovies. They accumulated in those marine organisms and transfer to higher trophic levels along food chain. Domoic acid that produced by these diatom species acts as an intra and inter-species allelochemical and responsiblefor toxin algae bloom ( Emer Shannon and Nissreen Abu-Ghannam, 2016). According to emer shannon and Nissreen Abu-Ghannam, allelochemical is a process which many algae was released into the environment.
There are several that can be used to detect domoic acid in the shellfish. In this project, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) method will be used as main method to detect the domoic acid that by the chromatography technique which is High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as instrument for validation process. ELISA is a test to determine the serum antibody concentration in a virus test. According to thermo fischer scientific, ELISA is a plate-based assay technique design to detect and quantified substance such as protein, peptides, hormone and antibodies. ELISA is useful tool since the presences of antigen, antibody concentration and amount of a substance of a solution.

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Chromatography is the process by which the components of a mixture can be separated and used for identification and qualification. One of the type of chromatography is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to Rama Rao Kadiyam, HPLC is basically a highly improved form of column liquid chromatography. This technique involves a stationary phase whether it in solid or liquid phase supported on a solid and also involves a mobile phase whether it liquid or gas.
1.2: PROBLEM STATEMENT
For many years, many people have debate about the cases of Domoic Acid Intoxication. The first case about domoic acid was discovered in the late 1980’s. According to Olga M. Pulido (2008), domoic acid was identified as the toxin responsible for an outbreak of human poisoning that occurred in Canada in 1987 following consumption of contaminated blue. Domoic acid is a chemical that is produced when the algae bloom and cause many adverse effect not only to organisms but environment too. Domoic acid poisoning bring harmful to organisms due to its characteristic structure that is composed of three carboxylic acids, a pyrrolidine ring, and (Z,E)-conjugated diene side chain. Domoic acid cause a syndrom knows as amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning (DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) and azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP). Since then, domoic acid has been related to the several unusual mortality events involving mammals, seabirds even human also get a bad effect for those who consume shellfish because of the toxins that being produced. Symptoms of domoic acid poisoning can be seen in 30 minutes until 24 hours after eating the toxic seafood which include vomiting, abdominal cramps, headaches, disorentation, diarrhea and dizziness. (Domoic Acid and Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning Fact Sheet, 2018).
There are few factors that lead to toxin shellfish which are rising ocean temperature or global warming. According to new research by Ian Johnston, rising ocean temperature is cause to increase in shellfish in contaminated with a potentially deadly toxin. Even, the scientists have warned that if ocean temperature rises because of global warming, this could lead an increase in the number of poisonous shellfish (Ian Johnston, 2017).

1.3: OBJECTIVES
There are few objectives to achieve in this project which are:
To produce and modify the biochemical sensor using ELISA method where ninhydrin act as reagent.

To detect the Domoic acid in the shellfish using ELISA method.
To verify the result obtained from ELISA method using the chromatographic technique (HPLC-UV)
1.4: SIGNIFICANT OF STUDIES
Many people consume seafood in their daily life especially shellfish. Shellfish brings lots of benefits which is it high in protein and low in fat. After that, it also consist varies in vitamin such as vitamin A and Vitamin B and also rich in minerals including B12, Zinc, Omega-3 fatty acid and etc but after the first case happened in Canada in late 1987, domoic acid that produced by the shellfish has become major concern in society. In this project, it is very importance to detect the domoic acid in shellfish to avoid unwanted things happen to the organism especially to human. As we know, domoic acid is a poisonous toxic that can bring death to human and other organisms besides to the environment. In order to detect the analyte which is domoic acid, the indirect ELISA method will be use in this project with ninhydrin as reagent. The reasons why ELISA will be use in this project are because it suitable alternative to HPLC-UV as it offer advantages in sample turnaround and accessibility over the instrument method. Besides, it also easily gives precise and valid for DA analysis in shellfish. After that, it easily can be operate in small and regional laboratories with little investment needed and will be a practical way of identifying negative samples as part an effective Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. (Hans Kleivdal ; etc, 2007).

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1: DOMOIC ACID
2.1.1: DESCRIPTIVE OF DOMOIC ACID
Domoic acid with IUPAC name (2S,3S,4S)-4-(2Z,4E,6R)-6-carboxyhepta-2,4-dien-2-yl-3-(carboxymethyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid is a toxin that produced by members of diatom genus pseudonitzchia when the algae or plankton bloom. However, this diatom also related to the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). ASP is an illness that can be a life threatening syndrome that is distinguish by both gastrointestinal and neurological disorder. Domoic acid is a neurotoxin that blocking neurochemical processes, lead to short-term memory loss, brain damage and lastly its can cause death to human.
In late 1987 in Canada, 3 people was reported died after eating blue mussels from Prince Edward Island, while more than 100 persons became ill. However, the victims that still can survive and recover within 10 days after a period of confusion and nausea, but continued to show short-term memory loss (Todd, 1993),citation from Lizzy Mos, 2000. They found that the mussel was contained high level of neuroexcitatory toxin domoic acid. The source of domoic acid was detected to a bloom and also known as pseudo-Nitzschia multiseries (Bacillariophyceae) (Hasle, 1995). Since then, many cases have been described. DA actually had been discovered in the 1950s in red microalgae, Chondria armata, in Japan. In small doses, they used the domoic acid as medicine as an anthelmintic among children with no reported sign of any poisoning effect such as ASP. Anthelmintic is a group of antiparasitic drug to remove parasitic worms (helminths) internal parasit especially parasit worms from the body by stunning or killing and without bringing a harmful to the body.
Over the past 25 years, there are many cases that involve the toxication of domoic acid (Lynn M. Grattan et al., 2018). For example, measurable levels of DA have been found in the coastal waters and shellfish on the Pacific Coast of the United State and during the 2015 and 2016, the continuation of harmful algae bloom was recorded, accompanied by the longest lasting Domoic Acid levels documented in Pacific razor clams (RC, Siliqua patula), presumably triggered by warm Pacific Ocean anomalies, by McCabe, R.M.; Hickey, B.M.; Kudela, R.M.; Lefebvre, K.A.; Adams, N.G.; Bill, B.D.; Gulland, F.M.; Thomson, R.E.; Cochlan, W.P.; Trainer, V.L. An unprecedented coastwide toxic algal bloom linked to anomalous ocean conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2016, 43, 10366–10376. CrossRef PubMed 15. McKibben, S.M.; Peterson, W.; Wood, M.; Trainer, V.L.; Hunter, M.; White, A.E. Climatic regulation of the neurotoxin domoic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2017, 114, 239–244. CrossRef PubMed

Figure 2.1: the chemical structure of domoic acid
2.1.2: PROPERTIES OF DOMOIC ACID
Domoic acid is present in white solid with colourless crystal needle. It has melting point around 213ºC – 217ºC that soluble in water. After that, it also can be dilute in mineral acids and alkali hydroxide solution. It is slightly soluble in methanol and ethanol but insoluble in petroleum ether and benzene. Domoic acid is a quite small molecule with a molecular weight of 311.33 g/mol. According to Sigma Adrich, Domoic Acid is stable under certain recommended storage conditions. It emits toxic vapors of nitrogen oxides when heated to decomposition.
Properties Chemical formula C15H21NO6
Molar mass 311.334g/mol
density 1.27 g/cm3
Vapour pressure 1.5 × 10-11 Hg (25ºC)
Solubility (water) Soluble in water (8mg/ml)
log Kow -0.89
2.1.3: FACTORS OF DOMOIC ACID
There are several factors that lead to increasing intoxication domoic acid which are global climate change, eutrophication that came from uses of fertilizers. Then, agriculture and urban runoff also main contributor to domoic acid. After that, aquacultures activities and coastal development also main factors of domoic acid.2.1.4: SIDE EFFECTS OF DOMOIC ACID TOWARDS HUMAN
Domoic acid can brings lots of effect toward humans. It can affect the human’s brain and cause fatigue, hallucinations, abnormalities, seizures and may result in death. The toxins can attack a part of the brain called hippocampus. Hippocampus is a small organ located within the brain’s medial temporal lobe and part of the limbic system that responsible for emotions, associated mainly with memory and long term memory. (Ananya Mandal, 2014).Hippocampus works to unite and organize new memory, connects emotions and sense to memories and also helps in navigation and orientation. After that, it also causes nausea and vomiting due to ASP syndrome and even
2.2: DESCREPTIVE OF MARINE TOXIN
Marine toxin is produced by various species of algae under certain condition. Marine toxin especially shellfish toxins (phytotoxins) are the most dangerous marine biotoxins. Shellfish that contaminated by marine biotoxins usually looking normal and good from the outside even their smell and taste are nice but once they consume it, they possibly suffer from several of gastrointestinal and neurological illness. The domoic acid poisoning first recorded as amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP).

2.2.1: Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)
In late 1987 in Canada, Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) cause by domoic acid was discover for first time that involve shellfish reported in density of the pennate diatom pseudo-nitzschia multiseries near up to 15×1016cells/L. Over 200 cases of mussel related illness which involves 107 people in total. 47 of them were men while the rest were women. In addition, 49 were between 40 and 59 years old and 38 patient were 60 years or older. (Olga M. Pulido, 2008). The symptoms of ASP can appear in 24 hours after someone consume the affected shellfish. They may involve diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, nausea, haemorrhagic gastrists, and memory loss. The memory loss symptoms that intoxicated with ASP is kind a similar with Alzheimer’s disease.
According to Hong-Chang Lim et al, 2010. In the same years, 12 cases of human health were reported along the Pacific coast of Washington and Oregon where shellfish such as mussels and oyster were found to contain up to 154?g/g of domoic acid.
2.2.2: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)
PSP is one of four syndromes that caused by shellfish poisoning. PSP’s syndrome usually begin minutes or hours after consume contaminated shellfish by ingestion. There few symptoms that same with the ASP’s symptoms include vomiting and adding with new symptoms which are shortness of breath, choking feeling, confused and even loss of coordination. There is no anti-toxin for shellfish poisoning. According to Washington State department of health, the sources of PSP are bivalve mollusks such as clams, oyster and mussels concentrated PSP toxin and DSP toxin. There is no person-to-person spread.
2.3: ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBANT ASSAY (ELISA)
2.3.1: Descriptive of ELISA
ELISA is an alternative method to the current liquid chromatography for Domoic Acid determination. As it was mentioned above, according to Thermo Fischer Scientific, ELISA is a plate-based assay technique design to detect and quantified substance such as protein, peptides, hormone and antibodies. It is a biochemistry assay that uses a solid phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as it employs an enzyme linked antigen or antibody as a marker to detect a substance which is an antigen in a sample. According to Biobest website, antibody is made to give the feedback to infection so antibody ELISA can show whether the sample was contaminated with certain virus or not. Elisa is used as a diagnostic tool in medicine, plant pathology and as quality-control checker in a various industry. ELISA is faster, highly sensitive, highly throughput, reproducible, and flexible with the ability to analyze a variety of different sample types of diverse origins. It is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance. ELISA is divided to four types which are direct ELISA, indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA and Competitive ELISA. In this project, Indirect ELISA will be use as an alternative method to detect the Domoic Acid.

Figure 2.3.1: the microtiter plates of ELISA
2.3.2: Application of indirect ELISA
Indirect ELISA is a two step ELISA that involved two steps binding process which use primary antibody and secondary labeled antibody. In this technique, the primary antibody is incubated with the antigen-coated wells. Then, the labeled secondary antibody is added. This secondary antibody is a polyclonal anti-species antibody. After that, the substrate is added to the well to produce signal amplification. Indirect ELISA detection is versatile as different visualization markers can be used with the same primary antibody.

Figure 2.3.2: the procedure of indirect ELISA
2.3.3: Advantages of indirect ELISA
There are many advantages of using Indirect ELISA as main method to detect domoic acid in shellfish such as it has high sensitivity compare to other method because labeled secondary antibody can bind to the each primary antibody that contain several epitopes, allowing for signal amplification. After that, it has great flexibility because different primary detection antibodies can be used with one labeled secondary antibodies. Then, it cost saving because fewer labeled antibodies are require. Besides, maximum immunoreactivity of the primary antibodies is maintained because it is not labeled.
2.3.4: Disadvantages of Indirect ELISA
There are disadvantages of indirect ELISA such as in this procedure, an extra incubation is needed for secondary antibody and cross-reactivity might occur with the secondary antibodies, resulting in nonspecific signal or possibility to produce a background noise.

2.4: REAGENT: ninhydrine
2.4.1: descriptive of ninhydrinNinhydrin reagent with IUPAC name (2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione) was discover by Siegfried Rumemann, the German-english chemist in 1910 that observed the reaction between ninhydrin with amino acids. Ninhydrin is a stable hydrated product of indane-1,2,3,-trione which used in chemical assay for peptide bonds such as in protein determination. It used to detect ammonia or primary and secondary amines. When ninhydrin react with primary or secondary amines, it produces a blue or purple reaction product (diketonehydrindyliene-diketonehydrinediamine). According to Li Liang, It can be categories as the most important and widely used reagent to detect and analyze amino acids because amino acids link together via amide bond with carboxylic acids amine group forma chains. Ninhydrin as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequence are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acid.

Figure 2.4.1: the chemical structure of ninhydrin2.4.2: properties of ninhydrinNinhydrin is a chemical that present in a white to light yellow crystal or powder form and it becomes anhydrous with reddening at 257-266ºF. Ninhydrin is odorless colourless to cream coloured crystalline solid. It’s soluble in ethanol and acetone at room temperature and also in water. The melting point of ninhydrin is slightly high which is 466-469ºF.properties Chemical formula C9H6O4
molecular weight 178.14
melting point 466-469ºF
solubility 1-5mg/mL at 68ºF
decomposition 241ºC
Table 2.4.2: the properties of ninhydrin
Figure 2.4.2: the ninhydrin in solid phase
2.5: CHROMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE
Chromatography is a technique in which the components of a mixture are separated based on differences in the rates at which they are carried through a fixed or stationary phase by a gaseous or liquid mobile phase. It is a widely used method for the separation, identification, and determination of the chemical components in complex mixtures. The stationary phase is actually phase that is fixed in place either in a column or on a planar surface, while the mobile phase is a phase that moves over or through the stationary phase carrying with it the analyte mixture. The mobile phase may present in solid, liquid or gas form.
2.5.1: High-Performance Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC)
HPLC has become an indispensable analytical tool that most versatile and widely used type of elution chromatography. This technique is used to separate and determined the species in variety of organic, inorganic and biological materials. The mobile phase is a liquid solvent containing the sample as a mixture of solutes. Liquid chromatography can be performed in 3 primary approaches. Sample must be dissolve into a liquid that is then transported by the solvent onto or into the chromatographic device.
The components that consist in the HPLC for validation process to detect the domoic acid in shellfish are solvent, pump, single injector, columns, detectors and data collection devices. In solvent reservoir involves a stationary phase and a mobile phase whether in the gas or solid form. The mobile phase flows from solvent reservoir to HPLC pump. A pump takes the mobile phase and forces it through the system’s column and detector in liquid phase. Sample injector provides injection of the liquid sample within the range of 0.1 to 100 ml of volume with high reproducibility and under high pressure. After that, the sample move from injector into the HPLC column that filed with stationary phase with a particle size of 3-10?m. After that, the detector will detect the analyte as they elute from chromatography column. The detector will produce the signal on chart records then store then reprocess the chromatography data. Lastly, the computer will integrate the respons of the detector to each components and place in the chromatograph.

Figure 2.5.1: the schematic diagram of HPLC
2.5.2: UV-Vis spectrophotometryThe construction of a traditional UV-VIS spectrometer is similar to an IR, and has similar functions which are sample handling, irradiation, detection and output are required. The diagram below shows the simple schematic that covers most modern UV spectrometers:

Figure 2.5.2: the schematic diagram of UV-Vis spectrophotometryThere are 5 main components that consist in the UV-Vis for measuring the absorption of UV-VIS which is a source consists of UV and visible, wavelength selector (monochromator), sample container, detector and signal processor and a readout device. The sources of UV radiation are very important to make sure the power of the radiation source does not change abruptly over are its wavelength range. Then, the mechanisms for electrical excitation of hydrogen at lower pressure produce the continuous UV spectrum. Two atomic species and ultraviolet photon brake up due to a mechanism for electrical excitation.

Then, for the source of visible radiation, which is a source of visible light is consists of tungsten filament lamp. The lamp is usually used in the wavelength range between 350 nm until 2500 nm. The energy output stable when energy emitted by a tungsten filament lamp is proportional to the fourth power of the operating system and the voltage of the lamp must be very stable indeed. Tungsten or halogen lamp consists of small amount of iodine in a quartz envelope which also contains the tungsten filament. Undergo sublimation process, the iodine reacts with gaseous tungsten produce the volatile compound. After that, for wavelength selector ( monochromator), it consists of several components which are an entrance slit, collimating lens, dispersing device, focusing lens an exits slits.

Virtually all UV spectra are recorded solution-phase. Cells can be made from plastic, glass or quartz. Only quartz is transparent in the full 200-700 nm range while plastic and glass are only suitable for visible spectra. Concentration is empirically determined.
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1: chemicals and reagents
Domoic acid will purchase from Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA. …….. Polystyrene microtiter plates, MaxisorpTM will purchase from NUNCTM (Roskilde, Denmark)….. Washing solution which is Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), coating buffer which are Phosphate, Buffer Saline (PBS), Bicarbonate or Carbonate and Blocking solution which are 5% non fat dry milk or PBS will purchase from……. All the reagents and chemicals will purchase from…ninhydrin reagent will be purchased from sigma aldrich, US.

3.2: Preparation of ninhydrin reagent
Weight 8g of ninhydrin and dissolve in 100ml of acetone or distilled water or coating buffer which is PBS.
3.3:

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