Chapter religion and these conflicts cannot solve by

Chapter 1

Pakistan and India relations have been defined by violent partition by British government 1947. Because of their ideology, religion and two nation theories their relations were complex. But independence was not the deciphering of the violence. They were rival of each other by politics, by ideology and by religion and these conflicts cannot solve by independence. They started diplomatic relation with each other to resolve their issues by diplomatic and negotiation but their violent partition and bad relation overshadow their relationship.
Both the countries fought 2 to 3 wars from 1965 to 1999, but the Kashmir issues were the main point of all these conflicts and war. The America and Russia worked as mediator to resolve their issues such as Shimla summit, Agra summit and Lahore summit. There was war in 1971 in which Pakistan lost his on side, Bangladesh, which was proxy war of India then there was a lot of insurgency from both sides because of these issues. The Pakistan tested his nuclear in 1998, in response to Pakistan’s nuclear test India also tested his nuclear in 1999. From May to July 1999 war took place between Pakistan and India in kargil.
In cot, 1999 the democracy of Pakistan was demolished by General pervaiz musharaf on 12 October and took over the government of Nawaz Sharif then there was dictator government in Pakistan and in the history the dictator an democratic country had never good relationship. However, their effort an good relation have been implanted by periodic terrorist attack on Indian parliament in which 14 people were killed and 6 terrorist were shoot down. These attacks almost brought two nations to the brink of the nuclear war. There was big insurgency in 2001 and 2002. In 2007 samjhauta express bombing which killed 68 civilians most of them were Pakistani which brought a crucial point a relationship and additionally 2008 Mumbai attack carried out Pakistani militants result in surf blow to ongoing Pakistan and India peace talk. After brief though following of election of a new government of a both nations bilateral discussions again started after 2016 terrorists attack on India army base pathankot in sep, 2016 and that had claimed Pakistan done these militants attacks.
1.1 Problem statement

The recent tensions between Pakistan and India became high due to unsolved issue of Kashmir. Which was ignited again due to recent protest in Indian occupied Kashmir (IOK) and extremist Hindu government Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) ignored peace talks with Pakistan on rising issues between them. Further this tensions rose due to the Uri attack which India blamed on the Pakistani sponsored terrorists. The both states somewhere needs the talks to presume the relation between the politics suppresses and influence drop them from race peace full talks. Eventually the relation’s sub-continent was disturbed by the attack of 9/11 the Al-Qaeda militant’s on World Trade center in USA. The US blamed Pakistan for the support and pressurized Pakistan to be the part of war against terrorism. On the Indian parliament attack of 2001 create more tensions between Pakistan and India although they deployed their army on the border to rage the war against each other. That changed the nature of the Pakistan-India relations.
1.2 Objective of the study

• To explore and examine the nature of Pakistan-India relation.
• To identify the driving forces behind Pakistan-India relation in the current changing political scenario.

1.2 Significance of the study

This study will explore the relation between Pakistan and India since 9/11; the nature of Pakistan and India; the driving forces behind the relation will evaluate by events this research will move baseline so far the student who would conducting studies on the related subject it will also help out the policy maker and would provide better understanding to the scholar and think tank on the topic. This study will provide knowledge regarding the importance of the Pakistan- India relations and the changes after 9/11 event.

1.3 Literature review

From the day first of independence in 1947, the relations between Pakistan and India was not much better. The states were engaged in many issues from partition to economic division or so on the military divisions. The both states fought a war on Kashmir dispute, where maharaja hari singh was withdrawn to be the part of the Pakistan and he was declared Kashmir as a Indian territory which was not only the wish of maharaja but its also the wish of British Indian government. This may caused the tension between Pakistan- India. After the 9/11 event the speedy changes in the relation of Pakistan India was crucial, this time period was a new shift in the relation. The states were more rivalry when the extremist attacked on the state assembly in Srinagar with bomb blasts on 1 October 2001 and on 13 December firing attack in front of the Indian parliament.
The tension was increased when Indian government claimed that Pakistan was not only supporting terrorist but also involved in all the attacks in India. Pakistan was denied all claims and blames that Pakistan foreign ministry passes a statement in which they said” India may just claims that Pakistan is involved in the terror attacks in India. In 2001, General Pervaz Musharraf was invited to visit India for the talks. Given the long history of tense relations between the two countries, President Musharraf and Prime Minister Vajpayee were on the verge of signing a joint declaration when the Indian hawks moved in and sacked the deal. The damage done was considerable, and the process of dialogue hopelessly drifted with no visible means of charting a course for peace again. Contradictory versions about the failure of the Agra talks led to acrimonious exchanges between the two leaderships and they once again reached a stalemate. Relations between the two states would have turned into a crisis had the 9/11 incidents not erupted on the world scene. The fallout of the Agra Summit was overtaken by the September 11 terrorist attacks in the US which further deteriorated the relations between Pakistan and India. The worsening situation also gave rise to an arms build-up by both India and Pakistan. The heavy troops deployed by India on its borders with Pakistan compelled the latter to do the same. India doubled its defence budget during the one and a half year long stand-off, with the result that Pakistan also increased its defence budget. Moreover, the two states 2 Indian Foreign Policy under the BJP,’ Spotlight (Islamabad), March-April 2004, p. 66.70 PAKISTAN HORIZON continued to test short-aggravated the situation. Triggered between capable short-range without prior notification of Understanding response to Prithvi, Abdali missile.
Pakistan and India After the 9/11 incidents, a strong feeling of terror seized the world. The way in which terrorism was made a buzzword and the US shaped an anti-terror campaign greatly helped it to execute its grand strategy of stretching its power web around the globe.

1.5 Questions

• How 9/11 changed the nature of Pakistan-India relation?
• What is the driving forces in shaping Pakistan-India relation in the current context?

1.6 Hypothesis

I hypothesized that the relation Between India and Pakistan can be better off when they will reached to the successful hands of the any agreement or dialogues, Which may bring prosperity peace and respect of each state. If they have resolved all the issues between them whether its Kashmir or terrorism, it will only possible when they listen each other opinion’s and suggestion’s to resolve their issues. That could lead regional stability and avoid all the rising conflicts among them nations

1.7 Theoretical framework

“Realism”(offensive realism).

It’s the political doctrine that basically deals with self-help, survival of the states and balance of power. The theory was taking in perspective of rivalry stages of the Pakistan and Indian where they were engaged in war so many times. In my study I applied this theory to understand the research paper more easily. Pakistan and India was after 9/11 deterred each other to the war of nuclear weapon. The both of the states where deterrence by building the nuclear weapons which could caused for the worst relationship of Pakistan.
1.7 Methodology

Methodology of the study I have adopted to conduct my research is qualitative. It is based on review of documents such related books, edited books, articles, newspaper, journals and collected data from various sources

Chapter 2
Nature of Pakistan and India relations

Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir conflict and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations. Consequently, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion.
Soon after their independence, India and Pakistan established diplomatic relations but the violent partition and numerous territorial claims would overshadow their relationship. Since their Independence, the two countries have fought three major wars, one undeclared war and have been involved in numerous armed skirmishes and military standoffs. The Kashmir conflict is the main centre-point of all of these conflicts with the exception of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and Bangladesh Liberation War, which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).Soon after their independence, India and Pakistan established diplomatic relations but the violent partition and numerous territorial claims would overshadow their relationship. Since their Independence, the two countries have fought three major wars, one undeclared war and have been involved in numerous armed skirmishes and military standoffs. The Kashmir conflict is the main centre-point of all of these conflicts with the exception of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and Bangladesh Liberation War, which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
After a brief thaw following the election of new governments in both nations, bilateral discussions again stalled after the 2016 Pathankot attack. In September 2016, a terrorist attack on an Indian military base in Indian-administered Kashmir, the deadliest such attack in years, killed 19 Indian Army soldiers. India’s claim that the attack had been orchestrated by a Pakistan-supported jihadist group was denied by Pakistan, which claimed the attack had been a local reaction to unrest in the region due to excessive force by Indian security personnel. The attack sparked a military confrontation across the Line of Control, with an escalation in ceasefire violations and further militant attacks on Indian security forces. As of December 2016, the ongoing confrontation and an increase in nationalist rhetoric on both sides has resulted in the collapse of bilateral relations, with little expectation they will recover.
Since the election of new governments in both India and Pakistan in the early 2010s, some steps have been taken to improve relations, in particular developing a consensus on the agreement of Non-Discriminatory Market Access on Reciprocal Basis (NDMARB) status for each other, which will liberalize trade. In November 2015, the new Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi and Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif agreed to the resumption of bilateral talks; the following month, Prime Minister Modi made a brief, unscheduled visit to Pakistan while en route to India, becoming the first Indian Prime Minister to visit Pakistan since 2004. Despite those efforts, relations between the countries have remained frigid, following repeated acts of cross-border terrorism. According to a 2017 BBC World Service poll, only 5% of Indians view Pakistan’s influence positively, with 85% expressing a negative view, while 11% of Pakistanis view India’s influence positively, with 62% expressing a negative view.

2.1 Talks and other confidence building measures

After the 1971 war, Pakistan and India made slow progress towards the normalisation of relations. In July 1972, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto met in the Indian hill station of Simla. They signed the Simla Agreement, by which India would return all Pakistani personnel (over 90,000) and captured territory in the west, and the two countries would “settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations.” Diplomatic and trade relations were also re-established in 1976.
In 1997, high-level Indo-Pakistan talks resumed after a three-year pause. The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India met twice and the foreign secretaries conducted three rounds of talks. In June 1997, the foreign secretaries identified eight “outstanding issues” around which continuing talks would be focused. The conflict over the status of Kashmir, (referred by India as Jammu and Kashmir), an issue since Independence, remains the major stumbling block in their dialogue. India maintains that the entire former princely state is an integral part of the Indian union, while Pakistan insists that UN resolutions calling for self-determination of the people of the state/province must be taken into account. It however refuses to abide by the previous part of the resolution, which calls for it to vacate all territories occupied.
In September 1997, the talks broke down over the structure of how to deal with the issues of Kashmir, and peace and security. Pakistan advocated that the issues be treated by separate working groups. India responded that the two issues be taken up along with six others on a simultaneous basis.
Attempts to restart dialogue between the two nations were given a major boost by the February 1999 meeting of both Prime Ministers in Lahore and their signing of three agreements.
A subsequent military coup in Pakistan that overturned the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government in October of the same year also proved a setback to relations.
In 2001, a summit was called in Agra; Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf turned up to meet Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee. The talks fell through.
On 20 June 2004, with a new government in place in India, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war.
Baglihar Dam issue was a new issue raised by Pakistan in 2005.
After Dr. Manmohan Singh become prime minister of India in May 2004, the Punjab provincial Government declared it would develop Gah, his place of birth, as a model village in his honour and name a school after him. There is also a village in India named Pakistan, despite occasional pressure over the years to change its name the villagers have resisted. Violent activities in the region declined in 2004. There are two main reasons for this: warming of relations between New Delhi and Islamabad which consequently lead to a ceasefire between the two countries in 2003 and the fencing of the LOC being carried out by the Indian Army. Moreover, coming under intense international pressure, Islamabad was compelled to take actions against the militants’ training camps on its territory. In 2004, the two countries also agreed upon decreasing the number of troops present in the region.
Under pressure, Kashmiri militant organisations made an offer for talks and negotiations with New Delhi, which India welcomed.
India’s Border Security Force blamed the Pakistani military for providing cover-fire for the terrorists whenever they infiltrated into Indian Territory from Pakistan. Pakistan in turn has also blamed India for providing support to terrorist organisations operating in Pakistan such as the BLA.
In 2005, Pakistan’s information minister, Sheikh Rashid, was alleged to have run a terrorist training camp in 1990 in N.W. Frontier, Pakistan. The Pakistani government dismissed the charges against its minister as an attempt to hamper the ongoing peace process between the two neighbours.
Both India and Pakistan have launched several mutual confidence-building measures (CBMs) to ease tensions between the two. These include more high-level talks, easing visa restrictions, and restarting of cricket matches between the two. The new bus service between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad has also helped bring the two sides closer. Pakistan and India have also decided to co-operate on economic fronts.
Some improvements in the relations are seen with the re-opening of a series of transportation networks near the India–Pakistan border, with the most important being bus routes and railway lines.
A major clash between Indian security forces and militants occurred when a group of insurgents tried to infiltrate into Kashmir from Pakistan in July 2005. The same month also saw a Kashmiri militant attack on Ayodhyaand Srinagar. However, these developments had little impact on the peace process.
An Indian man held in Pakistani prisons since 1975 as an accused spy walked across the border to freedom 3 March 2008, an unconditional release that Pakistan said was done to improve relations between the two countries.
In 2006, a “Friends without Borders” scheme began with the help of two British tourists. The idea was that Indian and Pakistani children would make pen pals and write friendly letters to each other. The idea was so successful in both countries that the organisation found it “impossible to keep up”. The World’s Largest Love Letter was recently sent from India to Pakistan.
In December 2010, several Pakistani newspapers published stories about India’s leadership and relationship with militants in Pakistan that the papers claimed were found in the United States diplomatic cables leak. A British newspaper, The Guardian, which had the Wiki leaks cables in its possession reviewed the cables and concluded that the Pakistani claims were “not accurate” and that “Wiki Leaks was being exploited for propaganda purposes.
On 10 February 2011, India agreed to resume talks with Pakistan which were suspended after 26/11 Mumbai Attacks. India had put on hold all the diplomatic relations saying it will only continue if Pakistan will act against the accused of Mumbai attacks.
On 13 April 2012 following a thaw in relations whereby India gained MFN status in the country, India announced the removal of restrictions on FDI investment from Pakistan to India.
The Foreign Minister of Pakistan on 11 July 2012, stated in Pnom Penh that her country is willing to resolve some of the disputes like, Sir Creek and Siachan on the basis of agreements reached in past. On 7 September 2012, Indian External Affairs Minister would pay 3-day visit to Pakistan to review the progress of bilateral dialogue with his Pakistani counterpart.

2.2 Social relations

2.2.1 Cultural links

India and Pakistan, particularly Northern India and Eastern Pakistan, to some degree have similar cultures, cuisines and languages due to common Indo-Aryan heritage which span through the two countries and throughout much of the northern subcontinent which also underpin the historical ties between the two. Pakistani singers, musicians, comedians and entertainers have enjoyed widespread popularity in India, with many achieving overnight fame in the Indian film industry Bollywood. Likewise, Indian music and filmare very popular in Pakistan. Being located in the northernmost region of the South Asia, Pakistan’s culture is somewhat similar to that of North India, especially the northwest.
The Punjab region was split into Punjab, Pakistan and Punjab, India following the independence and partition of the two countries in 1947. The Punjabi people are today the largest ethnic group in Pakistan and also an important ethnic group of northern India. The founder of Sikhism was born in the modern-day Pakistani Punjab province, in the city of Nankana Sahib. Each year, millions of Indian Sikh pilgrims cross over to visit holy Sikh sites in Nankana Sahib. The Sindhi people are the native ethnic group of the Pakistani province of Sindh. Many Hindu Sindhis migrated to India in 1947, making the country home to a sizable Sindhi community. In addition, the millions of Muslims who migrated from India to the newly created Pakistan during independence came to be known as the Muhajir people; they are settled predominantly in Karachi and still maintain family links in India.
Relations between Pakistan and India have also resumed through platforms such as media and communications. Aman ki Asha is a joint venture and campaign between The Times of India and the Jang Group calling for mutual peace and development of diplomatic and cultural relations.

2.2.2 Geographic link

The Indo-Pakistani border is the official international boundary that demarcates the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat from the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Sindh. The Wagah border is the only road crossing between India and Pakistan and lies on the famous Grand Trunk Road, connecting Lahore, Pakistan with Amritsar, India. Each evening, the Wagah border ceremony takes place at the Wagah border in which the flags are lowered and guards on both sides make a pompous military display and exchange handshakes.

2.2.3 Linguistic ties

Hindustani is the linga Franca of North India and Pakistan, as well as the official language of both countries, under the standard registers Hindi and Urdu, respectively. Standard Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi. Hindustani is also widely understood and used as a lingua franca amongst South Asians including Sri Lankans, Nepalese and Bangladeshis, and is the language of Bollywood, which is enjoyed throughout much of the subcontinent.
Apart from Hindustani, India and Pakistan also share a distribution of the Punjabi language (written in the Gurmukhi script in Indian Punjab, and the Shahmukhi script in Pakistani Punjab), Kashmiri language and Sindhi language, mainly due to population exchange. These languages belong to a common Indo-Aryan family that are spoken in countries across the subcontinent.

2.2.4 Matrimonial ties

Some Indian and Pakistani people marry across the border at instances.
In April 2010 a high-profile Pakistani cricketer, Shoaib Malik married the Indian tennis star Sania Mirza. The wedding received much media attention and was said to transfix both India and Pakistan.
2.2.5 Sporting ties

Cricket and hockey matches between the two (as well as other sports to a lesser degree such as those of the SAARC games) have often been political in nature. During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan General Zia-ul-Haq travelled to India for a bout of “cricket diplomacy” to keep India from supporting the Soviets by opening another front. Pervez Musharraf also tried to do the same more than a decade later but to no avail.
After September 11, 2001 Pakistan’s prominence within the international community increased significantly. Pakistan pledged its alliance with the United States in the war against terrorism. Pakistan has had long-standing close relations with China, extensive security and economic interests in the Persian Gulf and wide-ranging bilateral relations with the United States and the western countries but constantly difficult and volatile relations with India.

2.3 Post September 11 Trends in Indo-Pak Relations

In the aftermath of the September 11, the Indian government adopted an aggressive posture towards Pakistan with the aim of isolating it by using the international campaign against terrorism. The Indian efforts undoubtedly increased pressure on Pakistan. However, Indian efforts to get Pakistan declared a terrorist state did not succeed. Consequently, after 9/11 the relations between India and Pakistan touched their lowest ebb. India was in no mood to de-escalate tension with Pakistan. It wanted the international community to categorically declare Pakistan a terrorist state. As regards the Kashmir dispute, India liked to settle the dispute on its own terms, that is, to get the LoC declared an international border between the two countries. Thus, there was a deadlock between India and Pakistan that continued for the next two years. There was greater need for the international community to play a more constructive role to help defuse the tense stand-offs.The post-September 11 Indian foreign policy trends showedthat the BJP government adopted an aggressive attitude for attaining its two long-term foreign policy goals (a) to attain a hegemonic position in South Asia; (b) to acquire the recognized status of an international actor. India initially took the post 9/11 period as laden with opportunities to isolate Pakistan internationally and more importantly in relation to the Kashmir dispute but miserably failed.
In this context three apparent trends in Indian foreign policy towards Pakistan were worth noting. First, Indian officials issued provocative statements accusing Pakistan of being a terrorists harbouring state and involved in terrorist activism. The Indian government also tried to convince the United States and other Western countries not to give much importance to Pakistan’s role in the war against terrorism. Realizing that after the 9/11 events Pakistan had once again become a frontline state for the U.S. and western countries, the then Indian Home Minister, Advani, in a statement on September 16, 2001 said, “the world cannot disregard the fact that over a decade, Pakistan has been promoting terrorism.P Kashmir and Indo-Pak Relations In the political arena, Kashmir has always occupied the centre stage in the Indo-Pakistan relations. This has remained the crux of the difficulties between the two countries. It seems that both sides viewed it not merely as a territorial dispute or the issue of the right to self-determination of the Kashmiri people but there had also been deep underlying ideological antagonisms and centuries-old prejudices and misgivings marring relations between the two countries. Pakistan describes the Kashmir dispute as an “unfinished item on the agenda of the partition” of the subcontinent in 1947, meaning thereby that the contiguous Muslim-majority area of Indian-held Kashmir must be included to constitute a complete Pakistan. It has been the main dispute throughout between India and Pakistan and the biggest stumbling block in the improvement of relations between the two neighbours. Pakistan has consistently maintained that Kashmir is the core problem between the two countries and without its resolution on the basis of the U.N. Resolutions there could be no durable peace in the subcontinent. India and Pakistan have remained largely inflexible in their positions. Bilateral talks at various levels have been held repeatedly but to no avail. Mediatory efforts by friendly countries have fared no better. In fact, since the 1970s, India has even refused to let any third country use its good offices in the matter. Pakistan’s repeated offers to refer the dispute to international mediation or adjudication have also been rejected by India. Thus, the Kashmir dispute has remained unresolved and has been the single most important cause for the deadlock and adversarial relations that have continued between India and Pakistan ever since their independence. In fact, two major wars have been fought over the Kashmir dispute and the energies of the two countries have been greatly consumed over the unending tension generated by this issue.

2.4 Change in Policies after 9/11

After the end of the Cold War, the India Pakistan nuclear tests and the incidents of 9/11 brought about a drastic change in India’s Foreign Policy in that a new phase of triangular relationship of India-Pakistan-United States vis-à-vis the situation in the Indian subcontinent, came into being which resulted in a heightened competition between India and Pakistan for an alliance with America. Setting aside the years of ideological confrontation, India offered unconditional political and logistic support to America in its war against terrorism in order to isolate Pakistan and make friends with the United States. But the US opted for Pakistan’s support as India’s direct participation in the operations could not have yielded the same results as expected from the US’s alliance with Pakistan. On the other hand, Pakistan renounced its earlier Afghan policy, but not the core objectives of its policy in the region.
President Musharraf in his speech to the nation on September 19, 2001 made it clear that India wanted to exploit the new situation to its advantage; hence he thought it prudent to provide total support to the United States in its war on terrorism. Soon after the Pakistan’s declaration of cooperation the US lifted the sanctions imposed upon these two countries after the 1998 nuclear tests. This paved the way for an improved Pak-American relationship in the days to come that is going from strength to strength.
2.4.1 Meetings held under the Composite Dialogue Process
1. Talks On Nuclear CBMs
2. Talks on Peace and Security Including CBMs and Jammu
and Kashmir
3. Talks On Wullar Barrage/Tulbal Navigation Project
4. Talks on Promotion of Friendly Exchanges
5. Talks on Siachen Issue
6. Talks on Sir Creek Boundary Issue
7. Talks on Terrorism and Drug Trafficking
8. Talks on Economic and Commercial Cooperation.
The first phase of the composite dialogue process between India and Pakistan ended on August 13, 2004 with the conclusion of the eight meetings schedule during the third phase having taken place. This was a significant achievement given the resumption of the dialogue process after a gap of six years. However, to expect major breakthroughs in the initial rounds was to expect too much. Given the level of mistrust to be overcome and the complex modalities involved, it is likely to be a lengthy process. Now that the first phase of the composite dialogue process has ended, there has been some progress as regards the people-to-people contacts and the level of diplomatic relations between the two countries, such as decisions to liberalize visa facility on both sides, release of civilian prisoners, restoration of the strength of High Commissions in each country and establishing of hot line between the Foreign Secretaries of the two countries. It is pertinent to note that while the composite dialogue is in progress, the developments at the people-to-people level between the two countries have also started effectively with cricket diplomacy. For example, for the first time, in July 2004 a group of Pakistani scouts visited Srinagar to participate in the SAARC integration camp held in Gulmarg, near Srinagar, and on August 9, 2004 India and Pakistan exchanged prisoners of war, held by the two countries since the Kargil conflict. Prominent parliamentarians, chief ministers, opposition leaders, intellectuals and cultural dignitaries have also exchanged visits to mark the changed friendly environment.
During the first phase of the composite dialogue, both sides have expressed support for continuing the process. However, as regards the specific issues between India and Pakistan, keeping in view their respective national interests, there is no change in the official positions as yet. Therefore, progress in the case of issues such as Jammu and Kashmir, and Siachen, Wullar Barrage, Sir Creek, are presently not substantive, though the dialogue process would and must continue. However, the important point to note is that both sides have expressed satisfaction over the developments during the first phase and have renewed their resolve to continue the process. Pakistan’s Foreign Office spokesman, Masood Khan, on August 12, 2004 said, “it is a matter of satisfaction that in accordance with the agreed schedule between the two countries all the eight agenda items have been covered in the composite dialogue.”42 On August 14, 2004 in a speech on the eve of India’s Independence Day, Indian President, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, said, “I note with satisfaction our continuing efforts towards good neighborly relations, particularly the sustained progress of the peace process between India and Pakistan.

2.5 9/11 and its impact on Pakistan-India relations
Following the 9/11 events, the 1 October car bomb blast outside the State Assembly in Srinagar and the 13 December firing attack in front of the Indian parliament provided India with opportunities to present itself as the victim of much-buzzed terrorism and dub Pakistan as a terrorist state. After the attacks, besides dubbing Pakistan as the sponsor of terrorism, India took stringent measures against Pakistan
• Put pressure on Pakistan to ban alleged terrorist organizations working in Pakistan which were involved in those attacks.
• Demanded to be handed over 20 alleged terrorists involved in terrorist attacks in India.
• Massed its troops along the Line of Control (LoC) and its international border.
• Halted rail, road and air links with Pakistan completely from 31 December 2001.
Besides, India took every opportunity to utilize the growing international concern over global terrorism to implicate Pakistan in every way possible.
2.5.1 Regional Security
The South Asian security environment underwent certain changes before the event of 9/11. The taking over power by Taliban in Afghanistan, Kargil war and of 9/1 1 , followed by the US attack on Taliban forces in Afghanistan altered the environment in the region which might have compelled Pakistan to engage herself peace process with India.
peace process with India. The take over of power by Taliban forces in Afghanistan changed the security environment of South Asia. Taliban wanted apure Islamist movement to cleanse Afghanistan corruption and the debauchery. They made use of their ISI and Pakistani military but also relied on the support of drug barons and provincial governments. For for influence beyond the country they made use of networks of Deobandi Madrassehs Pakistan’. These religious colleges politicized Islam into a fundamentalist creed. momentum was generated by the flow of recruits who were fed of religious dogmatism cause of jihad. After the collapse of Soviet Union, India and Pakistan see an advantage courting American patronage. India is eager to demonstrate that Pakistan is an untrustworthy ally of Washington : it backed the Taliban and promoted insurgency in Kashmir. reason for supporting the Taliban was to resurrect the idea of protecting its western the event of war with lndia. The fall of Taliban made Musharraf realize that Pakistan’s of creating a friendly power on the western border had failed spectacularly. After the Taliban, the US could tilt the regional security environment in favour of India, Pakistan to behave like a moderate and liberal Islamic state by putting a tight jehadi elements. Even Musharraf under US pressure, was obliged to collaborate in terror.
When the Taliban were secure in power, the Pakistan army felt confident enough to chaljenge India in the Kargil conflict of 1999. Kargil brought out the living threat of Islamic fundamentalism in the region. In the age of Osama-bin-Laden, American interest in the region is all about the containment of the most explosive kind of anti-Americanism, the Osma-bin-Ladenist variety of fundamentalism. India got a taste of this threat from Kargil and an opportunity to share its fears with the US. Kargil demonstrated that the Pakistani attempt to internationalize the Kashmir issue as a nuclear flashpoint in South Asia did not work against India’s interests when the spectre of Islamic militancy was striking terror across the world. Internationally, Islamabad’s efforts to persuade the major powers to intervene did not meet with much success. Both internal and international opinion were in favour of India, keeping in view of India’s matured management of the situation, its policy of military restraint. India’s policy of restraint to keep Pakistan under global pressure worked in its favour. Basically there were two factors which tilted the US (Clinton administration) to India’s side. One is the nuclear issue and the other was Lahore diplomacy.
2.5.2Process of normalization
Not only the US but also the whole world community was concerned about the growing tension between Pakistan and India in the post-scenario and many world leaders kept on urging both the states to opt peace. The first pivotal effort in this regard was made by Russia at the nation Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building in Asia (CICA) held at Almaty on 6 June 2002. 12 In a much US pushed move, Russian President Vladmir Putin, along with other participating heads of played a proactive role in bringing Prime Minister Vajpayee and President Musharraf together to hold a one-on-one meeting. Although Prime Minister Vajpayee disappointed all those who strove hard to bring the Pakistani and Indian leaderships together on the sidelines of the CICA summit, the Indian side had to come out with an assurance to CICA summit, the Indian side had to come out with an assurance to reciprocate the positive action taken by Pakistan to stem what India reciprocate the positive action taken by Pakistan to stem what India insisted on calling cross-border infiltration. In the opinion of independent observers and leading media persons, Pakistan had already made important concessions to meet the concerns of India and the international “community and it was now India’s turn to reciprocate those steps. Following the CICA summit, a slight shift in India’s stern policy towards Pakistan became apparent. The Indian leadership hinted towards the possibility of a troops’ pull back. Though the hype remained, the war-like situation had eased.

2.5.3 Thaw in Pakistan-India relations
In an unexpected move, a thaw came in Pakistan-India relations when Prime Minister Vajpayee offered a hand of friendship to Pakistan at rally in Srinagar on 18 April 2003. In his speech he said ‘we can change our friends but we cannot change our neighbours.’ And this is one of the primary factors which compels the two states to normalize their relations after every conflict. This thaw in Pakistan-India relations must be viewed in the context of regional uncertainty and competition between the two states for US favour. India responded to US calls for easing the stand- off because it sought to cement its growing relationship with the US in terms of trade, technology and military cooperation. Islamabad responded to US influence because Prime Minister Vajpayee’s led to the resumption This move earned the the people of the two relations between the two states and societies. But at the official level the progress remained slow.
2.5.4 Track II diplomacy
The people of Pakistan and India are aware of the grave consequences of long-standing disputes and perpetual rivalry between the two states and they have always played a conciliatory role in times of tension. Taking early advantage of the thaw, there were a number of private goodwill visits by businessmen and parliamentarians from both Pakistan and India during June and July 2003. This was followed by the exchange visits of students, teachers, scholars, journalists, lawyers, people from non-governmental organizations and showbiz celebrities, who people from non-governmental organizations and showbiz celebrities, who vowed to concert their efforts for strengthening peace between the two vowed to concert their efforts for strengthening peace between the two societies.
2.5.5 Hurdles in the process of normalization
A slow but gradual process of normalization was going on when, in late August, it was jeopardized by terrorist incidents:
• A suicide attack at a shopping centre in Mumbai.
• A gun battle between militants and Indian forces in Srinagar that coincided with Prime
Minister Vajpayee’s visit to the city. The incidents added bitterness to the process of normalization and led to a blame game by the Indian leaders once again. Moreover, the tense exchanges between Prime Minister Vajpayee and President Musharraf at the UN General Assembly meeting in New York in September marked a further rift in Pakistan-India relations. But progress in the peace efforts was not stalled by these developments as had been anticipated.
2.5.6 Confidence-building measures (CBMs)
International pressure and the thaw eventually led India to come up with a package of CBMs. On 22 October, India proposed ’12 steps towards confidence building’ to Pakistan, increased air, rail and maritime links.
1. Resume talks to restore civil aviation links, including over flights.
2. Discuss a resumption of rail links, following aviation talks.
3. Resume bilateral sporting encounters, including cricket.
4. Issue visas in cities outside the two countries’ national capitals, to shorten travel.
5. Permit individuals aged at least 65 years to cross into India on foot. Previously only groups could walk across, while individuals had to board a bus.
6. Run more buses on the New Delhi to Lahore route that now operates.
7. Establish links between the two countries’ coast guards, before and after the fishing season. 8. Stop arresting each other’s fishermen within certain sea areas.
9. Provide free medical treatment to 20 Pakistani children.
10. Increase the staff of their respective embassies.
11. Consider a ferry service between Mumbai and Karachi.
12. Start new bus services, one between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad. The other would be a bus or rail link between Khokrapar in Sindh and Munabao in Rajasthan.
Pakistan followed suit by proposing its ’14 steps towards confidence building’ on 29 October, by accepting nearly all the Indian proposals, partially rejecting one, adding conditions to some and offering four fresh ones to India’s 12 proposals. In another move to easing tension at the borders, on 23 November, Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali announced a unilateral ceasefire along the LoC. The CBMs further led to the resumption of air links between two states 2004.


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