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SYSTEM OF THE BRAINNENUNGWI D201601711VENTRICULAR SYSTEM ON THE BRAININTRODUCTIONThe cerebral ventricles are interconnected spaces in the brain that produce the cerebrospinal fluid and transport it all over the cranial cavity. They are lined by the ependymal cells, which forms the choroid plexus. The choroid plexus produce the cerebrospinal fluid. The ventricular system consists of the two lateral ventricles, third ventricle, fourth ventricle and central aqueduct.DEVELOPMENTThe structures of the ventricular system are embryologically developed from the neural tube, at its neural canal.

It develops as part of the primitive neural tube that will develop into the brainstem. The neural canal expands laterally and dorsally creating the fourth ventricle. The neural canal that does not expand nor change level forms the cerebral aqueduct.

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The forth ventricle narrows in the caudal medulla at the obex to become the central spinal cord. By the fourth week of embryological development, there are swellings that form in the embryo, near where the head will develop. These swellings are prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon, these further divides into five sections.The prosencephalon divides into telencephalon that forms the cortex of the brain, and diencephalon.

The ventricles within the telencephalon become the lateral ventricles and the ventricles within the diencephalon become the third ventricle. The Rhombencephalon divides into the myelencephalon and metencephalon. The ventricles within the rhombencephalon become the fourth ventricles and the ventricles within the mesencephalon become the aqueduct of sylvius (central aqueduct).THE VENTRICLESLEFT AND RIGHT LATERAL VENTRICLESThese are located within the left and right cerebral hemisphere respectively.

Consists of central part, which lies within the parietal lobe. The anterior horn from the level of interventricular foramen to the frontal lobe. The inferior horn lies in the temporal lobe. The posterior horn extends to the occipital lobe. The posterior and anterior horns are lacking choroid plexus. The central part and the inferior horn have got the choroid plexuses since the choroid fissure is confined to this part of the lateral ventricles. The choroid plexus produce the cerebrospinal fluid. The volume of the lateral ventricles increase with age.

THIRD VENTRICLEThe third ventricles connect to the lateral ventricle by foramen of monro. The third ventricle is located in between the right and left thalamus. Its boundaries are as follow; -The roof is formed by the ependymal layer stretching across the two thalami. -The lamina terminalis which stretches between the optic chiasma and the rostrum of the corpus callosum forms the anterior wall.-The lateral wall is formed by the medial border of the thalamus and the hypothalamus.

-The floor is formed by the thalamic structures.-The posterior wall is formed consists of pineal body, posterior commissure, habenular commissure and cerebral aqueduct. The anterior surface of the ventricles contains the following protrusions:Supra-optic recess _ it is located above the optic chiasm of the optic nerves.Infundibular recess – it is located above the optic stalk of the optic nerves.Pineal recess_ projects into the stalk of the pineal gland.

FOURTH VENTRICLEIt is the last in the ventricular system. It receives the cerebrospinal fluid from the third ventricle via the central aqueduct. It lies between the pons and medulla oblongata and anterior/ ventral to the cerebellum. It extends from the central aqueduct superiorly to the central canal of the brainstem and medulla oblongata inferiorly.

It has the following boundaries; -lateral walls are formed by cerebellar peduncles, gracile and cuneate tubercles.-floor formed by the rhomboid fossa.-Roof formed by the cerebellum.

CLINICAL CORELLATIONSHydrocephalusVentriculitisCEREBROSPINAL FLUIDCSF is a clear watery fluid containing nutrients, sodium chloride, potassium, glucose and some proteins. It fills the ventricles of the brain and the spinal cord. It is secreted by the choroid plexus in the ventricles and extends into the subarachnoid space. Its drainage occurs in the subarachnoid cisterns, then to the dural venous sinuses.Functions;-provides nutrients to the brain.- protects the brain and spinal cord from trauma.

-removes waste products from cerebral metabolism.REFERENCESClinical anatomy for students (problem solving approach) Neeta v Kulkarni.Moore clinically orientated anatomy- Keith L Moore, Arthur f Dalley, Anne M.R AgurWww. Wikipedia.

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SystemsFunctions of Computer Systems3/28/2018Rana ZohaibLO1: Understand the functions of computer systemsAC 1.1 Explain the roles of computer systems in different environment (home, business, education, hospital, marketing, e-commerce, RND, banking)HomeBankingHospitalResearch and developmentMarketingComputer use in HomeComputer system could be used at home in various procedures .computer system used at home for entertainment .you can keep your personal data In it.

You can make a secure folder inside the computer .compute also helpful in your office work at home .you can watch movies also you can used to play games on itit is used to communicate with anybody .you can get any kind of information from system.

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peoples do safe or secured their own personal material or data on their computer systems. Probably it could be a bundles of pictures or videos any kind of personal data who he taken.Computer use in Banking Computer system is using in bank to secure date, information, material of their clients and consumersThey could be maintain and create these data with the help of computer system and arrange quick access for any branches of the bank improving their consumerutility speeds.Computer use in Medical/HospitalComputer could be used in medical field or hospital to storage material of their patients/ sick person. systems is also using to monitoring patient’s live status and character of sickness.

in the medical it used to store of their medicines material data. you can manipulate the medicines at any time due to computer system .Computer use in Marketing in the modern era computer is using in the marketing competent use computer technology to decide a any kinds of plan manage and hard work .in the marketing field data could be store gigantic form inside the computer that is very helpful .computer could be used due to other media can also be done through computer as they can be usually used to make a designs the layouts of the pages graphics designers and media professional use computer to edit their commercials.Computer use in Research and developmentComputer is playing a massive role that is we know about ourselves and the whole world. If you see satellites or telescope and approximately all the research tools make use of system in some or the other way. The massive judgment demanded for space science ,safe communication b/w scientist data of all the collective material are some of the computer uses in science and technologyCompare different types of computerMinicomputer vs micro computerSuper comp vs main frame computersMinicomputer vs micro computerMinicomputer and micro computer both have same sound although they are other kinds of computersMicrocomputer mostly connected to laptop or desktop computer which is help you in ordinary household although minicomputers which were basically use in 1960to1968 are basically gigantic but it has limited functions and sick processor Compare between Minicomputer and micro computer Micro comp Mini Comp Micro Computers is standard desktop computer Which is used at home and in business fieldMini Computers are normal size computer which are used universities colleges even school as well.

It is used for research labs and corporations.Micro Computer have a micro processor Mini Computes have a speedy processor as compare to micro computer It is very economical solid and could be easily obtain on a study table It is very costly lavish and bigger then micro computer It is a single person user It is a multi user computer as compare to micro computerMicro computer isn’t energetic , dynamic or as speedy minicomputer Minicomputer is very energetic dynamic as compare to microcomputer but you cannot compare its self to main frame or super computer as wellThese are the examples of micro computer Modern computers equal desktop laptop included.IBM 9375 and Motorola 68040 are the examples of mini computer Micro Computer is knows by personal com It is called mid-range computersIt was establish in 1970 It was establish in 1960It has a normal storage capacity like GB It has a massive gigantic storage in tbYou can normally use 1 person at a time Mini Computer could be used by various person at a timeCompare between Super and Mainframe ComputerMainframe computers and supercomputer enhanced the restriction of what can be skillful with the help of computing. Both are massive gigantic machines, but they aren’t similar stuff just because of their compatibilities are totally different both terms are mostly implement mutually by those who don’t know which the better that’s why they indicate to very separates kinds of hardware and condition of computingThe huge difference between mainframe and super computer is the variety of issues that they tackle.Super Comp Mainframe CompSuper computer is a state-of-the-art machine.It was first developed in early 1970s Mainframe computer is a larger computer in terms of price, power and speed.

It was introduced in 1975The first outstanding supercomputer was created by Seymour Cray in the year 1976 Cray 1 IBM invented the first rewarding Mainframe computer and is still a assertive association for producing the mainframe computerIt can assassinate countless of floating point procedures with in a seconds with the help super computer It can execute millions of guidance on the spot Supercomputer are the massive computer in the world Mainframe computers are also gigantic computers in the other conditions its smaller then supercomputerSupercomputers are the most costly computer in this world It is also expensive but less then supercomputersIt has Linux OS (operating system) and derivative variants of Linux operating system Mainframe has the capacity to run multiple OSat a time A supercomputer is very powerful computer. Mainframe computers fall in the group of massive computers. These computers are normally used in huge organization ,it could be used for calculation at a very fast rate It often runs twenty four hours a dayThey are used for calculations involved in complex processesYou can experiment and forecasting of global weather pattern is conducted by using supercomputers. A typical mainframe computer can execute 16 million instructions per second.HardwareThe computer system depends on two basic aspects. The 1st is Hardware and 2nd is Software computer hardware is the combination of all the elements. You can actually touch or feel. If you talk about Software you cannot touch by physically it is help for instructions and used for limited operations you have to need both software and hardware for computer.

Without software and hardware you cannot use computer. Central processing unitCPU stands for Central Processing Unit it is also called processor, microprocessors and computer processor CPU is the electronic unit that is mostly used in the computer system. CPU produce or gives the input guidance or direction with the help of memory unit and it is operate arithmetic and sense works and stores this whole processing data send it to back memory as well.

The CPU is the brain of computer. The CPU is the highest significant item of can controls further parts of computer.

CPU processes the computer materials and interchange due to other components. MotherboardMotherboard is the greater parts of CPU system. Motherboard is also known as system board or main is the highest significant circuit board in system unit. It depends on different chips.

A chip is small semiconductor path which carries electrical current. An IC may contain of millions of transistors. The system board is a communication medium for the entire computer system. Every parts of system units connect directly to system board. External devices for example keyboard mouse and monitor cannot communicate with the system unit without system board. Power supply unitPower supply is the type of hardware that supplies power to an electrical device.

It takes power from electrical device and changes the current from AC (alternating current) to DC (direct current) that is what the computer demands. It can balance the voltage to an sufficient amount which gives the computer to run easily or smoothly without any overheating. Power supply is the compulsory element of any computer. You can find out the on a system unit easily locating the input where the power cord plugged in.. A configured power supply is the one and only which controls the output voltage to or current to a specific value.

in the other sense if power supply cut from computer system then system will be turn of and work will not be saved. Cooling UnitA computer system is depended of electronic devices for examples CPU , RAM Motherboard and more other components. As you know we are going to age of moder era . As new computer in this moderen era computer become ever more developed, improved, progressive, refined to work faster then old computers.there is a lots of heat genrate from these elements.

To remove deficient heat from a computer system a thermal management cooling system used. Which is sink out the heat from the computer system. System become cool due to cooling system. Cooling Unit do work for realesing heat and lowering air temprature with the help of cooling system. It gives huged air flow and quited temrature with the use of cooling fans.

Backing Storage In the computer components or technologies a backup storage device can be used to make copies of data that is use in action. Backup elements gives additional of data consist on primary storage. The use of backup storage is necessary in business or enterprise fields. General kinds of backing storage devices are hard disc drive, controllers, ports, main memory, memory types and specialized cardsHard disc controllersHard disc controller is an electrical elements or component within a system which actives the processor or CPU to approach or access read, write,delete and adjust data to and from the hard disc. SoftwareSoftware is a set of instructions that tell a computer what to do. A computer works according to the given instructions in the software.for you type in words with the help of keyboard tha software could be responsible for displaying the exact letters on the is stored on hard disk.

It is copied from the disk into the main memory of the computer as and when required. System softwareSytem software is a set of programs required to implement certain functions in the computing system. It controls the operatiions of a computer system. It can also control the usage and specific of different hardware elements. It enables other programe to execute properly.Operating SystemAn operating system is a type of programs that manages all mcomputer elements and operations.

A computer cannot do anything without operating system. Operating system should be installed on every computer system. Peoples interact with computer with the help of operating system. DOS (Micro soft disk operating system) and windows are examples of operating system software. Utility programsA utility programs is a set of system software which is used to action a specific task. It is normally used to solve the common problems of software and hardware. Antivirus and file compressor are two examples of utility programs. It is a specific task that is linked to the management of computer functions, resources, or files, as password protection, memory management .

it can protect from antivirus and file compression.Library programsIn the language of compuet science a libray is a clusters of non-volatile asstes that is used in computer programs to maintain the software oftenlly. Program libraries are collection of reuseable program codes.

These kinds of libraries can be reused by any programmer for writing programs more easily in less could be add structure the data it can make a documentaion help the data, message templates, IBM’s OS/360 and its beneficiary they are recommended to as partition the data sets. Translator programsA translaotor or programing language is a system program which can actions the translation of a program written in a given programming language.

translator is a computer program that translated into a low-level programming language where notive code compilers change it in machine language for execution. A translator is a compueter program used to convert great level program code to machine code. Translator are used because it is very tough to write programs directly into machine code (all 0’s and 1’s) it is simply for programmer to write the program in an HLL (high level language) and use a translator to change it into machine code. Application software Application software is a program needed to perform various applications on the computer by user. It is also called application package.

it helps a computer user to solve specific problems.The user use different software packages on computer to convience our work. It is used to perform different task such as word-processor a spreadsheet or data base etc. the application software uses the operating system in order to function.

The operating system is the base software. The application software runs on top of the operating system.Special Purpose SoftwareSpecial purpose software application is a sort of software which is created to assassinate one special task. Special software such as those is mostly accepted as Firmware as it is usually not upgradeable by the end of user. Early firmware could only be enhanced by flashing an EEPROM under ultraviolet light to erase it then reprogramming the device.

Things have moved on now hardware uses a small part of specialist memory which can retains a charge that stores tha firmware these can commonlly be flashed by linking the device to a computer and running a special program.let spouse a camera function in your cell phone will only grant you to take and contributions pictures. Chess game could be a example.

It could single grant you to play chess.Be-spoke softwareBe-spoke application software is tailor made for a specific user and purpose. Let spouse a factory may require software to run a robot to make cars. it is the only factory making that car in the world, so the software required would have to be specially built for the task. Custom software also accepted as a bespoke software or tailor. It is specifically developed for some restricted organization another use. Although it can be contrasted with the use of software packages developed for the mass market such as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software or existing free software.PeripheralsA computer peripheral is any external device that gives input and output for the computer like a keyboard and mouse are input peripherals whereas monitor and printer are out peripheral.

Computer peripherals or peripheral devices are sometimes called “I/O devices” because they gives input and output for the computerPrintersA is an output devices that prints characters, symbols and graphics on paper. The printed output is called hard copy. Print resolution is commonly measured in dots per inch (dpi). Impact printersAn impact printer works as a typewriter. It prints character or images by striking a print hammer or wheel against an inked ribbon.Dot Matrix PrinterA dot matrix printer is an impact printer. It produces printed images when tiny pins on a print head strike an inked ribbon.

When the ribbon presses against the paper, it creates dots that from character and graphics. The print head on a dot matrix printer can contain nine to twenty-four pins. This number of pins depends on the manufacture and the printer model.

A high number of pins print more dots that produce higher quality. Cheaper dot matrix printers use 100 to 150 DPI. Their speed is from 200 to 300 characters per minute. The expensive printers typically use 300 DPI and a speed of 300 to 1000 characters per minute.

Dot matrix printers generate a lot of noise. They do not produce a very high quality of print, especially when printing graphics.Line PrinterLine printer is a fast impact printer. It prints an entire line at a time. Its speed is measured in lines per minutes (1pm).

Many line printers can print 3000 lines per minute. There are two types of line printers are as follows Band printer Band printer prints characters by striking hammer on a rotating by horizontal hand. A band contains the shapes of numbers, letters and other characters.

Chain printerIt is similar to band printer. It contains complete set of characters on various sections of chain. The chain rotates at a high speed. Print hammers are located between the hammers and the chain. As the chain rotates, the hammers strike when the proper characters are In front of the print positions.

Daisy Wheel PrinterDaisy wheel printer is similar to a typewriter. It uses a print wheel. The print wheel is called daisy wheel. Each petal of daisy wheel contains character. A motor rotates the wheel. A hammer strikes a petal against the ribbon when the desired character reaches the position on the paper. This print the character on the paper daisy wheel printers is slower than dot matrix printer but better in quality.

Non-Impact printersA non-impact printer prints characters and graphics on a piece of paper without striking the paper. Some of these printers use spray ink while others use heat and pressure to create images. These printers are faster than impact printer.Inkjet PrinterIt prints characters and graphics by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink on paper.

These printers can produce quality text and graphics in both black-and-white and color.Inkjet printers are slower as compare to laser printers. They can print 1to6 pages per minute.

Its print quality is higher than dot matrix printer. They are also relatively inexpensive. Most inkjet printers have usually two print cartridges.

One cartridge contains black ink and the other containing color. Laser PrinterLaser printers are non-impact printers. The laser printer creates image on the paper by the laser beam. LASER stands for ( Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). Laser throws magnetic material powder on paper in the form of microscopic dots. The density of these dots ranges from 300 to 2000 dots per inch (DPI).The printing speed of laser printers is from 5to300 pages per minute. Laser printers are also called page printer.

They print complete page at a time. Laser printers produce very high quality print. They are faster as compare to inkjet and dot matrix printers. Color printing with laser lasers printers is very costly. Laser printers are mostly used in business field. Thermal Printer Thermal printer is a printer that uses heat process to transfer colored dyes or inks to the paper.

Thermal printer is the best color printers currently available but it is also very expensive. It was originally used only in scientific labs to record data. Now this printer is widely used to produce very high-quality color artwork and text.Professional applications requiring very high image quality such as photo studio medical labs and security identification systems use thermal printers. The cost of this printer is thousands of dollar and it prints images in a wide range or sizes. Photo PrinterPhoto printer is a color printer that is specially designed to print high-quality photographs. It is also called snapshot printer.

Some photo printers print photos of one or two sizes only. For example some photo printers print 3*5 inches. Some printers can print up to letter size photos etc. some printers use inkjet technology to print photographs. Many photo printers have a built-in card slot. The printer can print digital photos directly from a media card.

It means that there is no need to transfer the images from media card to the computer to print them. Portable printerIt is a small, light-weight and battery-powered printer. It can be used by mobile users to print images from notebook computer, tablet PC or PDA while traveling. Its size is a bit wider than the page on which than the page on which it prints.

Portable printer fits on briefcase easily. It is normally use ink-jet, thermal wax-transfer technology. Many printers connect to parallel port or USB port.

Some portable printers have built-in wireless port to communicate with computer wirelessly. Label and postage printerIt is small printer. It prints on an adhesive type material that can be placed on different items like envelopes, packages, CDs, toys etc. many label printers also print bar codes. Postage printer is special type of label printer. It has a built-in digital scale.

It prints postage stamps. It allows the users to buy and print digital postage from their personal computers. The digital postage is also called internet postage.PlotterIt is an output device that is used to produce image-quality graphics in a variety of colors. Plotters are used to crate maps, architectural drawings, graphs and charts. A plotter works by drawing lines on paper using pens held in mechanical arm.

Types of plottersThere are two types of plottersFlatbed plotterDrum plotterFlatbed PlotterIt is used to plot or draw images. It contains pens for drawing images. The paper is placed on table-like surface. Software instructs the pens to move down on the paper. The pen then moves on the paper for creating images. Most flatbed plotters have one or more pens of different colors and widths.

Drum plottersDrum plotter uses a rotating drum or cylinder. The drawings pens are mounted on the drum. The pens move to the left and right as the drum rotates. This movement creates the desired image.The advantage of drum plotter is that the length of the plot is almost unlimited. The roll paper can be used to draw very length images. The width of the image depends on the width of the drumCamerasweb cam is also called cam.

It is video camera whose output displays on a web page. It is normally used to show any work in progress. Some cams show moving images by sending a continual stream of images. These are called streaming cam.Another digital camera is used to take and store picture in digital form.

It doesn’t use traditional camera film. It saves money and the photos can be customized using different application software. Digital camera stores images using different techniques like floppy disk, super disk, PC Card, compact flash card memory stick, mini-CD and Microdrive.

Many digital cameras allow the user to edit the images. Digital camera can be connected to a computer easily. Its quality depends on its resolution. It describes the sharpness of an image. Some digital cameras have a resolution of six million pixels. ScannerScanner read data or information from a source. This source could be written document, a price tag, a graphic image, or even a photograph. A scanning device reads the data or information and then converts it into form that the system unit can process.

There are two types of scanning devicesOptical scannerOptical readersOptical scannerAn optical scanner is also known as scanner. It is a light-sending input device. It reads printed text and graphics and translates it in digital form. The scanned image can be used for different purpose as followsIt can be displayed on screenIt can be printed on the paperIt can also be sent via emailIt can be posted on a web pageIt can also be stored permanently for later useThe typical image scanner scans at a resolution of 300 or 600 dpi. Resolution describes the sharpness of an image. The quality of scanned image also depends on the resolution.

The scanned image will be brighter and sharper if the scanner provides high resolution. Professional scanners usually scan at 1200 dpi or higher. A higher number of dots generates better quality but also creates a larger file size. Different types of optical scanners are as followsFlatbed ScannerIt is also called image scanner. It inputs one page at a time. It works like a photocopy machine. The image to be scanned is placed on a glass surface and the scanner records the image.

It is generally used at home and office.Sheet fed ScannerA sheetfed scanner works similarly to a flatbed scanner but documents are inserted on the top of the scanner like a fax machine. This design reduces the scanners cost and the amount required space. It also enables automatic sheet feeding.

However, this feature also prevents the device from scanning bound-book pages or other documents thicker or larger than a sheet of paper.Handheld scannerIt is a portable scanner. It is also called half-page scanners because it can scan only 2 to 5 inches at a time. Handheld scanners are useful for input small amount of data.

Scanner must be moved over the image to be scanned by hand. Some are include trays to keep the scanner moving in a straight line. It is designed to scan short articles and single lines of data like web addresses, names or phone numbers.

KeyboardKeyboard is the most commonly used input device. Data is mostly entered using a keyboard. The buttons on the keyboard are called keys: A keyboard contains over ‘l00 keys. The keys on computer keyboards are often classified as follows: Numeric keypadNumeric keypad is located on the right hand side of most keyboards. It has arithmetic operator keys +, -, *, / that are used in arithmetic operations and digits from 0 to 9.ltalso has a key Number Lock.

When this key is off, the keypad cannot be used to type numbers. Function Keys Function keys from F1 to F 12 perform special functions: Their function depends on “‘9 software being used in the computer. Alphanumeric keysAlphanumeric keys include all letter keys in alphabet (A to Z) and digits from O to 9. Backspace KeyBackspace keyIt is used to delete single character on the left of the cursor on the screen Enter keyIt is used to enter command or input data in the computer.Caps Lock Key Caps Lock is a toggle key.

When it is on, all alphabetic characters appear in uppercase. Otherwise all alphabetic characters appear in lowercase. Tab Key Tab key is used for moving to predefined tab stops in many applications programs like Word Processor. In dialog boxes, it is used to move from one option or field to another. Modifier Keys These are used to modify the input of other keys.’ A specific key is pressed while holding down one of these keys to achieve required result. These keys are as follows:Control Keys: CT RL keys produce different results depending on type of software.

Sometimes this key is used with other keys as shortcut to some commands. For example CT RL+0 ‘is used to open” a new file. Alt Keys: ALT keys are always used in combination with other keys to perform special functions. In windows-based programs, these keys are used to navigate menus and dialog boxes without using a mouse. Shift Keys: It is used to output a capital letter or a special symbol.

In most word processors, it is used with various cursor movement keys to select text for editing. Cursor-Movement Keys These keys are used to move around the screen and are as follows: Home and End Key: Home key is normally used in word processing or text editors to move cursor to the top of screen. END key is normally used in word processing to ‘ move the cursor to the right of screen or to the end of screen or document. Arrows keys: The keys that more the cursor are called Arrow Keys or cursor control keys. These keys have an up arrow (t), a down arrow (1), a left arrow (c1 thud right arrow (a). Page-up and Page-down key: PG-UP & PG-DN keys are normally used in word processing or other application software to move the cursor one page up or down on in the screenSpecial- Purpose Keys These keys are used for special purposes and are as follows: Esc Key: SC key is used to terminate command or current task.

Delete KeyIt deletes characters or commands to the right of the cursor. It is also used to delete tiles. Insert Key: It is used to switch a program form Insert Mode (text is inserted at h cursor) to Overtype Mode (Text is typed over the other) in word-processing software.

It can also be used with other keys for special purposes. Print screen It is used to capture all seen on screen. Scroll Lock It causes the cursor to remain stationary on the screen in some programs. When it is turned off, the cursor moves normally. It does not work in all programs.Pause or Break Key: In some programs, it is used to stop a command in progress.

For example, It is used to stop an infinite loop in C++. Different types of keyboards are as follows: QWERTY Keyboard A standard keyboard is normally called QWERTY keyboard. .This is because the first six keys on top row of letters on these keyboards are Q,, W, E, R ,T ,Y. Enhanced Keyboard An enhanced keyboard contains twelve function keys. It contains two control keys, two ALT keys, Arrow keys and additional keys between the typing area and numeric keypad. Cordless Keyboard A keyboard that requires no wire is called cordless keyboard.

It is also known as wireless keyboard. lt transmits data using wireless technology like radio waves or light waves. Cordless keyboards are available in a variety of features and styles.

Many Mad keyboards must be within the line of sight of the receiver with a maximum range of 10 feet. A wireless keyboard using radio signals provides a range of up to 100 feet. Portable Keyboard A keyboard that can be easily attached or removed from a handheld computer is called portable keyboard.Mouse:The mouse is a small device that when moved across a desktop, moves the graphics cursor accordingly. The graphics cursor which can be positioned anywhere on the screen is displayed as a bracket, an arrow, a crosshair or a variety of other symbols. Depending on the application the text and graphics cursor may be displayed on the screen at the same time.

The graphics cursor is used to point and draw. The mouse is either attached to the computer by a cable or linked via wireless remote connection. All movements of the mouse are reproduced by the graphics cursor on the screen. For example when you move a mouse up and to the right the graphics cursor moves toward the top right hand comer of the screen. Use the mouse for quickly positioning the graphics cursor. There are three basic types of mouse: Mechanical: It has a rubber or metal ball on its underside that can roll in all directions.

Mechanical sensors within the mouse detect the direction the ball is rolling and move the screen pointer accordingly.Optical It uses a laser to detect the mouse’ 3 movement. You must move the mouse along a special mat with a grid so that the optical mechanism has a frame of reference. Optical mice have no mechanical moving parts. They respond more quickly and precisely than mechanical mouse, but they are also more expensive.MonitorIt is an electronic optical display for computers.

The monitor depends on the display device, Circuitry, and an enclosure. The display size is normally given as the distance between two reverse screen comers. Display screen varies in size from 5 to 30 inches. Monitor output is a soft copy, its means it is limited and available to the end user only unless another display is requested.Monochrome Monitors Monochrome monitor is a kind of computer display which was very common in the early days of computing, from the 1960s through the 1980s, before the color monitors became popularThey are still used today in some computerized cash register systems, amongst other select applications. Unlike color monitors, which display text and graphics in multiple colors monochrome monitors have only one color of phosphor (mono = one, chrome == color). All text and graphics are displayed in that colorColor Monitors A display monitor that is capable of displaying many colors. In contrast, a monochrome monitor can display only two colors one for the background and one for the foreground.

Color monitors implement the RGB (Red, Green and Blue) color model by using ” three different phosphors that appear red, green, and blue when activated. By placing the phosphors directly next to each other, and activating them with different intensities, color monitors can .create an unlimited number of colors. In practice, however, the real number of colors that any monitor can display is controlled by the video adapter. Flat Panel Monitors A flat panel monitor can refer to either a computer or television monitor that does not use cathode ray tube (CRT) technology,’ but commonly LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) or plasma technology. 1his allows the monitor to have a thin profile, which is how the flat panel monitor gets its name.

Flat panel monitor is light weight and it includes the characteristics like clarity and digital technology, it has become the monitor of choice. . Laptop PCs use space saving flat-panel monitors some less than 1/2 inches thick.

Flat panel monitors use a variety of technologies, the most common being Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and Thin Filament Technology (TFT). LCD displays are more expensive as compare to passive matrix displays therefore active matrix LCD displays are usually associated with high-end notebook PCs. Plug and PlayPlug and Play (PnP) is a technology which can allows the operating system to find out and arrange internal and external peripherals as well as most adapters. It has the capacity to find and configure hardware elements without having to reset DIP switches and jumpers. PnP also refers to hot swapping, or hot plugging, structures such as fire wire or USB sticks and other devices.When booting a PC, PnP identifies the attached peripheral devices and regulates the proper internal settings by configuring the direct memory access (DMA), interrupt requests (IRQ) and input/output (I/O) addresses.

Display AdapterA plug-in card in a desktop computer which can performs the graphics processing. It is also known by graphics card or “video card,” modern display adapters can use the PCI Express interface, while earlier cards used PCI and AGP. The display adapter complete the maximum resolution, refresh rate and number of colors that can be displayed, which the monitor must also be able to support. On many PC motherboards, the graphics circuits are assembled into the chipset, and a separate plug-in card couldn’t be required.Modern display adapters can take the form of a separate card or may be combined into the motherboard. They are skillful of operating at very high resolutions and displaying lots of colors.

Even relatively modest display adapters can now handle computer animations, video playback, and 3D interactive games. Indeed, it is perhaps the computer gaming industry that has been the main driver behind the development of high-performance display adapter technology. Other significant drivers add the almost prevalent adoption of the graphical user interface (GUI), a phenomenal growth in the number of multimedia applications, and the demand of Internet streaming media.Multi-media devicesThere are lots of types of media, including video, audio, and text. A multimedia device allows a person to deal with a collection of these media while eliminating the demand to have a separate device for each. There are numerous tasks that may be accomplished on these devices, such as creating, editing, and transferring files. Many of these devices are compatible with computer which grants them to be easily dealt with in ways that may not otherwise be possible.

Media is generally defined as a condition of communication. Documents, music, and video clips are all common types of communication. People are increasingly interested in dealing with media in easier and faster ways. This has led to the development of a wide range of multimedia devices, which give a person to create and access various types of media files on a single device. Examples of a multimedia device include a memory-card a tablet-computer, and an MP3 player.A multimedia device can allow a person to accomplish a wide range of tasks. To begin with, a person may need to develop communication. This can be done by typing a document, taking a picture, or producing a video.

Once this is done, individuals may want to save these items. Later, they could be access to them again and change them. It is possibility to that a person could be transfer to media files from one device to another or it could be share for someone.


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