Cancer long dormant period and hence, multiple

affects almost all multicellular organisms, plants and animals. It is a disease
that is associated with abnormal cell growth which grows uncontrollably and
spread throughout the body. In Singapore, breast cancer is the most common type
occurring in females that also accounts for top frequent deaths with lung and
colo-rectum cancer as the most important neoplasm in males (Singapore
Cancer Registry, 2015). Cancer appears as a tumour comprising
mass of cells which is visible in the end result (Baba &
Câtoi, 2007)
that may take many years to develop. Cancers that are fully developed are
classified as malignant tumours have a specific role that invade and destroy
the underlying mesenchyme (Coleman & Rubinas, 2009). In order to prosper
and survive, the tumour cells need nutrients via the bloodstream and produce
various proteins that assist in the stimulation of blood vessels.

main purpose of cancer treatment is to eliminate or destroy all cancer cells
and ideally areas already predisposed to tumour development (Khan, et al.,
When these seems impossible, a good palliation that include relief of symptoms
and a longer lifeline is the least cancer treatment is able to offer. Cancers
emerge after a long dormant period and hence, multiple carcinogen treatments
are more likely used as they are more effective as compared to a single
application (Jie & David, 2008). Currently, wide
range of treatment strategies for cancer are available ranging from standard
treatments that have been used for the past several decades such as surgery,
radiation and chemotherapy to recent treatments that were just developed
recently involving biological agents such as immunotherapy and the newly small
molecule inhibitor therapy.

Figure 1. Mechanism of cancer
immunotherapy. TAAs can be expressed on the cell surface
or may be intracellular antigens that are presented by the major
histocompatibility complex(MHC) proteins. Tumor cells have the ability to
deactivate the detection and killing mechanism of T cell when they bind to the
T cell receptor. However, with the availability of immunotherapy drugs, it can
bind to the T cell and prevent the TAA from deactivating the T cell.

Source: (Columbia
University Medical Centre, 2017)

immunotherapy is a treatment strategy recently introduced that has successfully
shown promising results (Thind, et al., 2017)since the first
development of chemotherapies in 1940s. Apart from having the potential to
destroy tumours, immunotherapy can also engender life-long immunity. The aim of
cancer immunotherapy is to enhance the body’s immune system to fight against
the cancer cells (Baxevanis, et al., 2009). Immunotherapy of
cancer can be classified as passive immunotherapy or active immunotherapy.
Recognition of the tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) by the immune system is imperative
for the generation of an immune response against the tumour (Figure 1). Several
different TAAs that can be identified by the human T cells were recognized.


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