– waterfall model which is a sequential design

–        BURSARYALLOCATION SYSTEM(A case study of Gucha Sub-county)                 TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA  AMOSDENNIS NYAGAKABTIT/004J/2013       JUNE 2017 ABSTRACT Studentsfrom Gucha constituency face a lot of challenges when applying for bursary. Inthe due process of application some end up giving up as the process is tediousand also others apply but they are not awardedTheproject aimed at developing a complete mobile allocation system which allowsstudents to apply for bursary once they sign up.

The system also helps reducepaper work in the offices as a lot of forms which are filled by students are nomore in use, only forms for the first-time applicants will be used.Thesystem uses waterfall model which is a sequential design process used insoftware development, where progress is seen as flowing steadily downwardsthrough the phases of conception, initiation, analysis, design, construction,testing, implementation and maintenance. Despite the development of newsoftware development methodologies, the waterfall model is still the dominantmethod with over a third of software developers using it.The solution is developed using PHPprogramming language and AJAX, JQuery mobile designing the interface, JQueryand JSON for GET and POST functions. MYSQL as backend for the purposes ofapplication database support.

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Phone-gap and Cordova are the platforms that areused in developing the application. This project is a dynamic tool meetingstudents’ needs and convenient delivery. In conclusion the system enhancesefficiency, reliability and data security and therefore it is the best suitedfor use in bursary allocation.             CHAPTERONE                                                       INTRODUCTION 1.1 Projectbackground Computershave become part of life for accessing any kind of information, life in the 21stcentury is full of technological advancement and in this age, it is verydifficult for any organization to survive without utilizing technology.

Todaymany institutions have chosen to focus on a wide area of service and conductingtheir business online, this has been made possible by the use of informationtechnology in their systems. For many students, M-Bursary allocation systembridges the gap between education and the area of work. The challenge they faceis to successfully manage the multitude of bursary applications in a costeffective and efficient way. Students apply their bursary using forms which aremanually kept in files through writing.

The records are also stored manually,the system simplifies complexities giving organizations the power over data andenabling more students to receive bursary funding.Thesystem enables students to apply bursaries on their mobile phones, it helpsorganization in reducing paper work and also provide safer means of datastorage. The system reduces the load on the organization end as the entireprocess of bursary application is automated.       1.2 Problem statement Students from Gucha subcounty face alot of challengeswhen applying for bursary as a result of the criteria which is used in awardingthe bursary. Some of the challenges includes tribalism where a certain tribe ismore considered than the other tribes. Nepotism is another problem which make acertain group to benefit based on the family background and the family memberswho are involved in the bursary comitte. As aresult of these challenges manyneedy students doesn’t get the bursary as suppossed and therefore the student kitty ends up to the wrongbeneficiary.

   Also the bursary formsbeing delivered and worked on is another issue as it can be mishandled leadingto misplacement. 1.3 Objectives of the study 1.3.1 GeneralobjectiveThegeneral objectives of the study is to come up with a system that allows formobile bursary allocation.1.3.2 Specific objectives:       i.

           Analyze the current system used for applyingbursary in order to develop and establish a better system to improve theoperations in-bursary application process.      ii.            Design a dynamic solution based on theinformation analysis acquired from data collection to develop a functionalmobile allocation system.    iii.           Develop mobile allocation system thatmeets the user requirements.

    iv.           Test the system if it meets the userrequirements  CHAPTERTWOLITERATUREREVIEW2.1 IntroductionLiteraturereview is the evaluation of information found in existing literature related toselected area of study. It is an assessment of the existing literature andsystems.

  Over the years different mobileapplications have been developed for different organizations. However, littlefocus has been directed to such systems that have been developed to meet therequirements of that particular organization. With a view to developing abetter system, review of the existing literature and systems must be done so asto source information on their functionality. This involves identifying thefunctionalities of various modules of the existing system so as to gain basicidea of developing a system effective enough to compete strongly in the market.

Information fetched is of great significance.  2.2 TheoreticalreviewTheoreticalreview provides a benchmark into the existing systems information. It helps ingaining necessary information relevant to the area of study about bursary andtheir different types. Bursaries are funds for students in financial need,bursaries unlike loans do not have to be paid back. To be eligible for bursaryyou must be able to demonstrate financial need while also meeting the academicrequirements. Most students apply for various bursary in order to raise therequired amount of fee.

”A large proportion of students with a perceived familyincome that would have entitled them to a full or partial maintenance grant didnot consider themselves eligible (42 and 53% respectively)” (Mangan, Hughes, & Slack, 2010). In addition to that”Itreviews evidence suggesting that students targeted for bursaries areunresponsive to financial inducements, and place a high priority on provisionthat is local and socially comfortable”(Harrison & Hatt, 2012) The process ofbursary application is done by filling forms which involves a lot of paperwork. Through the application process there are many cases of needy applicantswho have never received any bursary while a significant number of non-needystudents have always been awarded the bursary.“Thedegree to which these new bursaries and discretionary financial support hasbecome a policy instrument for improving access and widening participation hasnot, as yet, been documented, little is known about why the governmentintroduced bursaries and what the government saw as their role. Even less isknown about the type of bursaries they have introduced or how they are beingused, because till now they have not been examined systematically.

”(Callender,2010). In addition to the financial support students get from bursary, aninterview conducted by certain scholar “the data suggest that bursary students are well motivated anddetermined to succed. But it is unclear wether this is due to the additionalfainancial support or the process of conscious choice through which they haveenterd higher education”.(Hatt,Hannan,Baxter & Harrison,2007s).There are  also otherproblems such as time wastage and lots of paper work that arise from this kindof this scenario, the problem can be solved by computerizing the whole processthrough the development of a mobile application that will carry out specificfunctions that are currently done manually, A recent study by a groupbased on automation of systems facilitates in having higher levels of retentionand success, exhibiting particularly positive attitudes towards student studiesand their institution.

These findings are then placed in the wider context ofgovernment policy on widening participation and student financial supportbetween 1997 and 2006, considering whether any lessons learned are relevant tothe post-2006 system of university-specific bursaries monitored by the Officefor Fair Access (OFFA)(Harrison, Baxter, & Hatt, 2011).Withthe manual system the problem arises when those in authority undermines theirduties and do no follow up how the process of bursary allocation is carriedout.”Most of the leaders are reluctantto follow up wether the money gets to the specified destionation.

Those inauthorities missuse the funds and end up destroying any kind of evidence thatcan lead to the discovery on how the money was used”(Onuko, 2012). Another author conclude that,“unsurprisingly in an increasingly market-driven system, institutions useaccess agreements primarily to promote enrolment to their own programs ratherthan to promote system-wide objectives. As a consequence of this marketingfocus, previous differences between pre-1992 and post-1992 institutions inrelation to widening participation and fair access are perpetuated, leading toboth confusion for consumers and an inequitable distribution of bursary and othersupport mechanisms for the poorest applicants”(McCaig & Adnett, 2009).2.3 System ReviewThereare others ways in which bursary application and processing can be carried outbut there is no prototype that that can be applied to all. The following arefew among the several systems with varying degrees of functionalities dependingon the user requirements.

 2.3.1 TVET bursarysystem.TVETis a nationwide bursary application platform offered by Higher Education LoansBoard (HELB). It supports university/college students taking technical coursesin diploma and degree. For one to access the system he/she is required toregister with the board by creating an account with them. Students from allover the country have access to it since it’s online and has no time limits.

Afterregistering with them one can apply for the bursary online by filling hisdetails and submitting them online. One is obligated to download and print theform and submit it to the board attaching all the required details.Thesite address is: www.helb.co.ke.

Figure 2. 1 HELBsystem2.3.2Scottish online bursary application system.

The scottish social services council(SSSC) is theregulator for the social services workforce in Scotland. Their work means thepeople of scotland can count on social services being provided by a trusted,skilled and confident workforce. They protect the public by registering socialservice workers, setting standards for their practice, conduct training andeducaion by supporting their proffesional development. Where people fall belowthe standards ofpractice and conduct they can investigate and take action. Inrelation to the social works they havee come up with an online bursaryapplication system which sends username and password for the user to be able tologin into the system and then fill the online bursary application form.   Figure 2. 2 ScottishServices Council2.4 System critiqueAdetailed analysis of the above sites offering Bursary application services has some features missing.

M-Bursary allocationsystem addresses the missing features.2.4.

1 TVET bursary system.TVETbursary system is web based system that enables to apply bursary online. Thesystem has a drawback whereby it cannot be used on mobile gadgets. Also theapplicant has to apply again when in need of bursary as there is no track ofinformation about the user that can be traced from the system. M-Bursaryapplication offers better personalization as which the TVET bursary system has not realized.   2.4.

2 Scottishonline bursary application system.Scottishonline bursary application system is web based too therefore it cannot performwhen it is offline as compared to mobile applications. Although apps too mightrequire internet connectivity to perform most of their tasks, they can stilloffer basic content and functionality to users in offline mode 2.5 SummaryFrom the above findings there is a need for a systemwhich will cater for the above limitations, hence the  proposal for an M-Bursary allocation systemwhich provides user support, is not proprietary as their turnover is not doingso well, cross-platform to enable all computers with different operatingsystems to be used and user friendly.                                                      CHAPTER THREESYSTEMANALYSIS AND DESIGN 3.1 Introduction This chapteris about the tools and methodology used to design the proposed system. Thelogical and functional desing of the proposed system is also illustrated through relevant tables and diagrams3.2 DevelopmentApproach3.

2.1 System designSystem design mainly deals with the software development activitieswhose main objective is to:i.Understand the system.ii.

Understand the different phases development lifecycle.iii.Know the components of the system analysis anddesign.The following are the commonly known development cycle.

3.2.2 PlanningAll the requirements of the system are gathared usinginterview method, in others the data requirements document is used to agreerequirements with clients to make sure that it is easly understood. During thistime a consistent gannt chart is developed for project management.

3.2.3 AnalysisThe aim of analysis is to obtain a detailed descriptionof the data that suits clients requirements so that both high and low levelproperties of data and their use are dealt with. This include properties suchas the possible range of values that can be permitted for attributes. Theconceptual data model provides a shared, formal represantation of what is beingcommunicated between the client and developer during database develoment. Thecurrent system is analyzed using UML class diagram. Mean while database systemsare analyzed using context and data flow diagram.

3.2.4 Design System analysis leads to design decesion, which exactlydetermines how the system operates in terms of the process, data, hardware,network infrastructure, user interface and other important factors in thesystem enviroment.3.2.5 ImplimentationImplimentation phase is probably the most resource, cost,and time consuming phase of all. It is when the system is actually built,tested and finally installed. It involves activites such as user training andsystem mainatainace.

3.2.6 TestingTesting compares the implimented system against thedatabase design documents and requirements specification and produces anacceptance report or more usually a list of errors that require a review of theanalysis,design and implementation process to correct. Testing is usuallyconsidered to involve two main task validation and verification, withoutaadequate testing users will have little confidence in their data processing.3.3 ProjectDesignThe system developer preferred using the waterfallmethodolgy which is a sequential design process.

This means that each of theeight phases are completed the developers move on the next phase. There’s noroom for change or error so a project outcome and an extensive plan must be setin the beggining and then followed carefuly.Waterfall involvles the following phases:ConceptionTriggers when a problem is percieved. This processinvolves identifying the goals to be achieved and estimatingg the benefit thesystem will have over the current system.

This phase involves development ofbusiness case which provides the information that the manager requires in orderto determine wether to support a proposed project before allocation of resources.InitiationIt invovles a macro level study of customer requirements.It also invovles defining alternative solutions to the requirements and costbenefit justification.

AnalysisStudy is carried out about the customer requirements andthe exact requirement is arrived at of the propse system. In this phasefreezing of the requirements is done before the design phase begins.DesignIt invovles transalation of the identified requirements into logical structure thatsis implemented using programming logic.

ConstructionThe phase that invovles intergrating and testing all themodules  developed in the previous phasefor the completion of the system. Intergratingand testingThe phase where the modules developed in the previousphase are intergrated and tested as a complete system.  Implimentationand maintainanceThe system design is converted into operation. It mayinvovle the software system implimentation and staff training before thesoftware system being functional implemented.

3.3.1 Justification of the designAdvantages of waterfallmethodology This model is simple and easy to understand and use. It is easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model – each phase has specific deliverables and a review process. In this model phases are processed and completed one at a time. Phases do not overlap. Waterfall model works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood. Disavantages of waterfall  methodology                   i.

           Oncea step has been completed, developers can’t go back to a previous stage andmake changes.                 ii.           Waterfallmethodology relies heavly on initial reqirements.

However if this requirementsare faulty in any manner the project is doomed.               iii.           If arequirement error is found or change needs to be made, the project has to startfrom the begginning with all new code.WaterfallmethodologyFigure 3. 1Waterfall Methodoly Diagram3.4 Fact finding approachThis section discuss the research design, targetpopulation, sample size and the sampling technique, research instruments, datacollection procedures and various methods of data collection instruments thatis being used in the course of the project.

3.5 Research designThe research design for this project is sampling which isa technique where a group of subjects is selected from a larger group for casestudy. Each individual is chosen entirely by chance and each member of thepopulation has an equal chance of being included in the sample. The probabilitysampling design technique was used by simple random method as it is simple, notbiased and not time consuming. The target population is approximately 80employees only a sample of 25 staff will be sufficient for this study.

This wasconvinient becauseof the scope of inquiry, time and finances for the research.3.6 Sample and sample techniquesThe employees will be divided into startum according totheir outlet since the population heterogenious, stratified random samplingtechnique was graphed. Two representatives were selected from each outlet who’ssimple random sampling was conducted to select a few employees, questionnaireswer then distributed to the staff as per outlet. Each outlet was given twoquestinnaires.3.7  Data collection toolsQuestionnaire method of data collection was adopted tocollect primary data.

The questionnaires administered contained closed endedquestions and were hand delivered to the targeted group. The method waspreffered because most staff could only spend a short time to complete thequestionnaire and since they are pressured with the nature of their work therewas no time for lenghty discussion. The respondents were required to tick fromthe option given.3.7.

1 SequencediagramThesediagrams are used to describe the flow of activities of a user.  Figure 3. 2 sequence diagram              3.7.2 System flow diagramThe flow chart below shows the flow of data in thebursary allocation system.

For the user to use the system they are required toregister first, then they can be abe to login into the system. Both the usersand administrators can be able to perform the rolesas shown on the diagram.                                                                 Start                                                                                          No                                                                 Yes                                                                        Figure3. 3 System Flow Diagram                                                                                              3.7.4 Use case diagramThe figure below shows a usecase diagram that captures the interactionbetween the system, users and the administrator.

Since the system containsconfidential informtion about users a secure login is required. The admin whois in charge of managing the overall data can either login or logout of thesystem, register incoming users and update their information.Figure 3. 4 Use Case Diagram REFERENCES  Harrison, N., Baxter, A., & Hatt, S. (2007). Fromopportunity to OFFA: discretionary bursaries and their impact.

Journal ofAccess Policy and Practice, 5(1), 3–21.Harrison, N., & Hatt,S.

(2012). Expensive and failing? The role of student bursaries in wideningparticipation and fair access in England. Studies in Higher Education, 37(6),695–712.

Mangan, J., Hughes, A.,& Slack, K. (2010). Student finance, information and decision making. HigherEducation, 60(5), 459–472.

Onuko, J. A. (2012). Impactof bursary schemes on retention of students in public secondary schools in Gemdistrict, Kenya.

The University of Nairobi. Retrieved fromhttp://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/11295/10939 


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