Breeding & reproduction may occur.(estrum & ovulation).The animal

 Breeding efficiency
or Reproduction efficiency is a economic trait measures the reproducing ability
of an adult animal.It is a non heritable trait.Measuring
parameters of reproduction efficiency are 1. age at sexual maturity , 2.Number
of services per conception,3. Conception rate, 4.Non-return rate 5.Age at first
calving, 6.Service period , 7.Calving interval.As per TOMER
method the reproduction efficiencyFor
cows:  ( 95-99%)Breeding
efficiency = n(365)+1020  ×
100              (%)                             AC+CIFor
Buffaloes: (74-80%)Breeding
efficiency = n(365)+1040 × 100         (%)                             AC+CI  
n-number of calving,365 –  Desired
calving interval in days,1020 – Desired age at first calving  in days for cows,1040- Desired age at first
calving  in days for buffaloes, AC- Actual
age at first calving in days ,CI-Sum of actual calving intervals.As per Wilcox et
al,(1957) :Breeding efficiency =365 x (n – 1)  x 100                                                                                        
DWhere, N = total
no. of parturitions,D = days from first to last parturition    Crossbred -75 to 85 %, Buffalo – 69 to 84%1.Age at first calving :It is the time
between birth of an animal and its first calving. Age at first calving is
important economic trait.Related to generation interval .It act as a guideline
for easier culling.Indigenouscattle
: 1220 days, Cross bred cattle:1011 days, Buffalo:1390 days Influencing factors for delayed age at first calving areDelayed age at sexual maturity, More no.
of services / conception, Improper Estrous detection aids, Early embryonic
death , fertilization failure, Nutrition status2.Age at sexual maturity: It is age or
time at which the reproductive organ become functional & reproduction may
occur.(estrum & ovulation).The animal attain early sexual maturity  will have long productive  as well as reproductive life.Heifers show heat
when they attain 50% -60% of adult body weight.Crossbred cattle-18
months,Indigenous-20 to 28 months,Buffalo-36 to 42 months3.Services
per conception: It is a actual
number of services required by a female to settle. Quantitative measure of
fertility. Normally animal may need one or more services.General rule: Less
than 2 services per conception.Influencing
factors for Services per conception are Fertility of male ( Natural service), Quality
of semen (Artificial breeding), Female reproductive disorders.4.Conceptionrate:
It is Proportion of animals covered out of those bred.Confirmed through
pregnancy verification methods.Conception rate < Non-return rate (false+).5.Non-return rate:Proportion of animals that ,after breeding , have not shown  heat signs at the expected normal interval.Accurate indication of  conception.Sensitivity reduced by "Gestational heat".60 days after breeding- 70% non return.90 days after breeding- 60% non return   Influencing factors for Non-return rate are Hormonal imbalance,Reproductive  disorders6.Calving interval: It is the Duration between two successive calvings.The total period  from delivery to conception and Gestation period.Cow : 12 months ,First calf heifer : 13 months,High producing cow : 12 to 15 monthsInfluencing factors for calving interval are Service period, Services per conception, Nutritional status , Season in case of buffalo7. Service period: Interval from calving till the animal become fit for service (first postpartum heat).Optimum period is 60- 90 days .Longer in high milk yielders. In suckling animals extended till weaningInfluencing factors are service period are Weaning, Management during pregnancy, Management during postpartum, Milk yield of animal.MANAGEMENTPRACTICES1.     OBSERVATIONS & RECORDS: Keeping record (FARM LOG BOOK) is a key operation in dairy farms. It plays major role in selection methods and to avoid inbreeding.2.     OESTRUS DETECTION: Watch animals twice a day to observe heat signs.Maintain heat expectancy charts.Buffaloes are nocturnal in heat and feeble (silent) in summer months.So we can use vasectomized teaser bull for heat detection. The common heat signs are frequent bellowing, Attempt to mount on other animals not in heat,Allowing other animals to mount without attacking them ( Standing heat), Reduced milk production, Frequent urination,Nudging and licking of cows, Vulva getting moist, swollen and pink, Copious clear mucus discharge from the vagina , Tail is slightly raised  & seen on one side of vulva.3.HEAT DETECTION DEVICES :Chin ball marker test ,Hormone detection kits, Ohm meter & Electrode,  Pedometer ,Vaginal temperature reduce 1°C.'Standing heat' is the best ,simple indication.4.OESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION:Reduces the time required for estrus detection .Helps use of AI in herds by treating them in groups5.RIGHT TIME BREEDING / INSEMINATION: 10 to 24 h from the beginning of standing heat. Buffalo should be inseminated16 to 24 h from the onset of standing heat .If animals shows heat signs at morning inseminate at evening, vice versa.6.ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION :Employ correct AI technique( Recto-Vaginal technique).Semen deposited at body of the uterus.Assessing functional state of reproductive tract is important. Quality of semen should be analysed.7.PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS: 45 to 60 days after service animal should be checked for pregnancy .Non pregnant animals should be rebreed or treated accordingly.8.VETERINARY CARE:Proper deworming ,vaccination and Pre & post calving management9.EARLY WEANING: Weaning right at birth is followed in commercial farm.It enhances the resumption of ovarian activity and the animal get conceived before 90 days of postpartum .More conception rate .Reduced calving to conception interval10.HOUSING & HYGENIC MEASURE:Provide adequate space and ventilation .General sanitation programme should be followed.Proper disposal of manure & other excreta.    To avoid summer stress enrich the house with sprinklers,exhaustfan,screens , foggers,wallowing tank .11.ADEQUATE NUTRITION: Animal should be maintained at positive energy balance. References:Dairy bovine production -C.K..Thomas,N.S.R.Sastry,G.RavikiranLivestock production and management-N.S.R.Sastry,C.K.ThomasLarge animal theriogenology -Robert s.youngouist, Watterr.TherfallNational Dairy Development BoardJournal of dairy scienceJournal of Animal scienceIndian veterinary journal    


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