Breeding days, Cross bred cattle:1011 days, Buffalo:1390

 Breeding efficiencyor Reproduction efficiency is a economic trait measures the reproducing abilityof an adult animal.

It is a non heritable trait.Measuringparameters of reproduction efficiency are 1. age at sexual maturity , 2.Numberof services per conception,3. Conception rate, 4.Non-return rate 5.Age at firstcalving, 6.

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Service period , 7.Calving interval.As per TOMERmethod the reproduction efficiencyForcows:  ( 95-99%)Breedingefficiency = n(365)+1020  ×100              (%)                             AC+CIForBuffaloes: (74-80%)Breedingefficiency = n(365)+1040 × 100         (%)                             AC+CI  n-number of calving,365 –  Desiredcalving interval in days,1020 – Desired age at first calving  in days for cows,1040- Desired age at firstcalving  in days for buffaloes, AC- Actualage at first calving in days ,CI-Sum of actual calving intervals.

As per Wilcox etal,(1957) :Breeding efficiency =365 x (n – 1)  x 100                                                                                        DWhere, N = totalno. of parturitions,D = days from first to last parturition    Crossbred -75 to 85 %, Buffalo – 69 to 84%1.Age at first calving :It is the timebetween birth of an animal and its first calving.

Age at first calving isimportant economic trait.Related to generation interval .It act as a guidelinefor easier culling.Indigenouscattle: 1220 days, Cross bred cattle:1011 days, Buffalo:1390 days Influencing factors for delayed age at first calving areDelayed age at sexual maturity, More no.of services / conception, Improper Estrous detection aids, Early embryonicdeath , fertilization failure, Nutrition status2.

Age at sexual maturity: It is age ortime at which the reproductive organ become functional & reproduction mayoccur.(estrum & ovulation).The animal attain early sexual maturity  will have long productive  as well as reproductive life.Heifers show heatwhen they attain 50% -60% of adult body weight.Crossbred cattle-18months,Indigenous-20 to 28 months,Buffalo-36 to 42 months3.Servicesper conception: It is a actualnumber of services required by a female to settle.

Quantitative measure offertility. Normally animal may need one or more services.General rule: Lessthan 2 services per conception.

Influencingfactors for Services per conception are Fertility of male ( Natural service), Qualityof semen (Artificial breeding), Female reproductive disorders.4.Conceptionrate:It is Proportion of animals covered out of those bred.Confirmed throughpregnancy verification methods.Conception rate < Non-return rate (false+).

5.Non-return rate:Proportionof animals that ,after breeding , have not shown  heat signs at the expected normalinterval.Accurate indication of conception.

Sensitivity reduced by “Gestational heat”.60 days afterbreeding- 70% non return.90 days after breeding- 60% non return   Influencing factors for Non-return rate are Hormonalimbalance,Reproductive  disorders6.

Calving interval: It is the Durationbetween two successive calvings.The total period  from delivery to conception and Gestationperiod.Cow : 12 months,First calf heifer : 13 months,High producing cow : 12 to 15 monthsInfluencingfactors for calving interval are Service period, Services per conception,Nutritional status , Season in case of buffalo7. Service period: Interval from calvingtill the animal become fit for service (first postpartum heat).Optimum periodis 60- 90 days .Longer in high milk yielders. In suckling animals extended tillweaningInfluencingfactors are service period are Weaning, Management during pregnancy, Managementduring postpartum, Milk yield of animal.MANAGEMENTPRACTICES1.

    OBSERVATIONS& RECORDS: Keeping record (FARM LOG BOOK) is a key operation in dairyfarms. It plays major role in selection methods and to avoid inbreeding.2.

    OESTRUS DETECTION: Watch animals twice a day to observe heat signs.Maintain heat expectancy charts.Buffaloes are nocturnal inheat and feeble (silent) in summer months.So we can use vasectomized teaser bull for heat detection. The common heat signs are frequent bellowing, Attemptto mount on other animals not in heat,Allowing other animals to mount without attacking them( Standing heat), Reduced milk production,Frequent urination,Nudging and licking of cows, Vulva getting moist, swollenand pink,Copious clear mucus discharge from the vagina , Tail is slightly raised  & seen on one side of vulva.

3.HEAT DETECTIONDEVICES :Chin ball marker test ,Hormone detection kits, Ohm meter &Electrode,  Pedometer ,Vaginaltemperature reduce 1°C.’Standingheat’ is the best ,simple indication.4.OESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION:Reducesthe time required for estrus detection .Helpsuse of AI in herds by treating them in groups5.RIGHT TIMEBREEDING / INSEMINATION: 10 to 24 h from the beginning of standing heat.

Buffalo should be inseminated16 to 24 h from the onset of standing heat .Ifanimals shows heatsigns at morning inseminate at evening, vice versa.6.ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION :Employcorrect AI technique( Recto-Vaginal technique).Semen deposited at body of theuterus.Assessing functional state of reproductive tract is important.

Qualityof semen should be analysed.7.PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS: 45 to 60 daysafter service animal should be checked for pregnancy .Non pregnant animalsshould be rebreed or treated accordingly.8.VETERINARY CARE:Proper deworming,vaccination and Pre & post calving management9.

EARLY WEANING:Weaning right at birth is followed in commercial farm.It enhances the resumptionof ovarian activity and the animal get conceived before 90 days of postpartum .Moreconception rate .Reduced calving to conception interval10.HOUSING & HYGENIC MEASURE:Provideadequate space and ventilation .General sanitation programme should befollowed.Proper disposal of manure & other excreta.

    To avoid summer stress enrich the housewith sprinklers,exhaustfan,screens , foggers,wallowing tank .11.ADEQUATENUTRITION: Animal should be maintained at positive energy balance. References:Dairybovine production -C.K..Thomas,N.S.R.Sastry,G.RavikiranLivestockproduction and management-N.S.R.Sastry,C.K.ThomasLargeanimal theriogenology -Robert s.youngouist, Watterr.TherfallNationalDairy Development BoardJournalof dairy scienceJournalof Animal science


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