BIOMONITORING unfit for bathing, aquatic life, irrigation and domestic

BIOMONITORING OF RIVER YAMUNA PASSING THROUGH DELHI-NCR REGION FOR
ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

SYNOPSIS

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SUBMITTED TO

FOREST
RESEARCH INSTITUTE (DEEMED) UNIVERSITY DEHRADUN

 

 

 

FOR

THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

MASTERS OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT
MANAGEMENT

BY

DEUVSHREE
SHARMA

 

UNDER
THE SUPERVISION OF:

Dr.
SANJEEV AGRAWAL

Scientist E, Bio-science Lab

Central Pollution Control Board

New Delhi

2016-2018

 

1.   
INTRODUCTION

Water is a
transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main
constituent of Earth’s streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of
most living organisms and is essential for a multiplicity of purposes. India
accounts for 4% of water resources of the world but represents 16% of the world
population. But, out of India’s 7,935 towns and cities, just 269 have partial treatment facilities,
and only few have full wastewater treatment facilities. Many cities dump untreated sewage directly into the rivers, hence, polluting
them. The river water is generally used for various purposes
and accordingly Primary Water Quality Criteria as been laid down for various
designated best uses of river water such as; a) Drinking water source without
conventional treatment but after disinfection, b) Outdoor bathing organized, c)
Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection, d) Propagation
of wildlife, fisheries and e) Irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste disposal. The
Indian capital is high on water consumption, low on internal water resources
and high on external dependency mainly through other states for water from
river Yamuna, Ganga, Bhakra Beas system. Studies show that Yamuna
River is severely polluted and losses its assimilation capacity on entry in
Delhi which contributes most to pollution of Yamuna on account of major
industrial center of country. This makes the Yamuna water unfit for bathing,
aquatic life, irrigation and domestic purposes in ecological, environmental and
human/ cattle health interests. Streams
and rivers are among the most threatened habitats in the world (Malmqvist and
Rundle, 2002) and since they provide important ecosystem services (Thorp et al.,
2010), it is crucial to understand the consequences of human perturbations on
these ecosystems to preserve or restore their integrity (Meybeck, 2003).

 

The concept of water quality
monitoring has been initiated with a view of water quality management in order
to restore and maintain the wholesomeness of natural water bodies. Monitoring
is defined as the process of repeated observation and measurement, for defined purposes
of one or more indicators, of the physical, chemical and biological state of an
environmental element or medium. It is usually done using physical parameters like
temperature and other chemical variables like concentration of key nutrients of
a significant pollutant. Chemical monitoring is quite popular, being highly
developed. However, it does not provide information regarding long term effects
of pollution on the ecosystem. By taking merely measurements of abiotic
parameters to assess river quality has several disadvantages, and do not wholly
reflect river health (Karr and Chu, 1999). Therefore, assessment and
bio-monitoring programs are carried out widely by public authorities. Biological
monitoring is a tool and can be used as the basis for management programmes,
restoring and maintaining the physico-chemical and biological integrity of
freshwater (Singh et al., 2014). Live organisms provide valuable information by
their presence, absence and abundance regarding their surrounding habitat and
can be used to evaluate the local environmental impact by their physical,
chemical and biological properties and their cumulative effects. In river bio-monitoring, the aquatic macroinvertebrates
are the most commonly studied group (Bonada et al.,2006) since they are
sensitive to multiple ecological alterations (Johnson and Ringler, 2014).

2. AIMS AND
OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this study
is to:

·        
Measure and analyze
the water quality of River Yamuna passing through Delhi-NCR region.

·        
Calculate the Diversity
Score.

·        
Calculate the Saprobicity
Score.

·        
Grade the water
quality of water collected from different sites based on the Biological Water
Quality Criteria (BWQC).

·        
Compare and
analyze the results over two months.

Delhi NCR has a population of over
46.07 million (as of 2011 census) and the decadal water requirement and waste-water
generation as projected in the master plan of DDA is 8365 and 6692 MLD by 2021.
Out of the 41 STPs in the Delhi-NCR Region, 32 STPs (2702.84 MLD) are
operational and 09 STPs (372 MLD) are non-operational and the actual treatment
capacities of the functional 32 STPs are 2,005 MLD. It is estimated that about 4373
MLD of Waste Water is generated in Delhi including 218 MLD from industrial
sources (CPCB), maximum of which is discharged into River Yamuna. 32 major
drains over the Delhi- NCR stretch directly fall into River Yamuna. The main
aim of this study is to assess the water quality of River Yamuna due to the discharge
of these effluents by Bio-monitoring using bio-indicators (benthic
macro-invertebrates).

3.    MATERIALS AND METHODS

a.     Study
Area

The 1,376 Km long Yamuna River
originates in the Himalayan Mountains as a main tributary of the Ganges (Ganga)
River. From its origin at Yamunotri at an elevation of 3291 msl to its
confluence with River Ganga at Allahabad at an elevation of 74 msl, the river
passes through, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Gautam Budh
Nagar, Mathura-Vrindavan, Agra. Bateshwar and Allahabad etc. located on its
bank with a basin area of 366.223 km². The
entire river stretch can be divided into five independent segments (Sanjeev et
al, 1995) (Figure 1):

Figure 1:
Diagrammatic representation of the segments of River Yamuna (Sanjeev et al,
1995)

1.     
Himalayan
Segment- a 172 Km stretch from the river’s source in Yamunotri to Tajewala
barrage in Haryana.

2.     
Upper Segment- a
224 Km stretch. The river flows past relatively small towns in Haryana and
Uttar Pradesh.

3.     
Delhi Segment- a
mere 22 Km stretch from Wazirabad Barrage to Okhla Barrage.

4.     
Eutrophicated
Segment- a 490 Km stretch from Okhla Barrage to the Chambal River confluence.

5.     
Diluted Segment-
a 468 Km stretch from the Chambal River confluence to where Yamuna merges with
River Ganga.

The
focus of our study is the approximate 200 Km stretch falling in the Delhi-NCR
Region. The sampling sites selected will cover part of the Upper Segment, the
Delhi Segment and the Eutrophicated Segment. The study will be carried out at 8
experimental sites (Figure 2) starting from the upstream of River Yamuna falling in
the Delhi-NCR region (Haryana) to the last site Palwal (in Haryana). All the 8
sites are located in the Yamuna River Basin in Delhi-NCR.

Figure
2: An image map of the sampling sites along the course of River Yamuna in the
Delhi- NCR Region (The sampling sites are numbered).

b.   
Sample Collection and Analysis

The sampling will be undertaken at the
above mentioned sites at a water depth of less than one
meter by adopting a variety of techniques such as

·        
Ekman Grab

·        
Shovel Sampler

·        
Hand Net

·        
Kick sampling Nets

 

And, sampling at sites with a depth of more than 1
meter will be done with the help of Artificial Substratum.
Mostly, shovel and hand net sampling methods will be used to collect samples of
the benthic-macroinvertebrates. The samples will be sorted, placed on graded
sieves washed. The benthic macroinvertebrates will be sampled twice with an
interval of 1 month (February, 2018 and March, 2018). The benthic
macroinvertebrates will be preserved in formaldehyde for subsequent processing.
The fauna will studied in a subsample, identifying the individuals to family
level after examining under a dissection
or stereozoom microscope by using taxonomic keys. The number of families found
and the number of individuals per family will be calculated for the calculation
of the Diversity Score and the Saprobicity Score.

Diversity Score- Involves a pairwise comparison of sequentially
encountered individuals.

Saprobicity Score (BMWP)- Also called the BMWP (Biological Monitoring Working Party) site score
involves inventorization of the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates up to
the family level of taxonomic precision. All families are classified on a score
scale of 1 to 10 based on their Saprobicity and the scores of all families
registered are averaged to produce a BMWP site score.

 

    

BIOMONITORING OF RIVER YAMUNA PASSING THROUGH DELHI-NCR REGION FOR
ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

SYNOPSIS

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

SUBMITTED TO

FOREST
RESEARCH INSTITUTE (DEEMED) UNIVERSITY DEHRADUN

 

 

 

FOR

THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

MASTERS OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENT
MANAGEMENT

BY

DEUVSHREE
SHARMA

 

UNDER
THE SUPERVISION OF:

Dr.
SANJEEV AGRAWAL

Scientist E, Bio-science Lab

Central Pollution Control Board

New Delhi

2016-2018

 

1.   
INTRODUCTION

Water is a
transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main
constituent of Earth’s streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of
most living organisms and is essential for a multiplicity of purposes. India
accounts for 4% of water resources of the world but represents 16% of the world
population. But, out of India’s 7,935 towns and cities, just 269 have partial treatment facilities,
and only few have full wastewater treatment facilities. Many cities dump untreated sewage directly into the rivers, hence, polluting
them. The river water is generally used for various purposes
and accordingly Primary Water Quality Criteria as been laid down for various
designated best uses of river water such as; a) Drinking water source without
conventional treatment but after disinfection, b) Outdoor bathing organized, c)
Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection, d) Propagation
of wildlife, fisheries and e) Irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste disposal. The
Indian capital is high on water consumption, low on internal water resources
and high on external dependency mainly through other states for water from
river Yamuna, Ganga, Bhakra Beas system. Studies show that Yamuna
River is severely polluted and losses its assimilation capacity on entry in
Delhi which contributes most to pollution of Yamuna on account of major
industrial center of country. This makes the Yamuna water unfit for bathing,
aquatic life, irrigation and domestic purposes in ecological, environmental and
human/ cattle health interests. Streams
and rivers are among the most threatened habitats in the world (Malmqvist and
Rundle, 2002) and since they provide important ecosystem services (Thorp et al.,
2010), it is crucial to understand the consequences of human perturbations on
these ecosystems to preserve or restore their integrity (Meybeck, 2003).

 

The concept of water quality
monitoring has been initiated with a view of water quality management in order
to restore and maintain the wholesomeness of natural water bodies. Monitoring
is defined as the process of repeated observation and measurement, for defined purposes
of one or more indicators, of the physical, chemical and biological state of an
environmental element or medium. It is usually done using physical parameters like
temperature and other chemical variables like concentration of key nutrients of
a significant pollutant. Chemical monitoring is quite popular, being highly
developed. However, it does not provide information regarding long term effects
of pollution on the ecosystem. By taking merely measurements of abiotic
parameters to assess river quality has several disadvantages, and do not wholly
reflect river health (Karr and Chu, 1999). Therefore, assessment and
bio-monitoring programs are carried out widely by public authorities. Biological
monitoring is a tool and can be used as the basis for management programmes,
restoring and maintaining the physico-chemical and biological integrity of
freshwater (Singh et al., 2014). Live organisms provide valuable information by
their presence, absence and abundance regarding their surrounding habitat and
can be used to evaluate the local environmental impact by their physical,
chemical and biological properties and their cumulative effects. In river bio-monitoring, the aquatic macroinvertebrates
are the most commonly studied group (Bonada et al.,2006) since they are
sensitive to multiple ecological alterations (Johnson and Ringler, 2014).

2. AIMS AND
OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this study
is to:

·        
Measure and analyze
the water quality of River Yamuna passing through Delhi-NCR region.

·        
Calculate the Diversity
Score.

·        
Calculate the Saprobicity
Score.

·        
Grade the water
quality of water collected from different sites based on the Biological Water
Quality Criteria (BWQC).

·        
Compare and
analyze the results over two months.

Delhi NCR has a population of over
46.07 million (as of 2011 census) and the decadal water requirement and waste-water
generation as projected in the master plan of DDA is 8365 and 6692 MLD by 2021.
Out of the 41 STPs in the Delhi-NCR Region, 32 STPs (2702.84 MLD) are
operational and 09 STPs (372 MLD) are non-operational and the actual treatment
capacities of the functional 32 STPs are 2,005 MLD. It is estimated that about 4373
MLD of Waste Water is generated in Delhi including 218 MLD from industrial
sources (CPCB), maximum of which is discharged into River Yamuna. 32 major
drains over the Delhi- NCR stretch directly fall into River Yamuna. The main
aim of this study is to assess the water quality of River Yamuna due to the discharge
of these effluents by Bio-monitoring using bio-indicators (benthic
macro-invertebrates).

3.    MATERIALS AND METHODS

a.     Study
Area

The 1,376 Km long Yamuna River
originates in the Himalayan Mountains as a main tributary of the Ganges (Ganga)
River. From its origin at Yamunotri at an elevation of 3291 msl to its
confluence with River Ganga at Allahabad at an elevation of 74 msl, the river
passes through, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Gautam Budh
Nagar, Mathura-Vrindavan, Agra. Bateshwar and Allahabad etc. located on its
bank with a basin area of 366.223 km². The
entire river stretch can be divided into five independent segments (Sanjeev et
al, 1995) (Figure 1):

Figure 1:
Diagrammatic representation of the segments of River Yamuna (Sanjeev et al,
1995)

1.     
Himalayan
Segment- a 172 Km stretch from the river’s source in Yamunotri to Tajewala
barrage in Haryana.

2.     
Upper Segment- a
224 Km stretch. The river flows past relatively small towns in Haryana and
Uttar Pradesh.

3.     
Delhi Segment- a
mere 22 Km stretch from Wazirabad Barrage to Okhla Barrage.

4.     
Eutrophicated
Segment- a 490 Km stretch from Okhla Barrage to the Chambal River confluence.

5.     
Diluted Segment-
a 468 Km stretch from the Chambal River confluence to where Yamuna merges with
River Ganga.

The
focus of our study is the approximate 200 Km stretch falling in the Delhi-NCR
Region. The sampling sites selected will cover part of the Upper Segment, the
Delhi Segment and the Eutrophicated Segment. The study will be carried out at 8
experimental sites (Figure 2) starting from the upstream of River Yamuna falling in
the Delhi-NCR region (Haryana) to the last site Palwal (in Haryana). All the 8
sites are located in the Yamuna River Basin in Delhi-NCR.

Figure
2: An image map of the sampling sites along the course of River Yamuna in the
Delhi- NCR Region (The sampling sites are numbered).

b.   
Sample Collection and Analysis

The sampling will be undertaken at the
above mentioned sites at a water depth of less than one
meter by adopting a variety of techniques such as

·        
Ekman Grab

·        
Shovel Sampler

·        
Hand Net

·        
Kick sampling Nets

 

And, sampling at sites with a depth of more than 1
meter will be done with the help of Artificial Substratum.
Mostly, shovel and hand net sampling methods will be used to collect samples of
the benthic-macroinvertebrates. The samples will be sorted, placed on graded
sieves washed. The benthic macroinvertebrates will be sampled twice with an
interval of 1 month (February, 2018 and March, 2018). The benthic
macroinvertebrates will be preserved in formaldehyde for subsequent processing.
The fauna will studied in a subsample, identifying the individuals to family
level after examining under a dissection
or stereozoom microscope by using taxonomic keys. The number of families found
and the number of individuals per family will be calculated for the calculation
of the Diversity Score and the Saprobicity Score.

Diversity Score- Involves a pairwise comparison of sequentially
encountered individuals.

Saprobicity Score (BMWP)- Also called the BMWP (Biological Monitoring Working Party) site score
involves inventorization of the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates up to
the family level of taxonomic precision. All families are classified on a score
scale of 1 to 10 based on their Saprobicity and the scores of all families
registered are averaged to produce a BMWP site score.

 

    

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