Expand the term LAB. Ans. LAB—Lactic Acid Bacteria. Q. 2. Mention any two benefits of lactic acid bacteria. Ans.
1. Helps in formation of curd from milk. 2. Checks disease causing, microbes in our stomach. Q. 3.
How is ‘Roquefort cheese’ ripened? Ans. It is ripened by growing a specific fungi. Q. 4. Bacteria cannot be seen with the naked eyes but these can be seen with the help of a microscope, If you have to carry a sample from your home to your biology laboratory to demonstrate the presence of microbes under a microscope, which sample would you carry and why? Ans. Curd. Because it can be easily viewed under a microscope in school laboratory. Q.
5. Name the vessels used for growing microbes at industrial level. Ans.
Fermentors. Q. 6.
Name the alcoholic product produced from fermentation of malted cereals and fruit juices by S. cerevisiae. Ans. Ethanol. Q. 7.
What is the name of first antibiotic discovered? Ans. Penicillin. Q. 8. Name the enzyme present in detergent formulation, to remove oily stains from the laundry. Ans. Lipases.
Q. 9. Bottled fruit juices available in market are clear because of which enzymes? Name these. Ans. (1) Pectinases (2) Proteases. Q. 10.
What are bioactive molecules? Ans. Bioactive molecules are molecules that are helpful in maintaining human health by developing conditions favourable to the body. Q. 11. Define the term floes. Ans. The mass aerobic bacteria associated with fungal filaments forming a mesh like structure are called floes. Q.
12. What is BOD? Ans. BOD—It is biochemical oxygen demand, i.e. the amount of oxygen consumed by aerobic bacteria to oxidise the organic matter in litre of water. Q. 13.
What is the source of biogas during secondary treatment or biological treatment of sewage? Ans. Floes. Q.
14. What are methanogens? Ans. Methanogens are a group of bacteria that digest cellulose to produce methane. Q. 15. What does the rising floating cover of biogas plant indicate? Ans.
The production and collection of biogas/gobar gas. Q. 16. What do you understand by biocontrol? Ans.
The use of biological methods for controlling the plant diseases and pests is called biocontrol. Q. 17. What are the harmful effects of chemicals such as insecticides and pesticides? Ans. It pollutes the environment (soil, ground/land, water) and harmful to living beings-human- animals and plants.
Q. 18. What is Bt? Ans.
It is Bacillus thuringiensis. Q. 19. Define biofertilisers? Ans.
Organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil are called as biofertilisers. Q. 20. What is the symbiotic association of fungus and plants called as? Ans. Mycorrhiza. Q. 21. In which way have microbes played a major role in controlling diseases caused by harmful bacteria? Ans.
By producing chemicals that inhibit the growth of microbes—antibiotics. Q. 22.
Name any two species of fungus, which are used in the production of the antibiotics? Ans. Penicillium. Q. 23. Mention the name of the microbes from which cyclosporin (an immune suppressive drug) and statins (blood cholesterol lowering agents) are released? Ans.
Trichoderma polysporum, Monascus purpureas. Q. 24. Name some traditional Indian foods made of wheat, rice and bengal gram (or their products) which involve use of microbes? Ans. (1) Dosa, idli, (2) Dokla. Q.
25. How do biofertilisers enrich the fertility of the soil? Ans. They enrich atmospheric nitrogen into organic forms that can be used by plants.