Q. Define immunity. Ans. The ability of

Q. 1. How you can maintain good health? Ans. Good health can be maintained by balanced diet, personal hygiene and regular exercise. Q.

2. What are pathogens? Ans. The disease causing organisms are called pathogens. Q. 3. A doctor identified following symptoms in a patient. (a) Respiration problem, fever, cough and headache (b) Gray nails, bluish fingernails and lips. Name the disease and causative agent.

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Ans. Disease —Pneumonia, Causative agent —S. pneumoniae Q.

4. What is haemozoin? Ans. It is a toxic substance released by infected RBCs causing chill and high fever every 3-4 days in case of malaria. Q. 5. Which stage of Plasmodium is introduced into human body, when a female Anopheles mosquito bites? Ans. Sporozoites. Q.

6. What is the source of contamination of food in case of amoebiasis? Name the vector. Ans. Faeces of infected person. Housefly. Q. 7.

Which body parts are affected in filariasis? Ans. Lymphatic vessels of legs (Lower limbs), genital organs. Q. 8. Define immunity.

Ans. The ability of the body to fight the pathogens conferred/due to immune system is called immunity. Q. 9. Which WBCs act as cellular barriers in innate immunity? Ans. (1) Polymorphonuclear leukocytes—neutrophils (2) monocytes Q. 10. Mention the different types of antibodies produced by our body.

Ans. IgA, IgM, IgE and IgG. Q. 11. What is the purpose of giving ‘vaccine’ to a person? Ans.

The two purposes are— (1) To produce antibodies against the antigens injected/given as vaccine which would neutralize the agents during actual infection. (2) To generate memory cells—Band cells to recognize the pathogen quickly. Q. 12. Which type of antibodies are produced against allergy? Ans. IgE type. Q.

13. Name a few drugs used to reduce the symptoms of allergy Ans. (1)Anti-histamine, (2)Adrenalin, (3) Steroids. Q. 14. Mention the expanded form of MALT.

Ans. Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue. Q. 15. In which cases—following tests are done—Widal, Elisa? Ans. (1) Typhoid, (2) AIDS.

Q. 16. What is metastasis? Ans. It is the property of cells sloughed from malignant tumors to start a new tumor wherever they get lodged in the body. Q. 17. Which diseases are caused by: (1) Retero virus and (2) Oncogenic virus? Ans.

(1) Retero virus causes AIDS e.g. HIV. (2) Oncogenic virus causes cancer. Q. 18. Give examples to any two commonly abused drugs.

Ans. (1) Opioids, (2) Cannabinoids or coca alkaloids. Q. 19. What you understand by the term drug abuse? Ans. When certain medicines/drugs are taken for purpose of other than medicinal use or in amounts/pregnancy that impairs one’s body functions is called drug abuse. Q. 20.

Name the primary and secondary Lymphoid organs. Ans. (1) Primary Lymphoid organs—thymus, bone marrow. (1) Secondary Lymphoid organs—spleen, tonsils. Q.

21. In which way has the study is biology helped us to control infectious diseases? Ans. It has enabled us to deal effectively with many infectious diseases, eradicate diseases, control the diseases and effectively treat the infectious diseases.


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