Benefits of ICT in Education and Classroom Management The Information And Communication Revolution Education Essay Published

Benefits of ICT in Education and Classroom Management
The Information And Communication Revolution Education Essay
Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
Introduction
One the many challenges facing developing countries today are preparing their societies and governments for globalization and the information and communication revolution. Policy makers, business executives, NGO activists, academics, and ordinary citizens are increasingly concerned with the need to make their societies competitive in the emergent information economy. Globalization and technological change is a process that has accelerated in tandem over the past fifteen years and has created a new global economy powered by technology, fuelled by information and driven by knowledge. The emergence of this new global economy has serious implications for the nature and purpose of educational institutions. As the half-life of information continues to become and access to information continues to grow more rapid, schools cannot remain mere venues for the transmission of a prescribed set of information from teacher to student over a fixed period of time. Rather, schools must promote learning, in an example the acquisition of knowledge and skills that make possible continuous learning over the lifetime. Concerns over educational relevance and quality coexist with the imperative of expanding educational opportunities to those made most vulnerable by globalization as an example, developing countries in general, low-income groups, girls and women, and low-skilled workers in particular.

Information and communication technologies which include radio and television, as well as newer digital technologies such as computers and the Internet, have been touted as potentially powerful enabling tools for educational change and reform. When used appropriately, different ICT are said to help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active process connected to real life. However, the experience of introducing different ICT in the classroom and other educational settings all over the world over the past several decades suggests that the full realization of the potential educational benefits of ICT is not automatic. The effective integration of ICT into the educational system is a complex, multifaceted process that involves not just technology but indeed, given enough initial capital, getting the technology is the easiest part but also curriculum and pedagogy, institutional readiness, teacher competencies, and long-term financing, among others.

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CONTENTS
ICT stand for information and communication technologies and are defined, for the purposes of this primer, as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information. These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies, radio, television and telephony. In recent years there has been a ground swell of interest in how computers and the Internet can best be harnessed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels and in both formal and non-formal settings. But ICT are more than just these technologies, but older technologies such as the telephone, radio and television, although now given less attention, have a longer and richer history as instructional tools. For instance, radio and television have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning, although print remains the cheapest, most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries. The use of computers and the Internet is still in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access. Technology changes rapidly – and so do the specific tools available for education. As new technologies are introduced, it is critical that their cost and impact in various educational situations is thoroughly examined. While evidence shows that it is the actual application of the ICT tool that is the most important determinant of its effectiveness for educational purposes, the choice of tools is quite large, and each tool has its own advantages and disadvantages. Policy makers and donor groups are often bombarded with information and studies from vendors on the suitability of their particular products or services. As a result, there is a great need for independent research on the appropriateness of specific ICT tools to help meet educational goals. Radio and TV have been providing educational programming in some countries for many years. Many related new technologies, including satellite broadcasting and multi-channel learning, have the potential to greatly increase access to education. Today, the Internet is not widely available in most developing countries, but new Internet technologies and mobile Internet centre’s hold promise for connecting teachers, learners, and communities.

Moreover, education has largely contributed to an increase in developing knowledge, providing an enabling environment for innovation and in building human capital required for a potential future knowledge economy. Global reforms in education and challenging ICT demands have made a remarkable shift in the structure of the enabling ICT environment and the utilization of ICT technologies in education. Such technologies have become the key driver of the digital network in an era of technology-driven education. More schools and communities now have access to ICT resources to join the global economy with knowledge workers who have 21st century skills and are inspired by life-long learning. ICT have great potential for knowledge dissemination, effective learning and the development of more efficient education services. Much effort has been made towards the advancement of education and multi-literacies. However, it is generally believed that ICT can empower teachers and learners, making significant contributions to learning and achievement. Current research on the impacts of ICT on student achievement yields few conclusive statements, pro or con, about the use of ICTs in education. Studies have shown that even in the most advanced schools in industrialized countries, ICT are generally not considered central to the teaching and learning process. Moreover, there appears to be a mismatch between methods used to measure effects and the type of learning promoted. Standardized testing, for example, tends to measure the results of traditional teaching practices, rather than new knowledge and skills related to the use of ICT. It is clear that more research needs to be conducted to understand the complex links between ICT, learning, and achievement.

Many of the issues and challenges associated with ICT in education initiatives are known by policy makers, donor staff, and educators. However, data on the nature and complexity of these issues remains limited because of the lack of good monitoring and evaluation tools and processes. Where evaluation data is available much of the work is seen to suffer from important biases. Another problem in this area is the lack of a common set of indicators for ICT in education. And, where data has been collected, it is often quantitative data related to infrastructure, for example, number of computers, rather than data that can help policy makers gauge the impact of ICT interventions on student learning. If ICT are to become effective and integral tools in education, and if accountability is to be demonstrated to donors and stakeholders, monitoring and evaluation must be a priority area of focus. It is clear that there are equity issues related to the uses of ICT in education. There is a real danger that uses of ICT can further marginalize groups already excluded or on the edge of educational practices and innovations. On the other hand, with supportive policies and careful planning and monitoring, ICTs hold out the promise of facilitating greater inclusion of such groups. While there is much research on the impact of ICTs and marginalized groups in industrialized countries, there has been limited research into these issues in developing countries. There seems to be little questioning, however, that ICTs generally give preference to schools and learners in urban areas and in areas where existing infrastructure is the best. Research related to equity and ICT to date has focused primarily on access to particular technologies. Much less attention has been given to how specific types and uses of ICTs are related to equity issues.

Besides than that, about the true costs of ICT in education, there have been few rigorous costs studies, particularly in developing countries. Given current budgetary and resource constraints, a widespread investment in ICT in education is probably not possible in most developing countries. It is, therefore, critically important to better understand the costs and benefits associated with ICT types and uses in various educational situations in order to effectively target scarce resources. There is some evidence, for instance, that computers may be most cost-effective when placed in common areas such as libraries and teacher-training institutes. One of the most cost effective uses of ICT in education may be their role in improving organizational and systemic efficiencies, including combating corruption. Distance education is often cited as a cost saving investment. Indeed, economics of scale are achievable in distance education, although such programs typically require large up-front investments. Some of these costs may be shifted from the public sector to the individual users, but this in itself raises significant equity and access issues. Again, a thorough examination of the true costs and benefits of distance education is required. Financing mechanisms for ICT in education initiatives are quite varied. Due to the high up-front costs and large recurrent costs, countries and communities typically employ a great variety of financing and cost recovery mechanisms. Public private partnerships and user fees are important components of financing ICTs in education in many countries, although more research is needed to determine the impact and effectiveness of these mechanisms.

Even the use of ICT in the classroom or in distance education does not diminish the role of the teacher; neither does it automatically change teaching practices. Experience has shown that a variety of support and enabling mechanisms must be implemented to optimize teacher use of ICT. While traditional teacher leadership skills and practices are still important, teachers must also have access to relevant, timely, and on-going professional development. They must have the time and resources to explore this new knowledge base and develop new skills. Support of school administrators and, in some cases, the community, is critical if ICTs are to be used effectively. In addition, teachers must have adequate access to functioning computers or other technologies and sufficient technical support. Accessing information is the main use of ICTs in education. While ICT, and the Internet in particular, provide access to a world of educational resources, those resources are rarely in a format that makes them easily accessible and relevant to most teachers and learners in developing countries. Simply importing educational content through ICT is fraught with difficulties, as well as questions of relevance to local needs. Experience shows that unless electronic educational resources are directly related to the curriculum, and to the assessment methods used to evaluate educational outcomes, ICT interventions may not have positive educational impacts.

Furthermore, ICT can be important drivers for educational reform. They can help in anti-corruption efforts, aid in decentralization, and play a key role in data collection and analysis. Still, there are many policy questions around the use of ICTs in education, not the least of which revolves around which part of the government is responsible for such policies. Some of the key policy questions revolve around access, equity, finance, and best practices in scaling-up. As a relatively new field, there is no standard repository for existing ICTs in education-related national policies. And, it is clear that successful policy formulation requires consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders, many of which may be outside of the traditional educational system. Innovations in technology and new products are introduced in the global marketplace at a much faster pace than most educational systems are able to use them effectively. This issue of timing is an important one as educators and policymakers operate with an eye to longer term educational goals.

The advantages and disadvantages of ICT in education include a range of elements such as –
• Giving to teacher chance to plan short, timed, tightly focused activities.

• Planning activities across a number of sessions to allow sufficient time for all pupils to take parts.

• Up to date and real world technology…prepares the children for the modern world!
• Helps pupils research topics they are studying using a wide range of sources other than just book from their school library,
• Aids the pupils to get an insight into technologies that they may later rely on in future life.

• Using word documents it gives the pupils a chance to present their work in a style that suits them.

• Word and publishing documents available for display work purposes.

There is also a high advantage of ICT equipment aiding pupils with learning difficulties. By clicking on the word case study the following link will take you to a case study on podcasts and the advantages of working with children that have learning difficulties and also shown on the secondary education page.

The following disadvantages give a list of objectives that staff and facilitators may be required to deal with should problems occur throughout using the ICT equipment.

• Cost
• Training
• Distractions
• Reliability
• Damage
• Safety
• Hacking
• Resources (or lack of)
As you can see I have already listed disadvantages of ICT in education and all seem costly. The initial equipment even though would be an investment and learning aid is expensive. After the initial cost there is the fact of training the staff/ facilitators to use the equipment correctly as bad usage can cause incorrect teaching to pupils. Also coming under cost is damage, as, if the equipment gets damages then the damage repair fees are required to get the equipment back up and running. Distractions such as the internet, computer games and email are also a big disadvantage. Then we come onto safety and hacking that is discussed on the safety page.

CONCLUSIONS
In conclusions, the modern generation schoolchildren are growing up in an environment where information and communication technologies are encompassing almost all area of their lives. It is the responsibility of government to prepare students with the skills and knowledge they will need to take control of their digital futures. Therefore, it is of upmost importance for teachers to integrate ICT into the curriculum. This essay will discuss the great benefits ICT have on child learning and also explore the current direction in which teachers can integrate ICTs into the classroom.

Using ICTs in education develops the needed skills a child needs to use computers and other technologies. However, ICT provide a teaching strategy that engages the learner. ICT can create an exciting way to present information to students and due to the fact that ICTs engages the learner it allows the student to learn more. Another great positive of using ICTs in primary schooling is that it addresses the fact that each student has different learning abilities. ICT allows students to excel in their area of ‘intelligence, for example a child who has spatial intelligence but has difficulty in written expression can show their learning process through sound and pictures. The use of ICT is also beneficial to a child’s learning because it covers the four fundamental teaching areas which are active engagement, group, interaction and connection with the real world. As i mentioned earlier ICTs engage the learner, however, they can also involve extensive group work and interaction with both students and ICT equipment. ICTs play a central use in society; therefore, they give children a real world connection. This also gives students purpose in learner because they are using technologies that they will need to.

Challenges Adopting Ict In School In Malaysia Education Essay
Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
Education plays a role for self-advancement, while governments view it as an vital mechanism for national development. Students have more opportunities to create and work with new knowledge (Bereiter 2002) and requiring them to apply their learning in new ways.

The participation of an educated society contributes the economic growth of a country and affect positively in the life of people, especially those of the least advantaged. According to Katharina (2000), education helps in increasing the individual salary from the notion that education results in learning that raises a worker’s productivity. This is supported by Musai and Barghi (2012) that education helps in creating more productive labor force and income opportunities.

Therefore, the achievement of MDGs Goal 2 which is achieving universal primary education in 2015, one of the 8 Millennium Development Goals signed in 2000 by UN member states and development agencies is a key for the achievement of the rest of MDGs (World Bank 2011; Vandemoortele, 2002; United Nations 2000). Most of countries in SouthEast Asia have adopted the 2000 Millennium Declaration and develops a number of projects targeting MDGs, particularly goal 2, education using ICTs as enabler (UNESCO 2004). For instance, SmartSchool Project in Malaysia is the most visible project of a national ICT plan in relation to ICTs and education (Belawati 2004).

This lead to the author to discuss further on examining the challenges of adopting ICT in Primary schools in Malaysia, review the effectiveness of SmartSchool project and proposing solutions to address the challenges of the SmartSchool project. The rest of the essay is structured as in section 2, literatures on ICTs and Education in SouthEast Asia and Malaysia. In section 4, Malaysian SmartSchool project and its background is reviewed. Design Reality Gap framework is also presented and discussed in light of its suitability to analyze the SmartSchool project followed by the application of the framework with its ITPOSMOO dimensions. Finally, conclusions are drawn from the analysis in section 4.

Literature review
2.1 ICT and Education in SouthEast Asia
In the South East Asia countries, access to education has improved dramatically over the past few decades (MOE 2012; World Bank 2010). Primary school enrollment is high in most SouthEast Asia countries with 92 per cent (MOE 2012; Fahimi & Moghadam 2003; World Bank 2010). The demand for education has increased as it is seen as an important agent to enhance social, economic and political (Amutabi and Oketch 2003). Welch (2011a) supports that this trend is also spread in SouthEast Asia countries. ICTs have empowered teachers and students, promote change and assist the development of 21st century skills (Trucano 2005).

Although primary education systems of Southeast Asia region started from different historical backgrounds and have experienced plentiful phases of development, influenced by colonial heritage, economic development, nation building efforts, it is clearly set out their education development policy on providing quality education for all (Mitaray 2000; Sadiman 2004).

The Southeast Asia region is the huge geographic diversity comprises sprawling landmasses and enormous expanses of ocean dotted with numerous islands (World Bank 2012). Socio-economic characteristics also contrast across the region. In terms of economic development, the Southeast Asia region includes nations with the various GDP in the world. Some of the diversity between countries is reflected in Table 2.1, which records estimates of population, youth literacy and expenditure on education in eight nations in the region. The literacy rate for youth in the region shows the Malaysia and Singapore are the highest rate with 98% (World Bank 2012; UIS UNESCO 2012).

Table 2.1: Selected demographic and educational indicators (estimates) for eight nations in the Southeast Asia region
Indicator
Literacy rate (%), youth
Expenditure per student, primary (% of GDP per capita)
Singapore
98
9.64597
Malaysia
98
14.44392
Thailand
no record
20.76989
Indonesia
92
11.33554
Philippines
95
8.98408
Vietnam
94
19.35523
Lao PDR
no record
No record
Cambodia
87
No record
Source: Data extracted from World Bank 2012 (http://data.worldbank.org/); UIS UNESCO 2012 (http://www.uis.unesco.org)
ICTs have great impact to motivate teachers and students in school. Both teachers and students feel ICT use contributes to student motivation in learning (Trucano 2005; infoDev 2012, Elnord 2006). In addition, students who use a computer at home is seen more confidence than pupils who have no access (Trucano 2005; Education Center 2007). NCREL (2012) concludes that “technology become a catalyst for teaching and learning (T&L) in the classroom”.

Some criticism state that technology adoption is providing minimal value-added benefit to educational efforts (Cordes & Miller 2000; Cuban 2011; Oppenheimer 2003). Trucano (2005) argues that “Having advance technology before education is one of the continuing difficulties in education whereby educational planners and technology advocates think of the technology first and then investigate the educational applications of this technology later”
Another criticism is the positive impact of ICT in education has not been proven yet (infoDev 2012) and the impact of ICT on student achievement remains challenging to measure (Trucano 2005; Wenglinsky 1998). Hiebert (1999) raised a similar point where student’s over-practice procedures before they understand them, they have more difficulty making sense of them later; however they can learn new concepts and skills while they are solving problems.

New internet technologies are not yet operational completely especially emerging wireless protocols including 802.11 or WiMax. It supposed to provide connectivity to remote areas but the technologies are only covers for the most part in planning stages and face many regulatory obstacles (Trucano 2005). World Bank (2012) states that Myanmar at the lowest percent with 0.06 per cent and Cambodia at 0.15 per cent broadband Internet subscribers. While Singapore are the highest broadband user with 25 per cent includes digital subscriber line, cable modem, or other high-speed technology.

ICT and Education in Malaysia
Malaysia strives to meet government’s Vision 2020; educational reform across all educational sectors has become imperative. ICT and capacity building are essential components in the reconceptualization of teacher education programs (Nykvist 2009). Malaysia has actively encouraged the integration of ICTs into education system to accomplish a diversity of objectives, and is considered a regional leader in the implementation of computers and the Internet in schools, more over use of the ICT in Education become as part of continuous national planning process (infoDev 2007).

Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) project is shaped near the nation’s capital to attract ICT industry in Malaysia and the subsequent education development known as SmartSchool. The implementation of the SmartSchool Project in 1999 indicates a dramatic change in the Malaysian education system. This project aims systematically to reinvent the T;L processes in schools. Ministry of Education (2004) state that “IT technology is utilized in every aspect of education and produce students who are knowledge and ICT literate and able to use technology for the betterment of themselves, their communities and their nation”. By deploying latest information technologies to revolutionize the education system, Ministry of Education organized for pilot project with 88 schools were connected, equipped with IT-trained teachers and integrated smart school management system to be completed in December 2002. However, a standardization process was deployed to measure the use of ICTs in all 88 smart schools in 2006. Subsequently, all 10000 of Malaysia’s primary and secondary schools would be smart schools by 2010 (Government of Malaysia, 1997, p. 9; UNPAN 2006).

Applying Smart School Management System (SSMS) in SmartSchool project includes the technology, financial management, human resources, facilities, security, school governance, student affairs, and educational resources, external resources are the excellent National Educational Programs plan. MOE also has established the Smart Partnership plan with local companies and multinational companies consists of telecommunication provider, hardware company and educational training company (UNPAN 2006; Zain et al. 2004).

Technologies are invested to enhance T&L process as well as management. For instance, Television, compact disk (CD), video cassette recording (VCR) and radio sets used to enable schools to access educational TV, courseware and radio programs. This equipment, together with the computers, helps in cooperative learning. While internet access enable schools to obtain T&L materials recommended by the MOE. (Smart School Project Team 1997).

Besides, teachers use computers to automate marking and recording of school-based tests. Administrators also use management software to handle the school’s financial, staff development, student affairs, and curriculum management tasks (Halawany et al. 2008).

The project has been reviewed several times and it seems that the mega project has partially failed to meet its target. The plan to have all 10000 of Malaysia’s primary and secondary schools would be smart schools by 2010 have not been reality. Some researchers found that the plan is too smart for Malaysia since MOE needs to ensure the internet connectivity to be in place, readiness issue with regards to the students, teachers and parents’ acceptance on new technology in education, country budget and also massive expenses to be invested for the super project (Cloke et al. 2006; Shaharuddin ; Abiddin 2009; Mokhtar 2000). New reformation in education system has been launched due to this project failure and Education Delivery Unit (EDU) is created to evaluate the success and efficiency of the transformation plan for the next education project before implementing it (MOE 2012).

Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education in Malaysia
Figure 1: Obstacles in integrating the ICT in education
Lack of government support ; policies
Source : Developed from UNESCO 2012; Samuel ; Abu Bakar 2006; Chin Wee ; Abu Bakar 2006; Carnoy 2004; Ngai ; Wat 2002; (Lawrence ; Tar 2010) ; Love et al. (2001)
Infrastructure facilities in Malaysia still become the most important factor. This is due to internet access and connectivity is the vital factor for the ICT in education. There are some reasons of internet access such as network being disconnected, server maintenance, hacker attack or cabling problem or no electricity supply (Chin Wee ; Abu Bakar 2006; ITU 2011). Table 2 shows the condition of school access towards ICT in 2000.

Table 2: Number of schools with Internet access
Level of schools
Number of
schoolsNumber of
studentsNumber of
teachersNumber of
schools with
PC
Number of
schools with
Internet
Primary
7 217
2 870 667
247 204
2 202
739
Source: Belawati (2004)
Availability of computers, software also peripherals also influence the success of the project. The MOE should ensure all 7715 primary schools in city or rural area in Malaysia are properly connected with the internet access and also provides with the equipment (MOE 2012). MOE employ the dedicated technical person to assist and provide regular maintenance for all schools involved. With the Education Development Plan, Malaysia schools receive almost 40 billion (MYR) for the administration and development. Therefore, regular maintenance and hardware purchasing can be made through the provided budget (MOE 2012). According to Chin Wee and Abu Bakar (2006), ICT tools are changing too fast included the new model of hardware and enhanced features which revealed by some students in Mathematics class; it shows that they are very frustrating to deal with different version of software package. Completely new software would mean teachers and learners need more time to familiarize and master it.

Curriculum of ICT education and another core subjects been revised by MOE to cater for various levels of capability in ICT skills among pupils. It also introduces pupils to various entry points of ICT knowledge (Curriculum Development Center 2007). The education objectives has been streamlined to the new education needs. Types of teaching also upgraded with Knowledge-Based Approach and Skill-Based Approach and learning practices to the students are more on Project-based, Self-paced learning and Self-Directed Learning Approach (MOE 2011). However, it comes to the realization of ICT-related objectives which to reflect what have been targeted whether it can be applied in Malaysia’s school or if there is any readiness issue to the students acceptance. While evaluation on the project implementation plays an important role in assessing and providing feedback on job performance. Lack of evaluation of ICT integration in schools indicates that the school and administration of education does not value the teaching effort (Chin Wee & Abu Bakar 2006).

Lack of management skills in all level include schools, states and also country give bad impact to the success of ICT project. For instance, in school, absence of a central database in schools creates major problem as all data should be integrated and stored (Samuel & Abu Bakar 2006). Therefore, the information unable to be shared among students and teachers during T&L process. A Learning Management System (LMS) also hardly been used in schools as it is supposedly assist in administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of education courses or training programs. Limited computers for staff to prepare examination questions and prepare reports (Samuel & Abu Bakar 2006). Due to this limitation, teachers find it rather difficult to prepare the T&L materials such as PowerPoint or courseware. Even though there are spare laptops, but it also sometimes out-of-order or not functioning well. While for the MOE level, the written policies on ICT and education must always be revised according to nation’s need and avoid from imitate westernize approach. For example, the language usage in courseware should be used in Malay language instead of English language. Due to this barriers, students from rural are having difficulties in understanding the module. MOE also has to arrange the administration team or monitoring team to each school that involve in this project and review the effectiveness in T;L system. Despite the fact that technical support infrastructure is properly plan by MOE, but the implementation should be in place and well managed by all people involve include the students, teachers, administrators and policy makers.

Without allocating fund on staff development such as in house or external training course to emphasize teachers’ skills and knowledge may not assist the objectives of ICT project. This is very crucial because teachers deliver the module based on their knowledge and having the excellent skills in computer’s knowledge surely help during T;L process. Under the 9th Malaysia Plan, the MOE has allocated US$6.3 million for the replacement of ICT equipment and infrastructure (UNESCO 2008). MOE also prepare the self-assessment of ICT skills for each teachers before they are stepping into the class and start to deliver the knowledge.

SmartSchool Project analysis
Modern organizations rely upon technology to manage internal communications and interaction (Bocij et al. 2008: 17). SmartSchool can be categorized as partial failed IS project for Malaysia as some groups does not achieve their major goals and experience some significant undesirable outcomes (Sauer 1993). To understand why the SmartSchool categorized as partial failure, ‘design-reality gap model’ is considered which analyzed the differences between design expectations and implementation realities (Heeks 2006).

Figure 6: The ITPOSMOO Dimensions of SmartSchool Design-Reality Gaps
Source : Adapted from (Heeks 2006)
There are four dimensions which is most likely contributed to the failure of SmartSchool. The estimated gap between the design and the reality among each dimension is assigned to scores (1-10), i.e. 1 indicates negligible gap while 10 corresponds to a big gap.

Management systems and structures
The design assumed that the SmartSchool created with proper planning, acquisition, development and to meet the quality standards of information (MOE 2011). In reality, it is supported by Samuel and Abu Bakar (2006) that the management and structure of SmartSchool are not properly implemented. Hamzah and Azman (2009) states that teachers’ workload is increased after SmartSchool implementation while at the same time teachers should focus more on the KBSM’s syllabus. SSMS also not been utilized as daily system such as teacher’s attendance and this has shown that system are just wasting. School management also have to do duplicate task because different system used between state’s education official and district’s education official (Hamzah & Azman 2009). Touch and Go system been launched to monitor the staff attendance and students access to school. Evaluation for ICT Usage System (SPPICTS) in school has been implemented to all teachers in order for MOE gather all the feedback from teachers upon the ICT (SMART 2006). Lack of monitoring by Education officials to the schools because they were not using the SSMS system (Hamzah & Azman 2009). Therefore, an estimated design-reality gap score of 8 was observed in the management systems and structures.

Technology
The design assumed that the technology and infrastructure facilities are the vital factor in integrating the ICT in schools. In reality, insufficient computer laboratories for student’s usage and poor maintenance by school administrations are the key issues for this issue. Maintenance is poor and fund allocations from the MOE are moderately slow (Chin Wee ; Abu Bakar 2006). Internet connection also unpredictable in rural area such as in Sabah and Sarawak (Samuel ; Abu Bakar 2006). Internet access is not constant which cause to no internet service in certain days and computers being hacked by virus (MOE 2011). Malaysia telecommunication provider and Government Integrated Telecommunications Network require to assist the access issue and also block any computer virus (CDC 2012). In addition to this, the present cabling and wiring cannot take the full load of electricity when all computers are on at the same time (Hamzah ; Azman 2009). Having said this, the internet service speed has been upgraded by the MOE from 2MB to 4MB and there are 80 personal computers located in the computer labs, a kiosk, offices and classrooms (MOE 2011). On average, one personal computer is allocated to every 13 students (UNESCO 2008).

In addition, the IS should have the establishment of a database where all data is integrated and stored. It can assist all departments in schools to access the information in a database according to teachers and students’ needs (MOE 2011). In addition, school servers are shut down after school hours and the servers only play a limited role (CDC 2012). By applying old technology such as store data in diskettes or in ‘thumb drives’ increasing the access issue and security. If anyone requires any information, he submits a form to schools and teacher provides the details accordingly. If there is central database in school, the MOE officials can extract information about teachers or school information (MOE 2011). Thus, an estimated design-reality gap score of 7 was observed for technology dimension.

Staffing and skills
The design assumed that the SmartSchool is managed by dedicated teachers and other admin staffs with the high level of IT skills. This is supported by (Boddy 2002:556) that the main reason of failed IS are teachers were not fully ready on the computer usage in class. MOE also set aside RM288 million for teacher’s ICT training (Shaharuddin ; Abiddin 2009) and the teachers who undergo this training become catalysts for the coordination of efforts and success of the national education. This is because training is a wide process, and clearly it can assist in the development of the human resource (Nadler, 1984). The Teachers Education Section, MOE has been assigned the responsibility to implement SmartTraining in the effort to supply education’s work force which will help achieve the objectives of SmartSchool (Shaharuddin & Abiddin 2009). In reality, the teachers do not fully prepared to raise their capability to the level of ICT excellence. Among 230 thousands teachers in Malaysia, only 20 per cent has the pre-knowledge in ICT while the others are new to the ICT technology (EMIS 2013; RURAL 2013). The process of ICT training is very important and will ensure that it becomes a national agenda for implementation on continuous basis. Since teachers do not have the pre-knowledge of ICT, teachers have to skip their teaching class for long hours and require to replace another time due to attending the training (MOE 2011). This has created another problem which the class will be unattended by teachers or been replaced by another teachers (Mokhtar 2000). Sometimes the SSMS system only been implemented after a year teachers’ attending the training. Hence, the skills and knowledge can only be utilized quite late and lack of skills will happen to them (Hamzah ; Azman 2009). Moreover, the trained teacher and skilled in the SSMS system sometimes to be relocated to another schools and left untrained teacher at the school (MOE 2011). Thus, an estimated design-reality gap score of 8 was observed in the staffing and skills dimension.

Information
The design assumed that the SmartSchool contains with good SSMS and courseware for T;L purpose (EMIS 2013). The SSMS has four main modules which is Attendance, Lesson, Co-curriculum and Timetable modules. It is not possible to extend the SSMS to all primary schools in Malaysia (Government of Malaysia 1997). The automated functions in SSMS can help to reduce the administrative burden of teachers. In reality, only 30 SmartSchool are using the Smart School Management System (SSMS) (MOE 2011). However, Hamzah ; Azman (2009) states that SSMS does not suitable for the school’s need. Though MOE has developed 1949 interactive courseware for the subject of Science, Mathematics, Malay language and English for primary schools (MOE 2011). In the following years, the MOE evaluated this implementation among the SmartSchool involved. However, utilization levels on the courseware provided were low and it was under-utilized by teachers and students (Kamaruddin et al. 2008). It was also reported that a lot of interactive courseware failed to provide a quality experience for the learners (Multimedia Development Corporation, 2006). Therefore, an estimated design-reality gap score of 8 was observed in the information dimension.

Outside World
The design assumed that the SmartSchool project using the English language in Mathematics and Science subject. The project known as PPSMI or ‘English as the Language of Instruction for Mathematics and Science’ and was established since 2003. It is a government policy aimed at improving the command of the English language among pupils at primary and secondary schools in Malaysia (Yassin et al. 2009). In reality, students who had poor command of English could not acquire the knowledge of Mathematics and Science as they were not proficient in the language that the two subjects were taught (MOE 2011; Jawarneh et al. 2007). This could be due to cultural influences which had a noticeable impact. A majority of teachers used a mixture of Malay language and English and teachers had to switch to Malay language in teaching process because students could not understand their lessons in English (MOE 2011). MOE’s study showed that the PPSMI has not been implemented as intended. “Results of studies showed that less than 5% from the total classes in 7,495 primary schools fully used English for Maths and Science. Students took a long time to understand maths and science because they did not understand English. This forced the teachers to teach in BM so that they can understand the two subjects. This problem did not just happen in rural areas but in the cities as well. If we continue PPSMI, a large portion of students would not be able to grasp the subjects well and would be left out” (Yassin 2011). Therefore, an estimated design-reality gap score of 6 was observed in the information dimension.

Overall Gap
As shown in Figure 2, the overall analysis of the SmartSchool using the Design-Reality Gap model indicates a significant design-reality gap of score 7.4 in the implementation of the project.

Figure 2: Graphical view of the estimated design-reality gap score of SmartSchoolDiscussion and Conclusion
Technology has improved in advanced economies in 21st century includes the electronic commerce. Therefore, the success of SmartSchool project is not only based on its own information technology, but also surrounded by the whole component includes the involvement of people, skills and the cultural issue. Despite the fact the SmartSchool project has partially failure, MOE has acknowledged of the lesson learnt and taken several steps for educational reform.

Since teachers as the important agents to translate the transformation theory to transformation reality, it is clearly very important that efforts must be made to develop the knowledge, skills, positive attitude of the teachers and also prepare for on-going guided training (Shaharuddin ; Abiddin 2009).

While the MOE has implemented the MBMMBI project (Upholding the Malay Language, Strengthening the English Language) in 2011 to replace PPSMI project. Implementation of PPSMI shows only 4% of Mathematics and Science teachers used English in the T;L process. By having this education reformation, the Education Delivery Unit (EDU) is created to evaluate the success and efficiency of the transformation plan for the education project (CDC 2012; MOE 2012).

UNPAN (2006) also states that the viability of Smart School Integrated Solution such as management modules should be scalable and flexible for integration with on-going ICT initiatives. Another method for ICT project is web enabled to all schools in Malaysia by having Web based and International Open Standard (SCORM). While technology infrastructure shows as computer ratio too high for students accessibility and network connectivity sometimes disconnected due to slow internet. New technology such as broadband access also may help the students and teachers to access the internet anywhere.

According to ITU (2011), the lessons learned from the project are taking diverse needs and e‐readiness of the society into consideration, evidence‐based advice for policy makers and ICT to support transforming pedagogical paradigm which requires harmonization between curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The change management for educational reformation should focus on holistic approach and alignment of objectives at all levels is required within the Ministry and between Ministries and also agencies (UNPAN 2006).

The Computerization Of Education
Published: Mon, 01 May 2017
Introduction
Development of computers in the modern society and associated with it computerization of education is characterized by a massive proliferation of information and communication technologies (ICTs). ICT can be used for information exchange and interaction between a teacher and a pupil in the modern education system. As such, not only the teacher must master the ICT technology, but also to be an expert in applying it in his or her professional activities. “It is a technological world in which children are often more comfortable than their parents and teachers”.  HYPERLINK “https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/the-computerization-of-education-education-essay.php” l “ftn1” 1 
Computerization of educational achieves two strategic objectives. First, it improves the efficiency of all types of educational activities through the use of ICT tools and technologies. Second, it improves the quality of training enhancing it with a new type of thinking which is relevant to the requirements of the information society. Using methods and means of information, future professionals must be able to get answers as to what information resources are available, where they are, how they can be accessed and how they can be used to improve their professional activities.

In our research paper we will cover the following aspects of ICT
Positive and negative aspects of using information and communication technologies in general education
Review the role and place of ICT in the building of the information society
Review the areas of effective application of ICT tools
Review methods of ICT application to address appropriate needs of the educational process, monitoring and measurement of learning outcomes, extracurricular activities and research, in primary school educational institutions
Review requirements for ICT facilities
Review the market of available ICT tools and products.

What is ICT?
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are a combination of the hardware and software designed to implement information processes through the utilization of the computers and network technologies. “The purpose of ICT in education is generally to familiarise students with the use and workings of computers, and related social and ethical issues”.  HYPERLINK “https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/the-computerization-of-education-education-essay.php” l “ftn2” 2 The main focus of the research however will be dedicated to the electronic means of educational purpose, which are a subset of software tools of ICT. These include application software and electronic media, specifically designed for the educational use: a system supporting the process of learning (electronic textbooks and encyclopaedias (including network), electronic laboratory etc.). There are several venues of ICT tools utilization in the education system:
In general educational institutions (primary schools, high schools, etc.)
In the supplementary education (instructor-led language schools, etc.)
In home-based learning (extracurricular activities, etc.)
To further narrow down the topic of the research the main accent will be applied to the area of general Primary school education with emphasis on the general education of the primary education processes.

According to Andrew A. Zucker who writes in his ‘Transforming Schools with Technology: How Smart Use of Digital Tools Helps Achieve Six Key Education Goals’ 2008, the ICT will be successful if technology is aligned with six major education goals. Those goals are to:
increase student achievement
make schools more engaging and relevant
provide a high-quality education for all students
attract, prepare, and retain high-quality teachers
increase parental and community support for students outside of school
require accountability for results
ICT methods and techniques
Methods and techniques of ICT in teaching are aimed at developing skills in information activities of pupils and their ‘information’ culture. There is a number of different teaching methods that could be employed in this area, some of them are: illustrative, reproductive, research based, corrective knowledge, incentive, motivational, etc. These methods could be tremendously enhanced by the use of ICT techniques.

For example, the illustrative methods could be enhanced by using multimedia which can distinctly improve the mental activity of students due to increased visibility and emotional richness (animation, sound, video and other multimedia effects). When a teacher develops the multimedia instructional materials, he/she may use Irish local history material that enhances the educational lesson as pupils would be able to relate more to the topic which is familiar to them.

Reproductive methods of education benefit through the use of learning systems offering the high level of customization on a personal-oriented education in which pupils are able to build individual educational path depending on their personal skills and abilities (perception, memory, thinking, etc.). Through the utilization of the ICT the studying process can be enhanced without adding extra burden on the teachers/their schedule. The effect of novelty and overall attractiveness of the computers to the pupils serve as an additional means to stimulate and motivate learning, improve pupils’ interest in studying.

ICT allows and provides a venue to enhance further training thought the utilization of the gaming form of training. The value of these games is very high. Indeed, the skills of non-verbal communication channels (facial expression, gesture, posture, etc.) are important in the daily lives of pupils, and will have even greater significance in future active social and professional activities. The ability to correctly convey the meaning of the message, not only in a form of words but also in ‘a general expression of the body’ is very useful to pupils in life.

ICT and Students
General Education and ICT
Usage of ICT in teaching of general education courses aimed at improving the learning process within a given scientific field of knowledge. ICT ultimately improves the quality of instruction in schools by increasing the interest of pupils, providing the ability for a highly customized and personalized curriculum, ability to intensify the learning without the increase of working hours of the teachers. It also should be noted that there is a trend of increased usage of project – team work – especially in the area of research assignments. ICT is an instrumental tool in this area, with its interlinked computer technology and networking capabilities, creating a unique real time integration of sub-projects, making it possible to enhance interdisciplinary links between the general education courses.

Usage of ICT tools in the management of the educational process is oriented at improving the governance process. There are several areas that could be managed by ICT; personnel management, management of logistics, management of the educational process, management of information resources. ICT modules where developed for the each of these areas. To improve the process of personnel management – a ‘human resource’ module, to improve the management of logistics – a ‘warehouse’ module, ‘schedule’ module for the education process, etc.

Supplementary Education and ICT
Within the area of the supplementary education ICT covers two main areas: ICT as an object of study and tool aimed at enhancement of the mental abilities of children and as means of governance process improvement. The main difference between the system of the supplementary educations of children and primary education system is the lack of mandatory uniform educational standards. This feature brings a qualitative change in the methods of application of ICT, and provides teacher/school with the choice of the educational means/tools. Given that children come willingly to the supplementary education organization (as opposed to schools, where children come on a mandatory basis), the teacher pays special attention to methods of stimulating and motivating of learning. In selecting of the right content of the education, the teacher addresses the needs and interests of pupils more actively in response to innovations in the field of ICT development. Thus, the content of education does not duplicate the primary-school science, but rather broadens and deepens it. Of course, the teacher can use all known methods of teaching, but priorities are given to the stimulating and motivating learning, research activities and games based learning techniques. ICT tools used in the management of the educational process in institutions of supplementary education oriented to improving the work with gifted children in different areas. Albeit this area boosts special features worth mentioning, specifically the fact that the organizations that provide a supplementary education are in its vast majority are of a commercial nature. As such they naturally imply a more active cooperates/collaboration with the social environment: children and their parents. In each such institution many teachers develop their own programs and techniques which are worthy of compilation and distribution, which may contribute to the further ICT tools development and, above all, the networking technologies.

Home-based education and ICT
ICT tools in its home-study application are oriented on individualization of the learning process of pupils and their social adaptation. Embedded training technologies in such systems are reproductive in nature, their main purpose is to help pupils to prepare for all sorts of tests/quizzes or exams and basically directed at repetition of school material. In addition, by having a computer at home, the pupil is able to more efficiently complete homework (preparing research for instance, etc.). In this case, ICT tools are the means of individualization of learning and improving the educational activities of students. As a means of social adaptation of pupils, ICT tools fulfil the need of social adaption of pupils while students communicate with each other over the Internet. Networking technologies is a powerful tool of social activity, mobility and responsiveness. Having a home Internet access and computer equipped with the ICT client allows children to receive an opportunity to participate in online projects, gain access to various research and data resources as well as an opportunity to demonstrate social activity. The student must be prepared to accept and assess information and develop a correct perception of any information he/she runs into, which helps developing critical thinking which should be given a particular attention by teachers and parents as this is one of the ultimate goals of any educational system.

To summarize the use of ICT tools in general education is primarily aimed at improving the existing teaching technologies and management. It should be noted that ICT bolsters pupil’s ability in the area of data mining, analytical thinking and strengthens their research abilities while working with vast amounts of information available and given a timeline for the completion teaches pupils to effectively manage their own time and the value of team work collaboration. ICT tools are effective in improving interest of students and creation of individualized leaning methods. Application of ICT in the educational process, especially at home, requires development of critical thinking, which should be monitored and encouraged by teachers and parents. Application of networking and distributed technologies in the general education facilitates the integration of various types of best teaching practices under the ICT umbrella.

ICT – Computer-assisted education
With every passing day Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is being adopted into various fields of educational activities. Both external drivers related to overall advent of ubiquitous informational society and internal factors such as wider adoption and spread of the computer technology in schools contribute to this adoption. Steps are taken by the governments to further encourage the adoption through appropriate funding, standard setting and training. In the vast majority of cases, the use of this technology positively affects productivity of teachers as well as the effectiveness of the learning process. The word ‘technology’ is of Greek origin and means ‘the science, the collection methods and techniques for handling or processing of raw materials, semi-finished products and convert them into objects of consumption. Current understanding of the word includes the application of scientific and engineering skills used to solve practical problems. In this case, information and telecommunication technologies can be considered as such technologies, which aim to process and transform information. Information and communication technology (ICT) is a general term describing various techniques, methods and algorithms for data collection, storage, processing, presentation and transmission of information. This definition intentionally does not include the word ‘usage’. Usage of information and communications technology presents yet another facet of technology – a set of information and telecommunication technologies in education, medicine, defence and other fields of human activity that is part of overall concept of information technology. Each of these areas of information technology imposes its own limitations and peculiarities. This concept includes the full range of techniques, methods, techniques and approaches to achieve the objectives of computerized education.

The cornerstone of the ICT tools is a personal computer equipped with a set of peripherals known as a hardware platform and a set of educational programs known as the software or applications. The main categories of software are system programs, applications and tools. System programs are operating systems (OS) as well as various utilities or service programs. Applications are the tools of the information technology – software that enable user to work with text, graphics, tabular data, etc. With the advent of computer networks, students and teachers have a new unique opportunity to receive/send information anywhere in the world. A global telecommunications network of the Internet makes it possible to instantly access information resources (digital libraries, databases, file storage, etc.), the most popular of which is of course the World Wide Web. The internetworking capabilities allow people to communicate and exchange data using e-mail, instant messaging clients, mailing lists, newsgroups, chats, VoIP and teleconferencing technology. The latest development introduced tools for collaboration and cooperation which are instrumental part of the distributed computers enabling students to interact virtually with each other anywhere in the world.

Technology continues to evolve and we as a society seem to be entering the age of ubiquitous computing. It is impossible to assess at this stage how cloud computing and the development of the concept of ubiquitous computing would affect the area of education, but there is no doubt that many of these technologies have the potential to significantly improve the quality of training and overall students’ education.

At the same time, however, despite of the massive positive impact, in some cases, the use of the information technology has no effect, and in rare cases, such use has a negative effect.

Concept of the information society, which includes education, gained significant boost in the early 90-ies and was taken seriously by the governments of the developed nations. Albeit the concept is not new, and was first introduced by Fritz Machlup in 1973, in his book ‘The production and distribution of knowledge in the United States’, which suggested that the information society is the highest stage of societal evolution.

Positive and negative aspects of computerized education
It may seem that the use of ICT is always warranted in all areas of educational activities. Certainly, in many cases it is. However, it has a number of negative aspects. Positive and negative factors of ICT should be taken into account by pedagogues.

Pros are
improving methods and techniques of selecting and shaping the content educational material
introduction and development of new specialized disciplines and fields of study associated with the informatics and information technology
changes in teaching of the traditional school subjects
improving education of pupils by increasing their level of individualization and differentiation
introduction of new forms of interaction into the learning process that changes the content and nature of the teacher and pupil relationship
creates tools assisting in optimization of the education management
creates and supports the integration trend of subject areas and the environment,
Allows high level of customization.

Raises level of activity of the student develops the ability of alternative thinking, building skills to develop a strategy to find solutions
Allows predicting the results of decisions based on the simulation of the studied objects, phenomena, processes and relationships between them.

Cons are:
In spite of the obvious pros the use of ICT can lead to several negative consequences. In particular, most often one of the benefits of ICT is referred to the individualized learning. However, along with the advantages there are also major shortcomings associated with the total individualization. It limits to the minimum the live interaction between teachers and pupils, pupils with each other and surrogates it with interaction with the computer. Due to limitations of the current technology the only interface of this communication is a keyboard rather than speech. The main interface of the human mind – ability to speak – gets shutdown. The lack of practical dialogic communication hampers the development of the language and overall affects negatively development of the thinking process. Another significant drawback of this surrogate relationship is the curtailment of social contacts, the reduction of social interaction and communication, individualism.

Certain difficulties and negative aspects may arise from the use of the ICT tools that provide teachers and students considerable flexibility in finding and using information. Often confusing and complicated methods of presentation may cause the diversion of the pupils from the studied material due to various inconsistencies. Moreover, the nonlinear structure of information exposes the student to the temptation to “follow the suggested links that which can derail the purpose of the exercise in its entirety. The use of information resources published on the Internet, often leads to negative consequences. Most often, the use of ICT tools triggers plagiarism – cut and paste of the readily available projects, essays, reports, research papers, etc. which does not enhance the effectiveness of learning process.

ICT tools can be not only a powerful tool for the formation and development of children but conversely, promote a ‘standard’ pattern of thinking and inert attitude to work. In many cases, the use of ICT and real time availability of data deprives and prevents students from conduct real experiments by their own hands, which adversely affects the learning. And last but not least, the health aspect of pupils must be taken into the most serious consideration as the excessive of ICT equipment could negatively affect the health of a child.

Methods of ICT application in the education process
ICT tools can be used as a mean of support in the traditional methods of education. In this case, ICT enhances the training process, provides a venue for certain level of customization of learning and allows for partial automation of routine work of teachers related to accounting, organization and grading.

On the other hand, ICT could lead to a drastic change of educational process, forcing the revision of methods and forms of organization of educational process. Induces the construction of integrated courses based on the use of information content in each school disciplines.

The need for specific knowledge which is either not available in a single individual subject, i.e. interdisciplinary knowledge is needed or there is a need for a ‘deep dive research’ – a need to explore a number of concepts, theories and laws that cannot be obtained in a standard teaching .

The need for the reproductive abilities. A need to prepare for the quiz which has time limitation.

The need for creative thinking. Development of the optimization skills. Most cost-effective solutions or the most optimal variant of process
The need to develop tailored personalized qualities. Formation of students’ sense of responsibility towards others, towards themselves.

All of the above reasons and factors suggest that the use of ICT tools in teaching students on a “bigger is better” principle may not lead to visible improvement in the efficiency of education. ICT use requires a balanced and well-reasoned approach.

Information Society and ICT
Using the amount of knowledge as a criterion it was determined that the amount of human accumulated knowledge is skyrocketing and is doubling  HYPERLINK “https://www.ukessays.com/essays/education/the-computerization-of-education-education-essay.php” l “ftn3” 3 every 5 years since 1970.

Source: University of Stellenbosch ‘The MIKM and the Revolution of the Knowledge Economy’
Using this figure as the amount of accumulated human knowledge as a criterion for awarding the public status of the information society is justified, because according to some estimates, since the beginning of our era, the first doubling of the accumulated knowledge of mankind took place in 1750, the second – the beginning of the twentieth century, the third – already by 1950 year. Since 1950, the total amount of knowledge in the world doubles every 10 years, since 1970 – every 5 years. The history of the information society contains the history of the origin and development of new types of human activities associated with computers. Such growth resulted in an appearance of a specialized group of people employed exclusively in the information industry (operators, programmers, system analysts, designers, etc.). Obviously, the emergence of new scientific and professional areas requires specialized training with not only the specialized content but also particular methods and means of education. Therefore it is not a coincidence that computer based education achieves two strategic objectives. It improves the efficiency of all types of educational activities through the use of ICT and improves quality of training through a new type of thinking the relevant requirements of the Information Society. The computer-based education is an integral part of the information society. The transition of modern society to an information era of its development advances as one of the major challenges facing education, the task of forming the foundations of an information culture of the future specialists. Society’s need for skilled personnel possessing a necessary skillset becomes a leading factor in educational policy. Today, it is virtually impossible to find a school which would not have ICT implemented in some form.

In today’s world everything is interconnected. It is obvious that computer-based education and information society development are closely linked, constantly affecting each other.

Here are several of these areas of overlap
changes in content and functions of education, forms and methods of teaching activities
positive impact of ICT tools and information on the development of creative abilities
educational impact of information technology
the emergence of the possibility of using multimedia technologies in education
further development of continuing education in the information society
Development and widespread use of electronic models of learning
the establishment of developmental education based on the information resources of society
a combination of traditional and innovative ways of learning in the information society
formation of information culture of teachers to work in all forms of educational process
generation of new approaches to the management of the institution and assessing the quality of teacher work
globalization and integration of educational services in the information society
Information technology in school education
Types of audio-visual and technical equipment used in teaching.

The birth of ICT did not happen overnight and was preceded by a rapid development of various non-computer devices known as technical and audio-visual training aids. For the extended period of time, technical means of training were attributed only to the hardware: slide and movie projectors, television sets, tape recorders and CD-players, as well as specially designed teaching materials and aids such as filmstrips, cassettes and compact discs. These learning tools at different stages of development of the education system were the main tools for improving the efficiency of storage, processing, transmission and presentation of educational information. In the absence of computer equipment they have played the role of information and communication technologies.

A hundred years ago, with Thomas Edison invention of phonograph, the first incarnation of ICT was born. A that time with the advent of the ability to record, store and playback audio all the problems of education were seen to be solved; today of course, it is obvious that not all such problems have been solved completely.

Throughout the last century a variety of teaching tools were introduced; each time resulting in more advanced informational support system of the learning process, which in turn a positively impacted the effectiveness of teaching. At present, any educational institution possesses a subset or a full set of the following:
audio recording and playback (tape, CD-players)
voice/data transition systems (telephone, fax, teletype machines, radio communication systems)
video/radio broadcasting equipment (television, radio, educational television and radio, DVD-players)
optical and photographic equipment (cameras, slide projectors, overhead projectors)
Printing, copying, scanning and other equipment designed for documentation and reproduction of information (copiers, microfilm, microfiche)
computer facilities used for the electronic submission, processing and storage of information (computers, printers, scanners)
telecommunications systems for the transfer of information through communications (modems, network wire, satellite, fibre optics, microwave and other communication channels)
Analogue Equipment:
Audio – tape recorders, microphones, amplifiers, speakers, recorders, radios, language equipment, tapes, records)
Graphic and photographic tools – cameras, slide projectors, overhead projectors, filmstrips, slides, images on the tapes
Projection equipment – cameras, projectors, films
Movies and TV facilities – TVs, monitors, cameras, camcorders, VCRs, video players, video projectors, video tapes).

Digital equipment:
Audio – digital voice recorders and players, digital CD-ROMs
Graphic and photographic tools – digital cameras, laser and magnetic disks, storage memory card
Projection Technology – multimedia projectors
Movies and TV facilities – digital video recorders, DVD-players and DVD-players, laser and magnetic disks, electronic memory card)
Computer tools – Computer multimedia tools to record, process and playback sound, recording processing and visualization of text, graphics and photographic facilities; recording, processing and playback.

With the advent of the internet the computer serves as a cornerstone of the ICT and enables a number of features which were unavailable in non-internetworked world; telecommunication between people, real time collaboration and real time access to information resources. Computer technology gives unique opportunity to combine different technologies and different means such as sound, text, photos and video into one cohesive venue of delivery. However, introduction of computer technology brings an interesting point. At first glance, it would be logical to include other technologies and tools of relevance to the processing and presentation of information used in education. However, at the same time, the universality of the computer brings the educational technology to the whole new level and questions the usage of all non-computer based tools with the exception of the book perhaps, as they are losing relevance. Today, for obvious reasons, it is practically impossible to find a modern educational film-strip or phonographic disks.

As such, the implementation of computerized education will lead to increased use in of advanced information and communication technologies. Therefore, our research was concentrated on all aspects on the ICT: computer hardware and software, as well as their practical content.

Hardware
Computers and devices, commonly referred to as hardware, is a platform of any ICT system and should be carefully selected with the idea of being part of the educational process behind. Despite its apparent youth, computers have a fairly rich history. The idea of automating calculations which gave rise to the creation of the first computing devices is not new and has been entertained for a long time.

The first operational summing machine was built in 1642, Blaise Pascal, a French physicist, mathematician and engineer. Despite the fact that the initial calculations were performed by mechanical devices and tools, such devices can still be considered as tools of information processing and, consequently, the predecessors of the computers used in various fields of human activities, including teaching. Even four decades ago the computation was widely done by mechanical calculators, and electro-mechanical proto-computers. However, because of its bulkiness, difficulty of use, high cost, low-speed of information processing and a number of other reasons a computer could not find a proper application in the field of education at that time. A rare exception is higher education, the availability of computers in which justified the need for training in a number of professions such as computer science.

Moreover, teachers and students work usually with one computer. It is in these universities sprung up first experience of computerized education.

However, the real large-scale introduction of computers into all educational activities took place in the early 80-ies of the last century; PCs stressed the word ‘personal’ i.e. one computer – one person approach; its compactness, speed, relatively low cost, availability of a large number of devices that extend the capabilities of personal computers, all that contributed to the raise of PC in every facet of our lives, including education. The main direction of PC development was on expanding capacity to process information. Gradually, the hardware evolved and allowed people to create, store, process and transmit text, graphics, photos and video clips and sound.

Benefits of ICT in Early Childhood Education
Published: Tue, 17 Oct 2017
ANGELINE T. TAGARIRA
CHILDCARE AT HOME
Question 1
Explain the seven types of skills that children may develop as a result of using ICT.

One of the most important ways we can help children whilst playing with them in a child care setting is through h setting up simple activities to help them develop multiple skills and abilities. ICT is part of the children’s world today and it is relevant in developing different types of skills children need in their lives. In this essay seven types of skills which children develop as a result of ICT will be cited and explained.

Fine motor skills
Fine motor skills are movements and actions of the muscles and they are categorised in two groups. Fine motor skills are the small movements that occur in the hands, wrists, fingers, toes, lips and the tongue. These are the smaller movements that occur like: picking up and object between the thumb and finger, using the mouse to click, or select an object or shape, holding a pencil to write, holding a fork and using it to eat and other small tasks that occur every day. According to the study materials ICT requires many precision movements. Therefore children will develop fine motor skills to accurately control the mouse, clicking and dragging a cursor to select or highlight items of texts. Fine motor skills is about small muscle movement in coordination with the eyes however fine motor skills do not develop in isolations from other skills.

Gross motor skills
Gross motor skills involve the movement of the arms, legs, feet or the entire body. This includes actions like running, crawling, walking, swimming and other activities which involve larger muscles. According to the study materials, Gross motor skills can be enhanced when children use the white board to record things, as they stretch and touch various parts of the white board and also using larger pens to write on the screen.

Creative development
As a child minder with a purpose for children’s learning when providing ICT lessons my priority has to be to provide software they will use to learn through expiration. Employing elements of play, exploring alternative approaches will help children to employ imaginative thinking thereby developing their creativity. Children will play around with colours and graphics, dragging and dropping items onto the screen.

Mathematical development
Computers offer dynamic visual images that open up some areas of mathematical development in children. The use of ICT has a great impact on how mathematics can be taught to children. The use of easy mathematical teaching software will encourage children. The programmes will aid children and offer them opportunities to match shapes and carry out simple mathematical bonds as they play and learn at the same time. Computer graphics allow children to share mental images and patterns of structures. Counting images or icons on the home screen will assist develop early mathematical skills like numbers, shapes, size, quantity and patterns.Language development
ICT should not only be computer based. It is important to develop an integrated, holistic and valid approach which will encourage children to develop their language. Such skills as listening, memory, expressing thoughts, ideas and feelings are gained. Children develop awareness that printed words have meaning. Children are able to use the key board to write simple words and their names.

Increase in confidence
ICT can be helpful and interesting if used in the right place and right way. Children under five have an uncanny knack of learning to master new technology. Children prefer to be left alone with things like smart phones, tablet computers, games consoles and use their intuition to confidently swipe screens and press buttons. Screens can be beneficial to learning and the more children are left to interact independently the more they develop in confidence. Heather Kirkorian carried out a research study and she says touch screens could hold educational potential for toddlers. She quotes; “Kids who are interacting with the screen get better, much faster, make few mistakes and learn faster.” Online environments can provide children with a virtual space to develop confidence. Good.

Increase in world knowledge
Children have to appreciate that modern technology is around to stay so be able to use the sense of investigation and exploration to develop their skills of observing. They should also appreciate that ICT resources speed different jobs and they are needed in home environment.

Social skills
In a child care setting where these resources are limited children develop social skills like sharing and team work as they do projects in groups. A lot of communication goes on as children work on their projects. They develop a sense of tolerating one another in all aspects of life.

A good explanation of the skills that can be developed through using ICT materials and equipment.

756 words
Question 2
Construct a booklet which can be issued to parents which identifies safety concerns for children using ICT and how these concerns are being addressed in a child care setting.

Little Busy Bees Child Care
Welcome to the little busy bees child care
We meet Mondays to Saturdays from 08:00 to 18:00. We focus on different activities to entertain children from nine months of age to school going age. We offer companionship for children whose parents have busy lives and other commitments during the day time. We offer ICT skills from 14:00-16:00 every day. If you are interested in ICT skills only please do come and register your child. ICT is run by committed and knowledgeable members of staff.

What Happens?
The group is very informal but does have a basic structure. Children choose from a range of different activities provided on the software. Children are free to browse through and get to what interests them for we believe by so doing children develop confidence and various skills of using information technology. Children are then introduced to different educational structures with time while maintaining the feeling of play so as to capture their interest.

Safety First
It is the utter most responsibility of this child minding setting to provide and to make sure that the children using ICT are protected online as well as from a health and safety point of view in the physical setting. Children are grouped according to their age range and exposure to internet offered at home. Provisions for safe internet practice are offered to safe guard the children from accessing inappropriate materials and images and also against cyber bullying. Round the clock support is offered at all times by staff that closely monitor children, making that the children are not accessing inappropriate materials.

During this period children will be exposed to computers, laptops, Nintendos, iPods, mobile phones, play stations and X box. However some of these items are toys, real items are limited so there will be days when children cannot access certain items and have to try different ones or play with toy ones. These items are monitored for inappropriate use to ensure that the children are protected from any danger.

If you have any suggestions of how children can learn in a safe ICT environment any ideas are most welcome. The safety of the children is a priority.

Our Aims
To help children build upon the experiences they bring from home
To assist children to acquire and develop practical skills required in ICT
To support children to use ICT with confidence
To develop an understanding of care and respect while using ICT
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Question 3
Identify and describe the various ways in which ICT can be used to support Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum. Reference should be made of the various types of ICT available, not just computers
Today children need a level of competency more than just functional skills to use ICT as life needs them to understand and use ICT naturally without fear of failing. Even young children in a child minding setting think digitally and they always take creative risks with technology. They need to learn how to approach these powerful forms of technology. ICT has to be included in their curriculum in various forms. Children attending my Child Care setting should be able to use ICT and programmable toys to support their learning. It is not only learning about technology, children need to be using it to support their development. Technology used well can excite and motivate children. It offers teachers the opportunity to promote skills and observe progress across all six areas of learning and development.

The use of electronic forms of communication can provide children with a variety of opportunities to read and write. Children can be exposed to role playing whereby customers send orders through emails and others respond to these emails. Children can be exposed to different toys that say words, letters and stories. They can listen to these and retell the stories or say the words thereby improving their language as well as literacy. Children also improve their communication as they play in groups for example doing jigsaws and role playing. They can compare shapes or objects and describe them using words like big, small, long, short as well as colours. Good.

Numeracy or mathematical concepts are part of everyday life and these include counting , matching, sorting, sequencing, making connections, understanding number values, recognising shapes and understanding number values. It is important for a child minder to provide a positive and enjoyable mathematical experience as the children’s mathematical development will depend on them becoming confident and competent with a wide range of experiences. Children can be exposed to remote control toys to gain more confidence. They love toys that they can control and remote-controlled or programmable toys will be fascinating to them. Once the children have explored the remote toys and can use them confidently, they will need an environment for the toys to move about. Working together to create the environment will be a challenge in itself. Once children have had a good experience of using remote-controlled toys they can explore programmable toys. Children don’t need to work out how to program sequences of instructions; they just need to work out how to make the toy move. The programmable toy can usually move distances which are multiples of its own length, and can only turn right angles or multiples thereof. The creation of an environment and making the programmable toy move will demand the use of mathematical ideas and methods to solve practical problems. Using or interacting on the computer or white board, sorting different coloured shapes sequencing them from small to big numbers will also help. Children should be given opportunities to transfer their learning from one toy to another. Investing in digital cameras can be a good thing as they’re arguably one of the most powerful resources available to an early years setting. Photographs can be used to send clear messages to both children and their parents/carers. When child minders consistently take photographs of the children’s activities sending them to parents/carers, it confirms that they value and want to celebrate learning and if recorded over time it also confirms that they value and want to celebrate children’s progress. Children should know where they are kept, how to use them safely, and that they should always return them after use. Video cameras can be used to film children whilst they are learning and if this film is reviewed with the children it gives them the opportunity to reflect on their learning and explain their thinking, enabling child minders to have a clearer understanding of the child.

A simple hand-held digital microscope offers children the opportunity to explore objects and living things in microscopic detail. This can be used to talk about and compare different things. Children will develop a curiosity and interest in features of living things and will be encouraged to describe and talk about what they see and to look closely at similarities and differences. Using a computer mouse to navigate requires children to engage in activities requiring hand-eye coordination and use a one-handed tool whilst having fun. Children will need the mouse to be an appropriate size, about half the size of a standard mouse. Using smaller mice designed for use with laptops will fit perfectly under a child’s hand. Children need to be encouraged to use community playthings, hollow blocks to build a tracks for remote-controlled or programmable toys, thereby lifting and moving the equipment safely. In this way they will develop and show awareness of space, of themselves and of other as well as physical development. (Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage, DCFS (2008))
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Question 4
Identify the ways in which families can become involved in ICT, including in particular the ways in which Child care settings can promote its use.

Communication with children and their families is essential in early childhood learning. ICT has opened up new opportunities for child minders to share children’s progress with families. The use of the Internet for communication is continually expanding in homes. Increasingly, families using my childcare services might be familiar with technologies such as email, Skype, and social networking sites such as Facebook. These are the ‘cultural tools’ (Rogoff 2003) used to keep in touch with extended family and friends. Therefore it is important to add ICT to my communication ‘toolkit’ as this is another way of valuing the experiences children bring from home to the child care setting and vice-versa.

I believe children’s learning is fostered when communication with parents/carers is actively maintained. ICT increases the options available for communicating with parents. Digital technologies incorporate a range of graphic and multimedia functions that appeal to both children and adults alike. Things like images and photographs can reduce language barriers. They can also communicate information to parents about their child which the child may not be able to relate. Parents might get excited after leaving their child for the first time and while at work they check their email and find a photo of their child relaxed and engaged with other children. It is unlikely that pictures of other children will be sent to a parent, for confidentiality reasons. It’s quick and easy as pictures can be sent by email or posted on blog minutes after they are taken. Also attaching electronic record sheets and electronic news letters will be exciting for parents to read about what their children spend time doing. However not all parents are computer literate it will be a great gesture to discuss with such parents and advise them on the different courses offered free in their community. Offering to communicate with parents though emails will be a big step to encouraging every parent to have an email.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bradshaw,J.( 2005). The Wellbeing of Children in the UK (2nd Edition) London: Sage.

Rugoff, B. (2003). The Cultural Nurture of Human Development New York: Oxford University Press.

Klein, S.P.1996). Early Intervention: Cross cultural Experiences with Mediational Approach. New York: Garland.

Kress, G. (2003) Literacy in the New Media Age. London: Routledge.

Scottish Government (2008) Getting it Right for Every child.

Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage, DCFS (2008)
Open study college Resource materials
www.surestart.orgwww.rachelager.co.ukhttp://www.becta.org.ukwww.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/framework-for-school-inspection
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Development of ICT Examination System
Published: Mon, 16 Jul 2018
Abstract:
Today, conducting examinations for schools or colleges is a serious concern of the government agencies. The mal-practices or the delay in declaration of results are affecting the careers of the students and in turn break the image of delivering bodies and hence government. Government of Maharashtra had constituted one committee on examination reforms to carry out the in-depth study for use of ICT in examination system.

The researcher is registered doctoral student, hence presented in the review paper, the examination reforms is the need of every time in the society since its establishment.

Keywords: ICT, Examination reform, Education
Introduction:
Examinations play an important role in imparting education and knowledge to students. Examination is an instrument to evaluate the knowledge, understanding and learning of students. For Teachers, Examinations provides feedback to evolve their way of teaching.

In Maharashtra, serious concerns have been expressed on various issues regarding security of university examination papers and image by the media about the capabilities of Universities to hold & organize examinations in a fair manner. In this regard, Hon’ble Chief Secretary opined that immediate action needs to be taken to set up a reliable system so that aforementioned incidences do not occur and Universities can hold the examinations smoothly.

A Review:
In 2011, Mohini Bhardwaj, Amar Jeet Singh placed the need of present time in India in following manner, “ICT has reached at every door step, but its potential has not been fully utilised. ICT is a very helpful tool for providing good governance by bringing a sea-change in the working of organisations and institutions.”
In two years of span the speedy development of ICT implementation in examination is quoted by Dr. Anurag Sankhiyan, that, “Trend of seeking online applications for regular, entrance /competitive examinations and conducting on-line examinations have made the system very simple and cost effective for the examining bodies. But, on the other hand, this change is also bringing lot of challenges to the rural youth of the country who are not that much techsavvy. The present paper, focus on the possibilities and challenges of integrating ICT in examination system.”
Ron Oliver in his research paper titled “The role of ICT in higher education for the 21st century: ICT as a change agent for education” stated that, the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the role of ICT in education is becoming more and more important and this importance will continue to grow and develop in the 21st century. The paper argues the role of ICT in transforming teaching and learning and seeks to explore how this will impact on the way programs will be offered and delivered in the universities and colleges of the future.

Aatish Palekar in his web article, The Reform of Examination System – Essay, quoted that, in any education system, they must occupy an important place. Yet the way and the form in which they are held need reform. There are so many serious defects in the present system of examination that their purpose is completely defeated. They fail in measuring the progress of students. Many ways of reforming the examination system have been suggested. One is the setting of objective-type questions, instead of the present system in which the questions require long, essay-type answers.

Mohini Bhardwaj and Amarjeet singh focused that the need of ICT is at prime stage considering the gross enrollment ratio in India, as per the University Grants Commission (2008) report titled “Higher Education in India-Issues related to expansion, inclusiveness, quality and finance”, the number of universities in India has increased from 20 in 1950 to about 431 in 2008, colleges from 500 in 1950 to 20,677 in 2008 and enrolment of students has increased from mere 100,000 in 1950 to 11,612,000 in 2008. The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) i.e. which is a ratio of persons enrolled in higher education institutions to total population of the persons in age group of 18 to 23, rose from 0.7% in 1950 to about 11% in 2007. Still the fact remains that the GER in India is quite low compared to that of the developed countries and world average having GERs 54.6 % and 23.2% respectively. Indian government aims to bring GER to 15 % by 2012.

The researcher made the current review about GER, and find that the current GER is 19% and the government of India aims to achieve the GER up to 30% by 2020. (The Diplomat, Challenges and Solutions in Indian Higher Education ByShreyasi Singh, October 02, 2013)
The author Anurag Sankhiyan is trying to trouble shoot the challenges in examination system with ICT, hence quote that, “India is not a rich country where we can change the whole picture in one day. Being a developing nation, the country is facing lot of problems in every sphere. ICT based examination system is quite costly in the initial stage and in case country manage to invest for changing the manual system to ICT we will be facing the challenges on the part of learner who have to adopt the same. Maximum universities, educational boards and selection bodies are inviting the examination applications online. Students who are rural and not have the access to the new technology have to visit cities for filling the application forms. In that case they depend on the people who are managing the cybercafés. Maximum time it has been observed that their forms get rejected due to filling wrong information by such people. Providing proper orientation to the students regarding using the technology is one of the main challenges.”
The author rightly focus the challenge of poverty in the nation and the challenge of implementing ICT at lowest possible rate along with the lower ICT literacy among the poor citizens.

Anurag Sankhiyan, had also pointed out the significant tangible benefits of using ICT in examination system over the manual system. They quoted that, with ICT integration of technology, process, resources; also streamline procedures in examination system were identified. The author stretch the ICT usage up to quality of service and effective monitoring in the process along with statistical reports at the finger tips.

But Mohini Bhardwaj and Amarjeet singh, these authors placed the challenges of main feature of ICT i.e. integration of ICT in examination system in following way-
Lot of investment is needed on the part of universities and school examination boards as technology is quite costly.

Lack of ICT trained people is another challenge, for which proper training programmes in a regular manner are to be organised.

Less initiative taken by the state universities to integrate ICT in the examination system due to lack of funds.

Maximum student population of the country is living in the rural areas and not has access to the new technologies.

Changing the mindset of the people presently using manual system and making them trained.

Orienting students to adopt new technology before shifting to the ICT based examination system.

Conclusion:
Hence it is clear from above review that in spite of achieving higher GER and ICT promotion at higher stage, the monetary issues are of prime importance. The lack of initiation by universities, rural population and capacity building of the stake holders are challenges in 2013-14, where researcher want to carry out the study to know the implementers thoughts, stake holders e-readyness, how to implement complete ICT solution in NMU region which also covers tribal along with rural region.

References:
Dr. Anurag Sankhian, (2013) Redesigning Indian Examination System through Technology, GIAN JYOTI E-JOURNAL, Volume 3, Issue 2 ISSN 2250-348X, 57-67 ppMohini Bhardwaj, Amar Jeet Singh, (2011) Automated Integrated University Examination System, Himachal Pradesh University Journal, 1-10 ppAatish Palekar, The Reform of Examination System – Essay ARTICLEShttp://www.publishyourarticles.net/eng/articles/the-reform-of-examination-system-essay.htmlaccessed on 6.6.2013 at 9.30 am
Government of Maharashtra, (2012) Reforms in Examinations System in Universities of Maharashtra through use of Technology, Committee Report.

Ron Oliver (2002), The role of ICT in higher education for the 21st century: ICT as a change agent for education, HE 21 conference proceedings

The Purpose Of ICT In Schools Education Essay
Introduction:
ICT stand for Information Communication Technology is widely spread and essential to play in changing and modernizing educational systems as well as the way of learning. As we know, it is part of many aspects of our daily lives. ICT includes any product that will store, restore, operate, or receive information in a digital form. The computing industry (the Internet, hardware, software); telecommunications (cellular phones, teleconferencing); electronic display (calculator); and other services (including radio, video, television and so on) are just some example of the ICT tools. Studies in ICT include design, physics, information systems and so on. At the same time, many businesses use ICT because it is fast access, storage requirement, allow more than one person access the data at a time, better security, fewer staff etc. In the other hand, ICT is expensive to buy and we may need to be trained before using it as well as the computers may fail to work.

Moreover, there are some differences between countries and between schools within countries. In some countries, ICT used into the curriculum, and establish high levels of power. It also appropriate ICT use to support teaching and learning world wide. Schools are in the early phase of using ICT in other country. ICT is characterised as an important way of the learning process and some developments of e-learning. ICT enabled learning but not necessary help to improve in the learning and teaching world.

Broadly, there have three major types of ICT. It induced studies that can be identified.

1. ICT has tried by many students of integration into education that consists of infrastructure, such as the pupil-computer ratio, an average number of computers per school and levels of connectivity. There are almost all secondary schools had access to the Internet. Based on the report of European, it shows that ICT performs in schools is continuously increasing.

2. A few studies have taken some time to analysis it to the next level: to existence the benefit of ICT in educational world and also the home use of ICT for educational aims. Here is the example from the research that ICT use in schools is still quite low overall, despite the investment: “In most EU countries ICT is not used very frequently using by students at school. But the students had the opportunities to use ICT everywhere.” (Pelgrum, 2004).

3. The third level is about the cause and effect: the impact of ICT on learning and teaching. As the authors of the most recent study that they point out the impact of the ICT: “it is difficult to identify a causal relationship between computers and educational outcomes” (Machin, 2006). There is some evidence to prove that investment in ICT impacts on learning and on teaching. However, there are even fewer studies find that there is no evidence of a positive relationship between computers and educational outcomes.

On the other hand, there are theories and studies to describe the implications of ICT for education: education that using ICT which can brings new capabilities to learning. For example, ICT has the potential enabling teachers and students to create an environment that provide an unlimited teaching and learning.

As a result, ICT in education can also be broadly categorized in the following way as a subject (computer studies), a tool to support traditional subjects (computer- based learning, presentation, research) and as an administrative tool (education management information systems/EMIS).

Contents:
Great Impact on teaching, learning and attainment
For education, the purpose of ICT is generally to familiarise students and teachers with the use and workings of computers, related social and ethnical issues. It is generally believed that ICT can empower both teachers and learners. It promotes change the development in 21st century. ICT is not only transform teaching but also learning processes. The transformation gets to increase learning gains for students that provide learner an opportunity to develop creativity, communication skills, and other thinking skills. Besides, smart solutions for the future including laptop learning, e-learning, smart classrooms, didactic equipment and stimulations is the key on education today. An entire learning environment is needed in which students, teachers, administrators, and parents can easily communicate and collaborate with each other, share secure information around the clock, and, ultimately, access a world of knowledge beyond classroom walls.

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Follow the picture above, we can see that ICT is very useful to the society especially to the students in colleges. According to ICT adviser Harriet Price, it is benefit that an ICT-rich educational experience brings to the students. She says that technology is an important part of student’s everyday lives. She makes sure that the necessary software and hardware is available for students to use, while also helping them develop their own ICT skills. As we know, more than half of the students in the groups have a computer or laptop at home as well as access in College that they can search for information regardless of time and place.

ICT making all schools “smart”. That means everyone get different information and knowledge from ICT. As we know, computers are provided in every area in the schools, colleges or labs. Students get the chance to do assignments or group projects by using it. It also increases students’ knowledge at the same time. Besides, students who have laptop themselves can bring it with them. Training is provided in any colleges as well as to make students to learn more independent in their work. ICT provides quick and easy way in the research to train the society especially for the students today. It has a great impact for the students to have an easy for research and information compare to the earlier period. ICT is saving our time in doing the work. When we have to do our work and search information or example for our assignment in the earlier time, we have to go to library to collect those staff. It is not only to waste our time but also limited in the information we get.

On the other hand, we can have our self-test before the exam coming. Besides buying the books for exercise, we can get the question from the internet. It makes students more comfortable to have a test. Moreover, group assignment always assigned by the teachers or lecturer. ICT are like a learning centre that could help to share ideas and understanding to the students. It also teaches us the grammar and improves our English by ourselves. For example, we know that working in pairs was the most useful practice, by using ICT that students can experience with collaborative learning.

ICT empowers students to engage in the learning process and giving them an interest in their personal education. By integrating ICT into the classroom, students have the ability to learn more effectively, collaborate with each other, and explore the world around them. Anytime, anywhere access to internet-based tools is necessary to encourage learning inside the classroom and beyond. Today, by using ICT brings many benefits to the young generation especially for the students. For example, some of the students who working part time also has some time to do their College work. In addition, most of the times the students like to use word processing from the processor itself. It is quick and easy to edit their work and improve their presentation by using ICT at a time. Somehow, web is the only way to have quick and easy way to search the information on any topic. ICT is the one to make us easy access a world of knowledge.

With a range of ICT equipment, the benefit for students is that a higher quality lessons through greater collaboration between teachers in planning and preparing the resources. It is more focused teaching, tailored to students’ strengths and weaknesses as well as through better analysis of attainment data. By using ICT, it improved the behavior management through better tracking of students. It is not only gain in understanding but also analytical skills which including improvements in reading comprehension as well as increase the knowledge. Moreover, ICT unknowingly help students improve in their development of writing skills such as spelling, punctuation, editing and grammar, it will become more fluency and originality.

Based on the research of Software and Information Industry Association 2000, students who used educational technology in colleges are more successful because they have more active to learn and increase their self-esteem. ICT then enhances and extends the possibilities of learning across the curriculum. Thus, ICT provide more opportunities to show their hard work to an audiences or teachers as well as it is 24 hours.

Most students reported that ICT was positively helping them with homework and many pupils indicated that access to internet resources was particularly important. Students also reported that writing was the most common use for ICT outside the colleges and schools, followed by researching. ICT would be important to their future career or to employment. Students get to gain confidence because they could do things and show things they had not been able to do before, that students could explore more and share more ideas with others.

In fact, ICT also gives educators the opportunity to transform the way learning happens, and enable student development. ICT present a range of tools that teachers or lecturers use to present and display as part of their teaching and help educators interact with students as well as engage them in a more meaningful way. These technological tools can be determinate designed for education way that it can be software or hardware used in the contexts such as word processors and spreadsheets. The computer tools help the students and teachers manipulate complex data-sets. This then provides context for effective discussion that help to develop subject understanding. ICT is benefit for teachers to sharing of resources, expertise and advice. It is also easier planning and preparation of lessons and designing materials to the students. Sometimes, ICT helps teachers to access to up-to-date students and school data, in any time and anywhere. Enhancement of professional image projected to colleagues is easier to get by teachers in using ICT.

From a teaching point of view, teachers used these devices to deliver to a whole class, could use the digital content effectively that was available to them. Teachers also reported that ICT offered them enhanced resources to support learning through teaching. The levels of interaction, the immediacy and the ability to refresh work, were all indicated as ways in which ICT could enhance the range of teaching approaches taken. In some colleges, teachers were expecting more of the students used ICT- whether this was due to the higher pace in lessons, work being done more quickly.

Negative impact on teaching, learning and attainment
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On the other hand, there is some negative effect of the ICT on education way. In college, computer is not enough for teachers to make the best use of ICT in the classroom. Based on the research of Sandhoitz, it will take a lot of time in the classroom even up to a year with the support of experienced team. Teachers sometime always depend on the information that searched by the web. It may make a mistake. Information from the web or internet that mostly came or wrote from personal’s opinion. It is not all facts by the way. Teacher who depend more on the ICT do not perform well as a teacher.

Students, however, feel lazy to attend the class if they can easily get the study material from the web. It will change their behavior to become more irresponsible. Let’s say lecturer give an assignment to the students, they may not understand if they never attend that class. The technological reliability was important and yet the students could respond negatively to a resource, both of teaching and technology. Across the school or colleges, students might not value ICT that spent too much time on presentation needs and copying without reading and understanding. At the same time, students will search the information from the web and caught by “cutting and pasting”. Through the behavior like this, it will cause their result and their reliability by other. By then the students will access the internet for other things, for example, facebook, MSN, Yahoo, Twitter and others. While the lecturer having the lesson in front, they will not pay more attention to the lecturer. The cause of the result will affect them to retake the whole semester. Money will become the issue right now.

Then, it had created severe problem to the students. To those who always play computer and using the instant message that they will choose online communication rather than having real life conversation with the teachers. For example, when they having flu and will not be attending the class or lesson, they might e-mail the lecturer rather than call the teachers. When the problem deteriorates, students will become unusual when they meet outsiders. Furthermore, the students sitting in front of the computer for a long time may cause health problem. Health problem such as stress and eyes strain can effect a student in their education way. By then ICT also created more illegal act such as pornography. Those students who affected by the pornography may cause the effect on their education. The students will waste time by using ICT better than study on their work. Overall, the evidence on the impact on attainment of learning through ICT remains inconsistent, however.

Great impact on practitioners and schools
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The introduction of ICT into schools has had an impact on teachers in terms of their overall workload that including planning, lesson preparation as well as on the ways in which these are coordinated and managed within the school and wider educational context. The availability of ICT itself has sufficient to enhance learning and teaching. Teachers have to be confident in their own ICT capacity and understand the potential benefits of using ICT in a planned.

In advance, using ICT is to support teacher development for e-learning. Like students, teachers learn in different ways and they need to be able to access support when they needed. The provision of improved connectivity, among other developments, has allowed teachers to take advantage of online access to resources. As a result of access to resources at a time, teachers have greater control over the planning and preparation. By then teachers have expressed concern about knowing which resources are worthwhile and more research on the impact and availability of online resources. Such case studies provide evidence of changes in the ways in which teachers are approaching their role within the classroom. It is a better understanding of how teachers interact with the online environment.

Then, there is an impact of ICT in the classroom on the teacher’s role. While gaining confidence and competence in the use of the technologies is to support e-learning, evidence is on the impact of using ICT on other aspects of the teacher’s role. Some forms of learning through ICT, the use of shared resources and collaborative learning, where the teachers facilitates rather than direct learning, might be difficult for some to accept.

It is an impact of ICT on administration and overall workload. Once teachers have brought the technicalities involved with classroom- related hardware and software resources, they can enhance their teaching. This can be used to create additional teaching resources. Use of ICT for assessment purposes can also release valuable teacher time. Within schools, those specific technological developments such as connectivity via broadband access to internet will regard to the personalization of the learning experience. A key strand to embed ICT in schools has been and that of networking within schools and also across the education sector. Broadly speaking, schools recognize that systems can improve effectiveness and reduce costs. Across schools, using ICT to manage data was found to promote teaching and learning by facilitating more effective timetabling. The most effective tools were found to be school- devised systems and the use of Excel spreadsheets. As we know, school data was in forming the setting and in compiling reports to parents.

Improved access to ICT, schools networks for teaching and planning were also identified as potential strategies. Use of ICT in schools tended to be raising the quality of the work produced by teachers such as presentations and reports, rather than saving time. ICT was also the key factor to improving efficiency, along with staff by using the software and hardware.

Furthermore, teachers also perceived benefits in managing, storing and other work such as preparing reports with the time saved. Looking ahead, ICT would make teachers more effective in their work over 12 months. In order to be in the use of ICT to support learning and teaching, schools need to be ‘e-confident’. That means displaying a number of characteristics at a level.

Thus, the internet has increased significantly the range of resources to support and stimulate learning and teaching across the curriculum and at all levels. It has also provided the means by which access to range of services, including libraries and careers services, can be brought together in one place. As ICT becomes part of the everyday life of the schools, there is a need to ensure the participation in the learning opportunities provided. Here, teachers can identify their own professional development needs and find solutions.

Conclusion
In today’s interconnected world, information and communication technology (ICT) is widely used by our nation and it affects our lives every day. ICT gives great impact in education for the learners and teachers. ICT has become a key driver in education way. ICT has been identified by a range of important wider benefits of ICT on learning. The positive impact of ICT on students’ skills and teamwork are included.

ICT also help student and teacher with activities that provided in the websites. That kind of activities gives ideas to the teachers in their teaching, so that students enjoy the class. Students learn more independently at the same time. They will take more responsibility for learning process. As seen, ICT can benefit both strong and weak students with their special needs. By the way, they especially improved the performance in students’ English and on writing skills.

ICT is a part of socially system integrating meaningful communication within an education system. We can use it for analyzing the processes, meanings and functions of ICT in education. ICT also provided the research for us when we have to do the assignments. ICT is also one of the tools that have easy communication to other in foreign country. It saves the cost and time.

Schools use ICT to make both students and teachers an easy way to their work. Different information and opinion can get from the web-sites. In addition, ICT provides wide array of information and effective lessons. That is also easy for students to do their work by using word processing. It makes our projects or assignments more neat and tidy. From the education system point of view, e-” could mean “enhanced” education rather than “electronic” education. Consequently, ICT has a great impact to the society especially on education.

On the other hand, ICT also has a bad impact on education system. Teachers will more depend on the ICT and not giving their knowledge to the students. The information and knowledge are not necessary correct from the web-sites. We have to more careful when having the research from the web. Teachers, however, will not increase their vision.

Moreover, it will cause the effect on the students. Students may not be interested in the way teachers teach. They will more focus on the web such as Facebook, MSN, and Twitter. It unknowingly influences their result in the class. It also changes their behavior to the teachers in school.

Students who generally communicate with friends by the ICT will caused a problem in communicate face to face to other. It is not only has an impact on character but also their attitude. Somehow, it will become more rebellious when influence by the illegal staff. Today, we can seen that have many teenagers use two or three phones. It will cause them not to pay attention in the lesson time.

In a conclusion, ICT can be both advantages and disadvantages on education sector. We have to careful by using it. Internet, TV, radio and others are the ICT that provide the news and information to us. We can increase our vision when we have it. But, when we too focus on these staff, we may cause health problem by using it. We have to be wise in using it.

Benefits Of Ict In Education Education Essay
ICT has so many advantages in the learning and teaching process. Classroom management is one of them that gained benefits from ICT. According to experienced teachers who use ICT in their classrooms that ICT may make the classroom controlling more effortless because ICT provides materials that make the class more interesting and easy to control (Cox and Webb, 2004). The existence of several sorts of ICT tools gives the class other support of learning especially in terms of visual and auditory learning. Thus the definition of classroom management “Content management occurs when teachers manage space, materials, equipment, the movement of people, and lessons that are part of a curriculum or program of studies” (Froyen ; Iverson, 1999, p. 128). This managing will lead to organizing student’s behavior.

Jacob Kounin (1970) has vital studies about effective classroom management, which obtained to systematic results in classroom management techniques. Also, he found critical dimensions of effective class control containing the following issues:
” ‘withitness’: teachers know what each pupil is doing; they have ‘eyes in the back of their heads’ so are able to pay attention to several things at the same time;
Letting pupils know what behavior is expected of them at any given point in time;
Smoothness: teachers are able to guide pupil behavior verbally or non- verbally without having to interrupt teaching;
Maintaining group focus and interest.”
Leask and Pachler(2005:44)
ICT is beneficial for teachers too, to discipline student’s deportments in the class. In “withitness” teachers never are busy with other things in the class while answering a question or other activities (Leask and Pachler, 2005). They should pay their attention to students behaviour even they observe them out of the corner of their eye, it will be good. In addition, students know what they are going to do next time. Finally, in “smoothness” teachers use efficient techniques that guide students in a way, which does not lead to a noisy atmosphere in the class, but without interrupting teaching process.

ICT and Motivation:
The British educational communications and technology agency (Becta, 2003) has a research about ICT and motivation, which reports that regular use of ICT across various curriculum subjects, may have a useful motivational impact on students learning (cited in Cox, 1997). It is clear that students stand more time in front of their tasks by using ICT like computer than other methods such as: classic method, which was manual, which is manual. ICT may solve discipline problems and decrease them. Moreover, students who used ICT for educational reasons in school feel more successful were more motivated to learn and have raised self-confidence and self-esteem (cited in Software and information industry association 2000). For example, while writing a paragraph by hand there is no grammar check to correct mistakes, but while ICT programs such as Microsoft Office word, which will detect most of the spelling and grammar mistakes. This process will encourage and motivate students certainly.

Leask and Pachler, 2005 refer that the impaCT2 project evaluated the motivation of students through 15 case studies in their books. Researchers found that ICT not only encourages students to become more concentrated on the task. ICT also was seen by some teachers to improve both the competency and cognitive functioning (Cited in Comber et al., 2002, p. 9).

Effective learning and teaching with ICT:
In the late of 20th century and with the beginning of 21st century, ICT has played roles from simple to vital roles especially in developed country’s school. Learning and teaching process become more effective by using ICT.

“The use of ICT has developed in different ways to meet the needs of learners in different curricular areas. The use of ICT can:
• help learners be creative;
• be a useful aid to problem solving;
• provide ready access to a world of knowledge and research; and
• improve the quality of presentation.”
(2004, p. 7)
ICT assisted students to be more creative in their learning process and it is a beneficial support for problem solving by using different ICT facilities such as: software programs, Internet, and printer. Today, learners have thousands of resources by using ICT in condition while sitting in their home not by searching for knowledge in libraries. Presentations became visual and auditory for students in addition to using software programs like power point. However, all these factors need effective teachers and managements or administrators to apply and achieve these effective benefits on students.

“The educational effectiveness of ICTs depends on how they are used and for what purpose. And like any other educational tool or mode of educational delivery, ICTs do not work for everyone, everywhere in the same way.” (Tinio(2002), p. 19). The useful use of ICT in educational and pedagogical fields changes from person to person and from place to place. It bases on how they are practiced and for which reason. Undoubtedly, some educators use technology in particular computer and the Internet more efficiently than others. They know very well how they use it and when or where and for which occasion. Hence, teaching students the effective use of ICT especially in enhancing access and raising quality is another reason to promote students performance by using ICT and gaining more.

The Barriers or Obstacles to the development and integration of ICT in education
“In the twentieth century schools encounter a number of difficulties including integration of information and communication technologies into the teaching and learning, education curriculum and change in methods in pursuit of developing learner lifelong learning skills” (Sabaliauskas and Pukelis, p. 1). Undoubtedly, this is a complex process to change the system of learning and teaching from a traditional method to ICT method. Some people like (Schoepp, 2005) called difficulties as “barriers”. A barrier is defined as “any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective” (Schoepp, 2005, p. 2).

“There are many barriers or difficulties that stand up in front of the development of ICT in education. Teacher-level barriers are lack of teacher confidence, competence and resistance to change & negative attitudes. Also, there are school-level barriers, which are lack of time, lack of effective training, lack of accessibility, and lack of technical support” (Bingimlas, 2009, p. 237- 241)
Disadvantages of ICT
Obviously, there are several kinds of drawbacks of ICT in the classroom or outside classroom. The costs of equipments are so expensive that prevent more schools to purchase. Sometimes, students engage with ICT tools for other purposes. Also, ICT is not safe usually for saving data and information because the potential errors may occur in the Windows program or other software programs and hacking by others.

“The following disadvantages give a list of objectives that staff and facilitators may be required to deal with should problems occur throughout using the ICT equipment.

• Cost
• Distractions
• Reliability
• Damage
• Safety
• Hacking”
(Anon, 2008, http://www.newman.ac.uk/Students_websites/~s.r.i.whitton/Advantages%20&%20disadvantages.htm)
Integrating ICT throughout the curriculum
Jhurree (2005) states that the educational and pedagogical mend happen throughout the world to promote educational level. The integration of ICT in education system is one of them. The effective integration of ICT into classroom needs a systematic plan and scheme. Also, it depends on the policy makers how well understand the dynamics of integrating of ICT. Yet, ICT has been a complex issue because it will change the education completely.

“The difference that ICT will make in education is conditioned by what education wants to realize with ICT in the context of its needs and strategic ends. The educators must have developed the practice. It begins by good planning that provides the real state of the learners based on globally accepted curricular standards. The value of the ICT tools to make a difference is dependent on the educator’s identification of the instructional outcomes, methods and materials that ICT can bring efficiently and effectively deliver for the teachers and the learners”
(Macasio, J. (2008), http://aralaneteacher.ning.com/forum/topics/integrating-ict-in-teaching)
Levine (1998) emphasises that the significance of planning, which is based on serious school needs then to be achievable and realistic. The scheme or policy should be practical to solve or change the school situation and to improve learning environments that will be effective. “To attain objectives that have not been attained efficiently otherwise: expanding access, promoting equality, improving the internal efficiency of educational systems, enhancing the quality of education, and preparing new and old generations for a technology-driven market place” (Haddad and Jurich, 2002, p. 47). The integrating ICT into education offers many useful factors such as: an evolved learning environment for learners by giving motivation that make them to work with instruction interestingly and efficiently. ICT has the capability for making instruction easier, more challenging and motivating for teachers. Nowadays, it is possible to contact with people throughout the world by using ICT especially computer and the Internet.

“Teachers play a crucial professional role in ensuring that the integration of ICT into pedagogies is educationally sound. They evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of available technologies, deciding when and how to use them with their students.”(MCEETYA (2005), p. 4). Teachers integrating ICT into their education need suitable learning activities and facilities to: motivate, engage, and personalize learning. Also, developing ICT literacy establishes communities of learning.

ICT and assessment
Previously, teachers were assessing their students in different methods such as: exam, quiz, writing essay, assignments, and oral exams, but all these methods were inside the class. Nowadays, information communication technology has changed the situation by using computer and the Internet but it is in the beginning of the loop. Students can send their assignment to their teacher by e-mail or exams and also (open-book; structured; timed).

“Participation in online discussions
Publication of student work /presentations
Experiential activities, such as role-play
Debates
Reviews
Journals and reflection”
(Anon, http://learnline.cdu.edu.au/t4l/elearning/onlineassessment.html#options)
These are all methods that give students an opportunity to access online and share their ideas and requirements?
“As can be seen, assessment opportunities making use of the web are still rather similar to non-computerized methods and often only use computer communication to submit or comment on students’ work in traditional ways. Where computer – testing per se is used it often comprises short answers and multiple- choice questions”
Leask and Pachler(2005:136)

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