, Bebetsos, E., Christos, K., Curby, D., & Mirzaei, B.
(2016).Investigation of Ego and Task Orientation among International WrestlingReferees. Fizi?eskoe Vospitanie Studentov, Pp 49-54 (2016), 49.doi:10.
15561/20755279.2016.0606In this study the researchestook a sample of 213 international referees from a combination of 30 differentcountries some being Greece, turkey, Italy, Germany, U.S.A, And Japan. The Goalof this research study was to find the effects that the levels of wrestling Elitevs non-elite had with task or ego orientations in refs for the sport ofwrestling.
The instruments used to undergo this study were the Task and Egoorientation in sports questionnaire (TEOSQ) each of the 13-statement having to dowith refereeing in wrestling; 7 task-related and 6 ego. The results from the studywere that referees from elite level countries were more task oriented and onesfrom non-elite level countries were more ego oriented. Referees that also hadexperience In Olympic setting wrestling also were more task oriented than theones who had not had any experience in the Olympics.
Thebiggest strength of this study was the ability to include such a large and diversegroup of referees from different countries. This Allows the researchers to havea more expanded look on the results of the experiment. Also, another strengthwas that this study is a tool that should help with decision making by refereesbecause it helps identify where the referees are most effective working. Aweakness was that the study only used one instrument to extract data from the samples,using more than one could have provided more valuable information on howorientation and refereeing are related. ÇETINKALP, Z. K., & TURKSOY, A.(2011).
GOAL ORIENTATION AND SELF-EFFICACY AS PREDICTORS OF MALE ADOLESCENTSOCCER PLAYERS’ MOTIVATION TO PARTICIPATE. Social Behavior & Personality:An International Journal, 39(7), 925-934.In this study 159adolescent male soccer players were used in the sample ages 13 or 14 and hadrecently participated in the U14 nation team. Majority had 3 to 4 years of experiencewithin the sport. The objective for the researchers were to determine if goal orientationand self-efficacy could predict what motivates the participants. To gather theinformation for the study the researchers used the Participation Motivation questionnaire(PMQ),The Perception of Success questionnaire (POSQ) and the General Self-Efficacy scale.
It was found that Ego orientation was a positiveindicator for achievement and status, Ego orientation had no affect on skilldevelopment and Ego orientation was a positive indicator for Competition. Theweakness in this study were that the ages of the samples were not very diverseand if they were to redo the study sampling from a larger age group the datawould differ greatly. Another was the unseen factor that fun and friend had onthe samples which may have swayed some of their motivation for participation inthe sport. A strength for the research was the use of three instruments toextract the data and the many variables that they were able to use in the questionnaires.Sari,?., Ili?, J., & Ljubojevi?, M. (2013).
THE COMPARISON OF TASK AND EGOORIENTATION AND GENERAL SELF-ESTEEM OF TURKISH AND MONTENEGRIN YOUNG BASKETBALLPLAYERS. Kinesiology, 45(2), 203-212In this study theresearchers took a sample of 77 Turkish and 64 Montenegrin basketball playersthat ranged from the ages between 13 and 17. The aim was to determine if thereis any correlation between Goal orientations and self-esteem and which group scoredhigher in both categories. The Task and Ego orientation in Sports Questionnaire(TEOSQ) and the Rosenberg self-esteem (RSE) were used to gather the date fromthe 141 basketball players. The researchers determined That the Turkishbasketball player had higher ego orientation and higher self-esteem. While theMontenegrin players scored higher on task orientation they scored lower when itcame to self-esteem.
The researchers noted that the cultural differences of theMontenegrin and Turkish player had an impact on their goal orientations. Inthe study the researches repeatedly mentioned the effects of cultural differenceand the history of both countries pertaining to sports. This was a weakness ofthe study because the samples may have already had a predisposition to whichside of the orientation scale they weighed higher on due to outside factors.
Another critical weakness was the lack of alarger sample size that could have strengthened the connection between egoorientation and self-esteem. SCHNEIDER,R., HARRINGTON, M., & TOBAR, D. (2017). GOAL ORIENTATION AND HOW A TASK OREGO MENTALITY CAN AFFECT THE ENJOYMENT FOR COLLEGE HOCKEY PLAYERS. CollegeStudent Journal, 51(1), 57-62. Inthis research study the Objective was to find which type of goal orientationthe hockey players have and how much they enjoy the sport.
The sample was 28 maleCollege ice hockey players on the division two level with the age rangingbetween 18 to 24 years old. The study used two questionnaires, The Task and Egoorientation sports questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Physical activity enjoymentscale (PACES) to gather the data for this experiment. The researches determinedthat 23 of the 28 athletes were found to have task goal orientation while theremaining 5 were ego. And that there is a significant difference in enjoyment withthe task orientation group rating higher than the ego orientation. Theresearches stated that some of the limitations or weaknesses of the study were thatthey could not explore other sports or genders to add to their sample insteadonly focusing on male hockey players.
Another was that only one school wasstudied making this an isolated experiment stating that they would like to goto different cities to determine if they would find the same results. Some strengthensof the study were that it provided a way that coaches can determine what kindsof athletes they are dealing with in combination with how much they enjoyed thesport currently. SEUNGHYUN,H., MACHIDA, M.
, & YOUNGJUN, C. (2017). THE EFFECT OF PEER INTERACTION ONSPORT CONFIDENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT GOAL ORIENTATION IN YOUTH SPORT. SocialBehavior & Personality: An International Journal, 45(6), 1007-1018.doi:10.
2224/sbp.6149In this Study the aim was to find outwhat effects peer interaction has on sports confidence and achievement goal orientation(Task and ego orientation). The sample was 141 children and adolescents rangingfrom ages 8 to 15 that were members of soccer clubs in the Midwest of the USA. Theprocedure used to gather the data was having the members take the Task and EgoOrientation questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the Sports Confidence Inventory (SCI),Also at the end of the season 51 on the members retook both questionnaires. Theresults were that peer interaction with those in the same age groups had a positiveimpact on task goal orientation. While those who were surrounded by differentage groups had an increase in ego orientation. Theresearches pointed out that the small number of participants was an issuebecause they only had less than half available athletes from the beginning ofthe season take the questionnaires at the end of the season. Another weakness was that they ran intoethical problems pertaining to the names of the athletes which made it harderto display the effects of social networks on the athletes.
The researchers believethat this study will help in the future when it comes to youth athletes andtheir social experiences.