Bacteria amino acid sequence in a protein determines

Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms that thrive in diverse environments.

The relationship between humans and bacteria is complex.Strucuture Procaryotic structural components consist of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, polysaccharides, phospholipids, or some combination thereof. The macromolecules are made up of primary subunits such as nucleotides, amino acids and sugars (Table 1). It is the sequence in which the subunits are put together in the macromolecule, called the primary structure, that determines many of the properties that the macromolecule will have. Thus, the genetic code is determined by specific nuleotide base sequences in chromosomal DNA; the amino acid sequence in a protein determines the properties and function of the protein; and sequence of sugars in bacterial lipopolysaccharides determines unique cell wall properties for pathogens. The primary structure of a macromolecule will drive its function, and differences within the primary structure of biological macromolecules accounts for the immense diversity of life…..

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Some bacteria produce slime materials to adhere and float themselves as colonial masses in their environments. Other bacteria produce slime materials to attach themselves to a surface or substrate. Bacteria may attach to surface, produce slime, divide and produce microcolonies within the slime layer, and construct a biofilm, which becomes an enriched and protected environment for themselves and other bacteria.This germ theory is now the basis of most forms of modern medicine and dentistry. The belief is that pathogenic germs exist outside the body and that they can invade the body and cause disease.The first antibiotic to successfully treat people with serious infectious diseases was penicillin in 1928.

However, penicillin is a fungus. Fungus can be very debilitating to the body. Not only fungus, but its byproducts micro toxins can be a problem.

Antibiotics are chemicals produced by or derived from microorganisms (i.e. bugs or germs such as bacteria and fungi).The Antibiotics which you get with a prescription are chemical substances that can inhibit the growth of, and even destroy, harmful microorganisms.

They are derived from special microorganisms or other living systems, and are produced on an industrial scale using a fermentation process.Methodology:The aim of this experiment is to investigate how well the following treatment groups, natural antibiotics and pharmaceutical antibiotics fight against bacteria growth. The bacteria that was used was Rhodospirillum Rubrum and Serratia Marcescens. It is hypothesised that the pharmaceutical antibiotics would work best against the bacterial growth, rather than the natural antibiotics.

The independent variable of the experiment was the type of antibiotic and the dependent variable was the rate of the bacterial growth and size of the exclusion zone.The treatment groups are the different types of antibiotics, which are pharmaceutical and natural antibiotics. Three different types of each were investigated, the pharmaceutical antibiotics included, Sulphatriad, Tetracycline and penicillin. The Natural antibiotics included Lemon juice, Tea Tree oil and Eucalyptus oil.Definition of an Antibiotic: a medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.Antibiotics are chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria and are used to treat bacterial infections. They are produced in nature by soil bacteria and fungi.Unfortunately, antibiotics kill off friendly bacteria which the body needs for health.

Also, many pathogens have grown to be immune to major doses of antibiotics due to the over-use associated with these chemicals. There are even reports all the way back the 1940s that antibiotics affected a woman’s menstrual period as well as the more known allergic reactions.from the graphs above, it has been analysed and there are apparent patterns, anomalies…. Graph one displays that the natural antibiotics with the small bacterial colony did not successfully fight off the bacteria, as tea tree oil failed to produce an exclusion zone against the bacteria.

Discussion: Evaluate design The experiment that was conducted has confirmed that the hypothesis was correct that pharmaceutical antibiotics worked more efficiency than the natural antibiotics. Tea tree’s primary active ingredients include terpene hydrocarbons, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. It is these compounds that give tea tree its antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activity. There are actually over one hundred different chemical components of tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol are the most active and various ranges of concentrations.

The volatile hydrocarbons found in the oil are considered aromatic and capable of traveling through air, pores of the skin and mucus membranes. That’s why tea tree oil is commonly used aromatically and topically to kill germs, fight infections and soothe skin conditions. (Axe, 2018) Due to tea tree oil’s antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, it has potential to work as a natural remedy for acne and other inflammatory skin conditions, including eczema and psoriasis. Activity of tea tree oil due to its antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. This means, in theory, that tea tree oil can be used to fight a number of infections, from MRSA to athlete’s foot. Researchers are still evaluating these tea tree benefits, but they have been shown in some human studies, lab studies and anecdotal reports.


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