Background laws being implemented which bans the use

Background of the Study Pollution, in all of its forms, has been a problem to our environment. One of the causes of pollution is plastic. Plastic is a substance made from polymers that can be shaped into a variety of forms. It is commonly seen in our everyday lives. It can also be used to make different objects such as containers, ornaments, toys, and many more. As great as this substance is, there are also downsides to it. The reason that it contributes to pollution, is because of the time it takes to decompose.

Plastic requires  a long time to decompose back into the environment, taking about 450 to 1000 years. On this modern era, most plastic objects are thrown in landfills and then burned. The method itself of getting rid of plastics is also polluting the environment. Now, there are laws being implemented which bans the use of plastic altogether. Schools are teaching students to recycle plastics and many other objects. Supermarkets are also encouraging their customers to bring their own bags or settle on using paper bags. Even though all these are being done, people still can’t restrain themselves from using plastics. As modernization continues, the use of plastics also increases.

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This study focuses on determining the effectiveness of the bacteria known as Ideonella Sakaiensis in decomposing polyethylene plastic, specifically polyethylene plastic bags. The study will also be conducted here at Valenzuela City, where plastic is commonly used.   Statement of the ProblemThe study focuses on determining the effectiveness of Ideonella Sakaiensis in decomposing PETE plastic bags in order to help solve the problem of plastic disposal at Valenzuela City.

The study also aims to answer the following questions:1. Is  Ideonella Sakaiensis an effective bioremediating agent against PETE plastics in terms of ,1.1 The speed of decomposition1.2 Amount of plastic degradedHow long does it take for Ideonella Sakaiensis to decompose PETE plastics in terms of ,2.1 Size of the plastic2.

2 Texture of the plasticHow does Ideonella Sakaiensis aid in decomposing PETE plastic in speeding up the time of decomposition ? Hypotheses of the Study 1.Ha- The bacteria will degrade the plastic quickly and will be able to degrade a high amount of plastic.    Ho- The bacteria will degrade the plastic slowly and will only degrade a small amount of plastic. 2.Ha- The bacteria will take 4 weeks to affect the size and texture of the PETE plastic bag.    Ho- The bacteria will take more than 4 weeks to affect the size and texture of the PETE plastic bag. 3.

Ha- The bacteria will help in speeding up the decomposition process of the PETE plastic bag.   Ho- The bacteria will not help in speeding up the decomposition process of the PETE plastic bag. Significance of the Study This study aims to prove the effectiveness of Ideonella Sakaiensis as a decomposer of PETE plastics. This study can also provide information of another effective way of getting rid of plastics that doesn’t involve further pollution of our surroundings.

This study will also contribute in saving our environment. It also shows how this method can be used in areas with a lot of plastic, such as Valenzuela City. The study also has the potential to make an impact on the amount of waste in the environment, and make a better living condition for not only the people of Valenzuela City but also to people around the world.

 Scopes and DelimitationsThis study aims to identify the effectivity of Ideonella Sakaiensis as an effective decomposer of PETE plastics. The study will only look into the bacteria Ideonella Sakaiensis. The PETE plastic product to be observed is a PETE plastic bag. The PETE plastic bag will be left with the Ideonella Sakaiensis for 4 weeks, and will be observed by the end of each week. This study also aims to help the people of Valenzuela City, especially in areas that are greatly polluted by PETE plastics.  Definition of Key TermsBioremediation                     -a process that involves the usage of biological organisms                                                                                                                                  to break down pollutants in a polluted areaDecomposer                          -an organism that breaks down organic material.Polyethylene Terephthalate – a plastic resin that is capable of being turned into a variety                                                    of objects such as containers.

   Metabolize                             – to break down a substance to absorb and use itCHAPTER IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter has different articles and studies pertaining to Bioremedation,Ideonella Sakaiensis, and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastics. It also aimsto broaden the knowledge of the researchers on the topic. Related LiteratureBioremediationThis method has been used in many ways to fight pollution. Another example of bioremedation, is how it is used to clean waste water from factories.

The water can than be released back into the environment or reused after going through bioremediation. (Marchadesh,2012)To “remediate” is to solve a problem, which is usually a problem that concerns the environment, and to “bioremediate” is to solve it through the usage of biological organisms. An example of this is how people in Marinduque use the plant called “jatropha” as to reduce pollutants in places with a lot of metal such as an abandoned mine. (Andrei,2013)What makes this method special is that it is eco-friendly since it doesn’trequire the use of dangerous chemicals. It also cost effective than other ways of getting rid of waste such as incineration because it only uses bacteria.

(Garima,2014)    PET PlasticsValenzuela always has lived up to its name as the “Plastic City.” The city still hasn’t implemented a ban on plastic bags, but they do try to limit their use of it. It hasn’t been banned since many of the city’s citizens will lose jobs if it did happen, and that isn’t a good thing for the economy. (Lopez,2013)PET Plastic is the most commonly used material for packaging products such as water bottles in the Philippines. This material is very difficult to decontaminate, and repeated use of the same container made out of this material may cause sicknesses.

It is commonly incinerated, but people are greatly encouraged to recycle them. (Bolido,2017) PET Plastic is a very common plastic, commonly seen in the forms of water bottles, soda containers, or containers in general. These plastics are everywhere. It can be recycled to make objects such as shirts, bags, and many more.

However, not a lot of people do that; therefore, there is more waste, and a lot more of pollution. (Johnson,2014)Ideonella SakaiensisScientists in Japan have found what may be called the Holy Grail in the world’s battle in pollution. They have discovered a new bacterium that they named as Ideonella Sakaiensis. This bacteria “eats” PET plastics for food. (Singer,2016)I.Sakaiensis can metabolize terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol.

The Isolation of these two monomers will allow true recycling of these PET plastics, since there is less oil used, and it will be a better alternative to the common way of burning the plastics and turning them into new products.(Ohneck,2016)   How did the scientists get the bacteria anyway ? The scientists obtained the bacteria near plastic recycling plants in Sakai,Japan , hence the name. They also found out that out of all the other microbes that appeared to break down the PET plastic, this was the only one that could consume and metabolize it for growth.

(Anonymous,2017)If the scientists obtained the bacteria near a plastic recycling plant, then this might also be near the plastic recycling plants in Valenzuela. Luckily, there is one, namely,Reinhart Marketing. The company segregates,cleans,washes, and crushes said plastic waste into little pellets.

(Anonymous,2017) Related StudiesAs stated in the related literature, bioremediation is the removing of pollutants in an eco-friendly way. This study reviewed the application of this method on solid waste management such as plastics and metals. It also discussed bioremedation and its two classifications more. This study is an example of an In-situ bioremediation, since there is no need of excavating the surface and the researchers only aim to reduce the solid waste on top of it.

(Garima,2014)Bioremediation also doesn’t only tackle plastics, it also remediates other things such as metals. It is said that soil contaminated by metallic substances affect agro-ecosystems and human health consequently. In order to prevent this, bioremediation can be used on the soil to get rid off the metal, or the lessening of the use of fertilizer with metals in them.

This study shows one of the importances of bioremediation. Not only does it reduce waste, it also saves people from sickness. (Oves,2016)  Another study that refers to the removal of metals, is the removal of heavy metal in waste water using adsorbents. This is a study that focused on the remediation of waste water; however, without using micro-organisms and instead using adsorbents. (Tripathi et al.

, 2015)Polyethylene Terephthalate or PET plastics is a common material, withit’s buildup gradually becoming a problem to Earth’s environment. A group of scientists from Japan discovered a bacteria called Ideonella Sakaiensis, a bacteria that eats PET plastics in about 6 weeks. Although, much research needs to be done in order for this bacteria to be released in various communities and industries. This was the study that this research is based on.

(Yoshida et al., 2016)Ideonella Sakaiensis isn’t the only micro-organism that could reduce plastics.There are also other micro-organism such as Aspergillus Vergiscolor that could reduce plastics , specifically the Low Density Polyethylene plastics. This study gave more information on the plastics and the micro-organisms that could be used to reduce them. (Kapagunta,2017)As stated in the review of literature, Jatropha plants were used to bring backgreen cover or to basically test if the plant can thrive in an abandoned mine.The Jatropha plant could survive in a lot of places even in the desert, but no study gave a record that it cold thrive in an abandoned mine. The study concluded with the Jatropha plant being able to survive as long as there are some quite specific soil conditions. (Aggangan,et al.

,2017)Pleurotus Ostreatus is a fungi that is used for the bioremediation of some pollutants. The study tested if it will have any effect on GP or Green Polyethylene.It concluded with the fungi decreasing the half-life of the Green Polyethylene and degrading it altogether.(da Luz, et al, 2015)Another study utilized the use of the same fungi mentioned above, the Pleurotus Ostreatus, but instead of testing it with green polyethylene, the researchers tested it with plastics in general.

It made use of the mycelia of the mushroom to degrade the plastics.(Ciego,et al., 2017) Analysis of the Related Literature and the Related StudiesPolyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastics or plastics in general are a problem to the world.

They take too long to decompose, and they are polluting the environment. Ideoenella Sakaiensis is a bacteria that could reduce the amount of plastics by “eating” it. The main purpose of this study is to find a way to utilize this bacteria in Valenzuela City.   

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