Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors (American Psychological Association, 2013). The range of functioning and symptom severity accounts for the heterogeneous presentation of ASD.
The impairments in language and reciprocal social communication have a profound influence on children’s social development into adulthood (Howlin, 1997). Autism is diagnosed on the basis of different primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities (American Psychological Association, 1994). Research on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype. In this context, communication refers to the full range of both verbal, linguistic and non-verbal including gesture and tone for interacting with others. In contrast, repetitive behaviors and interests are also found among individuals with other neurodevelopmental disorders (Bailey, Phillips, ; Rutter, 1996). Autism spectrum disorders can’t be distinguished or analyzed by biological testing. In this way, behavioral perception and identification of mentally unbalanced indications and assessments are the main existing technique for conclusion.
According to research the diagnosis of ASD can be made as soon as fourteen months (Kleinman et al., 2008). However, around the age of three to five years, children secure the capacity to assemble their theoretical information of aim and false principle, two of the focal ideas to comprehension of the mind (Chandler & Hala, 1994). In the recent decades, numerous theories have attempted to account for the autistic symptomology and different psychological models of autism have been produced to examine early onset of social delays (Volkmar et al., 2004). There are three cognitive psychological theoretical models of autism: Theory of Mind (Baron-Cohen, 1995), Executive Dysfunction Theory (Hughes, Russell, & Robbins, 1994), and Weak Central Coherence Theory (Happé & Frith, 2006).
These theories depend on the discoveries that children with ASD perform diversely contrasted with coordinated gatherings of non-autistic individuals on particular assignments. For instance, theory of the mind will use false belief and understanding assignment, which suggest that the social and communicative impairments reflect fundamental difficulties in understanding other people as mental beings (Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985), executive dysfunction method may utilize sorting assignments, and suggests that the complex behavioral manifestations of ASD are consequences of impaired executive processes. (Ozonoff, Pennington, & Rogers, 1991), and weak central coherence have used figures to represent the assignment, for instance individuals on the spectrum tend to excel at focusing on extreme detail, and so are able to pick out a tiny element from a mass of complex data or objects.
The notion of weak central coherence could explain both deficits and strengths (Happé & Frith, 2006).The development of these theories, theory of mind and executive dysfunction theory is presented with emphasis on the research that explores the relationship between language, communication and social impairment in children with autism.