Autism of behaviors to a lesser or

Autism firstidentified by Kanner in 1943, knowledge and understanding of autism has grownand it is now recognized as a lifelong, neurodevelopment disorder that impairsa child’s ability to communicate, interact or related to others and the worldaround them (Batten,2005; Willis,2006). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as weknow is disorder of neurodevelopmental characterized by significant social,communication, and behavioral deficits (Dr. Dilip Jeste 2013). The corecharacteristics found in a child with ASD include difficulties in socialcommunication, language and related cognitive skills, and behavior, as well asemotional regulation (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) Autism isn’tsomething a person has or a ‘shell’ that a person is trapped inside. It is pervasive;it colors every experience, every sensation, perception, thought, emotion, andencounter, every aspect of existence.

To separate the autism from the person, itis possible (The Public Health Institute for Scotland,2001). Description ofautism makes it clear that not only is autism an intrinsic part of theindividual, it also makes them the person that they are. ASD child’simpairments are noticeable from year of 2 years old and will progressthroughout the child’s development (American Psychiatric Association,2000).Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the ‘term’ given to a range of disorders.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Thedisorders vary from mild (Asperger’s syndrome (AS)) to severe (Rett’ssyndrome), where the child may develop very limited or no language and find it reallydifficult to communicate with others. In addition, ‘spectrum disorder’,although there is a range of impairments and behaviors of autism child, thereis no conclusive list as it affects everyone differently (The ScottishGovernment, 2011). Each child is unique and present a variety of behaviors to alesser or greater degree, ranging from mild to severe (de Boer, 2009; Wall2010).  Today, geneticresearch is delving into the biological causes of autism-associated healthconditions. The significant number of children having difficulties is a well- documentedphenomenon worldwide, and Malaysia is no exception to this trend, where thenumber of children enrolled in special needs programs has increased from 2006till 2013 (Joanna Menon Lim, July 2015).  This is part of a new avenue of autismresearch aimed at identifying the many biological subtypes of autism anddeveloping personalized supports and also treatments. Meanwhile, specialists atleading autism care centers are working with patients and their families toimprove the health and quality of life of all those with autism by developing andtreatment guidelines for healthcare providers. (Perrin 2012, Warfield 2016).

This effort also includes autism-specific medical education andteleconferencing programs to share expertise. (Vasa RA, Mazurek MO, Mahajan R2016). Also for social communication deficits of a child with ASD which may havelimitation in social experience, contributing to impaired development andlearning, and challenging behaviors. Thus, children with ASD require a clearand effective mode of communication. (Beukelman DR, Mirenda P. Augmentative1998). First outlined by Wing and Gould in 1979, ‘the triad ofimpairments’ has made a significant contribution to a greater understanding ofautism and has also proved influential as a diagnostic tool (Woodward&Hogenboom, 2000).

It identifies three core deficits as the defining features ofall Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): social interaction, social communication,and social imagination. Crucially, elements of all three features must bepresent for a diagnosis to be made (Wall,2010). However, the triad ofimpairments fails to provide the full picture. As it focuses only on thedeficits associated the condition, it does not acknowledge the particularstrengths individuals with autism have such as honesty, focus, analyticalthinking skills and, because they perceive things differently, originalthinking (Winter and Lawrence,2011). This can be particularly challenging, aschildren with autism may not only prefer to work individually on tasks but mayalso lack some of the skills necessary for working effectively in groups, suchas the ability to negotiate and to perceive others’ points of views (Plimley& Bowen, 2006). Problem behaviors (or maladaptive behaviors as they arereferred to in    this paper),characterized by disruptive, destructive, aggressive, or significantlyrepetitive behaviors, are prevalent in young children with ASD (Dominick KC,2007).

For example, Dominick found that 32.7% of children with ASD displayedaggressive behaviors including hitting, kicking, biting and pinching others.More than three-quarters of these children showed aggressive behaviors both athome and outside the home, and aggression was directed toward more than one personin 92% of cases. Self-injurious behavior, including head banging, hittingoneself, and biting oneself, was present in almost one-third of children withASD.

Furthermore, 70.9% of children with ASD had experienced a period of severetemper tantrums and, for 60% of these children, tantrums occurred on a dailybasis and were a constant (rather than episodic) problem during the period inwhich they were present (Dominick KC, 2007). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)children may lack a desire to interact with others, the language to do this or maynot understand the reciprocal nature of interactions and the ‘rules’ governingsocial situations (Pierangelo & Giuliani,2008). All of these deficits makesocial situations challenging and forming friendships difficult (The ScottishGovernment,2009). Most scientists agreethat genes are one of the risk factors that can make a person more likely todevelop ASD. (Huquet G, Ey E, Bourgeron T.2013).

The exact causes of autism arenot yet known, but there are many theories and ideas around. In general, thereseem to be genetic and biological factors involved (Victoria Honeybourne,2016). Some ASD diagnosed children have exceptional abilities in math, arts,visual skills, and music. Children with autism can have a profound problemdealing with the social world. They rarely interact with other people for theyare suffering from aloneness (Davidson, Hopkins, Kring & Neale, 2010).

Theytend to ignore people around them and focus on one thing that attracts theirattention. ASD patients experienced difficulty in sleeping and repeatedawakening at night (Lamm, 2015). This phenomenon causes the children to sleepduring the daytime that affects their relationship within the family. Becauseof ASD    child impairments,parents also face a range of challenges in dealing with them.

Their hardly to understandand problem with interpreting language and, in particular, metaphorical speechcan lead to a lot of questions, where inference is required (Pittman,2007;Plimley & Bowen,2006). ASD child often experiences organizational too, bothwhen attending to their own needs, e.g. getting ready for school, interval orlunch, and when selecting the resources and materials they require for tasks. Most parents ofautistic children first begin to be concerned about their child’s developmentbecause of early delays or regressions in the development of speech. Effectiveinterventions for ASD in early childhood are needed; to reduce impairmentduring the preschool period itself and for the family, which is a strategy thatmay alter the disorders longer-term. There’s a possible emotional and socialimpact for ASD child which they have difficulties following social rules and tomake friends.

Social communication deficits of a child with ASD may create alimitation in social experience. Frequent negative feedback for acting out andnot paying attention can impact self-esteem and motivation. Parents’ positiveand negative feelings about their young children influence both parentingbehavior and child problem behave or (E.Kurtz-Nelson, L.L.Mclntyre, 2017) There’smany individuals diagnosed with ASD as children continue to experience thedisorder as adults (Cardwell,2013). Parenting programs include psychosocialinterventions which teaching the techniques to the parents in how they can useto manage their child’s challenging behavior.

Parent-focused education onmanaging symptoms for a child with ADHD has been shown to improve quality oflife for both parents and child. Entry into an elementary school or high schoolis a critical transition for children and families. This transition durationwill reflect different stages of the family life cycle and are associated withdifferent parenting tasks and challenges (Kumabe, Nishida, O’Hara, , 1977; Walsh, 2003). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is developmentalcoordination disorder (DCD) and primarily considered a motor disorder, multiplestudies have identified psychological and social concerns in children with thiscondition. Because developmental coordination disorder (DCD) can have   profound effects on anumber of aspects of children’s lives, there is a good reason to suspect thatthe condition will also affect their parent’s quality of life (QOL). Severalstudies have established that parents of children with autism facing very high levelsof stress and also the parents of children with other chronic diseases orintellectual disorders. The stress is higher mostly with mothers rather thanfathers, and as reported the mothers more anxiety or more depression. Recentlythe distress of the parents with PDDs including Asperger’s disorder arereceiving more attention.

Several studies has shown these parents are havinghigh distress (Yamada,2007).   


I'm Mary!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out