is adata transmission method using

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is adata transmission method using fixed-size cells designed to support multimediadata communications, while prioritizing quality of service (Qos) onhigh-traffic networks.  ATM uses zerorouting, which means that instead of using software, dedicated hardware devicesknown as ATM switches establish point-to-point connections between endpointsand data flows directly from source to destination (Mitchell, 2017).

  ATM services generally offer four differentbit rate choices; available bit rate, constant bit rate, unspecified bit rate,and variable bit rate.  Available bitrate provides a guaranteed minimum data transfer rate, but allows devices, likea router, to take advantage of extra bandwidth and increase transmission rateswhen available.  Constant bit rateprovides a fixed amount of bandwidth that is available continuously for theduration of the active connection.

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 Unspecifiedbit rate does not provide a minimum or maximum bit rate, and is often used fornon-real-time applications that can tolerate delays.  Variable bit rate distributes data ratesbased on the time required and complexity of the data being transmitted.            Advantagesof using ATM include: reliable data transfer capabilities for voice, data andvideo; compatibility with LAN, MAN and WAN networks; and priority allocationbetween real-time and non-real-time data transmissions.  On the other hand, some disadvantages are:unpredictable response times; affordability when compared to other competingservices; an error control can be more complex.

            Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)is considered one of the most popular and most versatile packet switchingprotocol developed due to its ability to carry several different kinds ofnetwork traffic.  Specifically, MPLSservices are designed to speed up the IP packet-forwarding process whileretaining the types of traffic management and connection-oriented QoS mechanismsfound in ATM networks (Stallings & Case, 2013).  An MPLS network contains a 

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