Assignment vowel. Long vowels are marked and short

 

Assignment 1: LING 1002H

Henna Safdar

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0601141

Friday, January, 19, 2018

Professor Martin Blaine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

a) Afrikaans
(South Africa)

Tendencies:
i, a, u, are included in the major vowels, these 3 are most common. a being
the most common, 9 which the normal tends to be 3-9.

Universals:
All languages contain vowels.

y is a front,
rounded, short vowel.

i is a back,
rounded, high vowel. i is almost the most commonly occurring vowel.

u is a back,
rounded, high vowel. u is almost the most commonly occurring vowel.

o is a back,
rounded, mid vowel.

ø is a front,
rounded vowel.

? is a central, unrounded, short vowel.

a
is a front, unrounded, short vowel. a is the most commonly occurring vowel.

 

b) Squamish
(British Colombia)

Tendencies
i, a, u, are included in the major vowels, all being very distinct. Between
3 and 9 vowels.

Universals:
All languages contain vowels.

i is a close,
front, high, unrounded vowel. i is almost the most commonly occurring vowel.

u is a back,
rounded, high vowel. u is almost the most commonly occurring vowel.

? is a high, central, unrounded, short
vowel.

a
is a low, front, unrounded open vowel. a is the most commonly occurring vowel.

 

2.

a) Maltese
Arabic

Languages
with long vowels, also have short vowel. Long vowels are marked and short
vowels are unmarked.

 

b) Awji
(North New Guinea)

If a
language has contrastive nasal vowels, it has oral vowels.

Nasal
vowels are marked. Oral vowels are unmarked

Languages
with nasal vowels also have oral vowels, but the same does not apply vice versa.

Nasal vowels are marked and oral vowels are unmarked.

If a
language has contrastive nasal vowels, it has oral vowels.

Nasal
vowels are marked. Oral vowels are unmarked

If a
language has contrastive nasal vowels, it has oral vowels.

Nasal
vowels are marked. Oral vowels are unmarked

 

3.

a) Tahitian
(Tahiti)

p, t, ?
are all stop consonants.

m, n
are nasal consonants.

f, h
are voiceless fricative consonants.

v is a
voiced fricative consonant.

r is a
fluid consonant.

 

b) Paulauan
(Palau Islands)

b, t,
k, ? are all stop consonants.

m, ?
are nasal consonants.

s, õ are
fricative consonants.

r is a fluid
consonant.

l is a
lateral consonant.

 

c) Nengone (Loyalty
Islands, South Pacific,) –Stop and nasal systems only

m, n, ?, ?,
are all nasal consonants.

??, m?, n? are voiceless nasal consonants.

p?, t?, k? are voiceless
stops, with aspirated p, t, k.

?, d, b,
g are stop consonants.

?h retroflex, voiceless
stop, with aspirated t.

? retroflex stop.

 

d) Mixe (South
Mexico)

p, t,
k, ?, are voiceless stop consonants.

t? is a voiceless
affricative.

d, g are voiced stop
constanants.

ts is a affricate consonant.

s, h are fricatives.

x is a voiceless velar
fricative.

v is a voiced
fricative.

? is a voiced velar
fricative.

m, n are all nasal
consonants.

 

4. morphological
characteristics

 

a) Swahili
is Polysynthetic. A whole sentence can be said in one word.

b) Latvian
is Fusional. In Latvian, by observing the suffixes, they encode multiple meanings
at once.

c) Japanese
is Agglutinating. In Japanese, morphemes are in a single word. Morphemes are in
pieces and seem to be one meaning per morpheme.

 

5. Morphological analysis of Latvian

a) lidot?js ‘aviator aviator (nominative) “person of fly”

b) lidot?ju ‘aviator (accusative)’

c) lidot?jam ‘to the aviator aviator (dative)

d) lidot ‘to fly’

e) rakst?t?js ‘writer (nominative) “person of write)

f) rakst?t?ja ‘writer’s (genitive)’

g) rakst?t ‘to write’

 

lidot ‘to fly’

-a¯j- ‘-or’ nominalizer ‘agent of …’

-s/u/am/a (Nom, Acc, Dat, Gen)

raksti¯t ‘to write’

 Latvian has
inflectional suffixes (e.g., -am), the universal predicts that Latvian

 should also have
derivational suffixes, and it does (e.g., a¯j).

• Where there are both derivational and inflectional
suffixes in the same word

(e.g., lidota¯jam), the derivational suffix is “inside”
(closer to the root).

The dative example (lidota¯jam ‘to the aviator’) involves a
preposition if

translated into English, but it actually involves a case
marker (not a postposition) in

Latvian. Many languages have dative case marking as well as
nominative and accusative

marking.

The morphemes: lidot ‘fly’ a?j ‘-er’ s ‘nominative case’
raksti?t ‘write’ u ‘accusative case’ am ‘dative case’ a ‘genitive case’ The
data reflects the implicational universal that requires that if a language has
inflectional affixes(here, case markers), it must also have derivational
affixes(here the affix a?j, which converts a V into a N). Moreover, the
derivational affix occurs closer to the rootthan does the inflectional affix
(another universal).

 

 

6.

a) to the
restaurant. The word order here is VO, verb object. VO has propositions. Malagasy
complies.

b) brings
the beer the waiter. The word order here is VOS, verb object subject. VOS has
propositions. Malagasy complies.

c) come
from America he. The word order here is VSO, verb subject object.

 

Word order
is VOS, has prepositions. The tendency is that VO languages have

prepositions;
Malagasy complies.

We can’t
really say anything about the other universals because we lack the data. One

universal
starts “If a language has OV word order, …” which doesn’t apply to (or perhaps

is
vacuously satisfied by) Malagasy. One talks about the order of PP’s and the
verb, but

we don’t
have a sentence with both a verb and a PP. One talks about the order of manner

adverbs (we
don’t have examples of any), and the last takes about possessors (again, we

have no
examples of any).

 

 

 

Assignment 1: LING 1002H

Henna Safdar

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

0601141

Friday, January, 19, 2018

Professor Martin Blaine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

a) Afrikaans
(South Africa)

Tendencies:
i, a, u, are included in the major vowels, these 3 are most common. a being
the most common, 9 which the normal tends to be 3-9.

Universals:
All languages contain vowels.

y is a front,
rounded, short vowel.

i is a back,
rounded, high vowel. i is almost the most commonly occurring vowel.

u is a back,
rounded, high vowel. u is almost the most commonly occurring vowel.

o is a back,
rounded, mid vowel.

ø is a front,
rounded vowel.

? is a central, unrounded, short vowel.

a
is a front, unrounded, short vowel. a is the most commonly occurring vowel.

 

b) Squamish
(British Colombia)

Tendencies
i, a, u, are included in the major vowels, all being very distinct. Between
3 and 9 vowels.

Universals:
All languages contain vowels.

i is a close,
front, high, unrounded vowel. i is almost the most commonly occurring vowel.

u is a back,
rounded, high vowel. u is almost the most commonly occurring vowel.

? is a high, central, unrounded, short
vowel.

a
is a low, front, unrounded open vowel. a is the most commonly occurring vowel.

 

2.

a) Maltese
Arabic

Languages
with long vowels, also have short vowel. Long vowels are marked and short
vowels are unmarked.

 

b) Awji
(North New Guinea)

If a
language has contrastive nasal vowels, it has oral vowels.

Nasal
vowels are marked. Oral vowels are unmarked

Languages
with nasal vowels also have oral vowels, but the same does not apply vice versa.

Nasal vowels are marked and oral vowels are unmarked.

If a
language has contrastive nasal vowels, it has oral vowels.

Nasal
vowels are marked. Oral vowels are unmarked

If a
language has contrastive nasal vowels, it has oral vowels.

Nasal
vowels are marked. Oral vowels are unmarked

 

3.

a) Tahitian
(Tahiti)

p, t, ?
are all stop consonants.

m, n
are nasal consonants.

f, h
are voiceless fricative consonants.

v is a
voiced fricative consonant.

r is a
fluid consonant.

 

b) Paulauan
(Palau Islands)

b, t,
k, ? are all stop consonants.

m, ?
are nasal consonants.

s, õ are
fricative consonants.

r is a fluid
consonant.

l is a
lateral consonant.

 

c) Nengone (Loyalty
Islands, South Pacific,) –Stop and nasal systems only

m, n, ?, ?,
are all nasal consonants.

??, m?, n? are voiceless nasal consonants.

p?, t?, k? are voiceless
stops, with aspirated p, t, k.

?, d, b,
g are stop consonants.

?h retroflex, voiceless
stop, with aspirated t.

? retroflex stop.

 

d) Mixe (South
Mexico)

p, t,
k, ?, are voiceless stop consonants.

t? is a voiceless
affricative.

d, g are voiced stop
constanants.

ts is a affricate consonant.

s, h are fricatives.

x is a voiceless velar
fricative.

v is a voiced
fricative.

? is a voiced velar
fricative.

m, n are all nasal
consonants.

 

4. morphological
characteristics

 

a) Swahili
is Polysynthetic. A whole sentence can be said in one word.

b) Latvian
is Fusional. In Latvian, by observing the suffixes, they encode multiple meanings
at once.

c) Japanese
is Agglutinating. In Japanese, morphemes are in a single word. Morphemes are in
pieces and seem to be one meaning per morpheme.

 

5. Morphological analysis of Latvian

a) lidot?js ‘aviator aviator (nominative) “person of fly”

b) lidot?ju ‘aviator (accusative)’

c) lidot?jam ‘to the aviator aviator (dative)

d) lidot ‘to fly’

e) rakst?t?js ‘writer (nominative) “person of write)

f) rakst?t?ja ‘writer’s (genitive)’

g) rakst?t ‘to write’

 

lidot ‘to fly’

-a¯j- ‘-or’ nominalizer ‘agent of …’

-s/u/am/a (Nom, Acc, Dat, Gen)

raksti¯t ‘to write’

 Latvian has
inflectional suffixes (e.g., -am), the universal predicts that Latvian

 should also have
derivational suffixes, and it does (e.g., a¯j).

• Where there are both derivational and inflectional
suffixes in the same word

(e.g., lidota¯jam), the derivational suffix is “inside”
(closer to the root).

The dative example (lidota¯jam ‘to the aviator’) involves a
preposition if

translated into English, but it actually involves a case
marker (not a postposition) in

Latvian. Many languages have dative case marking as well as
nominative and accusative

marking.

The morphemes: lidot ‘fly’ a?j ‘-er’ s ‘nominative case’
raksti?t ‘write’ u ‘accusative case’ am ‘dative case’ a ‘genitive case’ The
data reflects the implicational universal that requires that if a language has
inflectional affixes(here, case markers), it must also have derivational
affixes(here the affix a?j, which converts a V into a N). Moreover, the
derivational affix occurs closer to the rootthan does the inflectional affix
(another universal).

 

 

6.

a) to the
restaurant. The word order here is VO, verb object. VO has propositions. Malagasy
complies.

b) brings
the beer the waiter. The word order here is VOS, verb object subject. VOS has
propositions. Malagasy complies.

c) come
from America he. The word order here is VSO, verb subject object.

 

Word order
is VOS, has prepositions. The tendency is that VO languages have

prepositions;
Malagasy complies.

We can’t
really say anything about the other universals because we lack the data. One

universal
starts “If a language has OV word order, …” which doesn’t apply to (or perhaps

is
vacuously satisfied by) Malagasy. One talks about the order of PP’s and the
verb, but

we don’t
have a sentence with both a verb and a PP. One talks about the order of manner

adverbs (we
don’t have examples of any), and the last takes about possessors (again, we

have no
examples of any).

 

 

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