ASSIGNMENT 03 MCM 515 Answer of Q1.Radio news writing is one of the most import part of radio broadcasting. Radio news had a great impact on the mindset of masses if written with care fulfilling all essential rules and fundamentals of news writing. Fundamentals of news writing can de described as set of basic rules which are considered necessary for radio news writing by experts.
To write news for radio is a work of utmost responsibility.Fundamentals of radio news writing are following.1. News only for one time broadcast:The writer must kept in mind that the listener can hear this news one time only and will not have any spare time again in the day to get updated about the news, so news should be written keeping in mind that all the facts figures and details of the news must be told to the audience2. Language:It is an implied fact that language of the radio news must be simple, easy to understand and must be like conversation of normal people in regular life.3. Evade use of Expressions: It is far better to avoid use of expression in radio news writing as expressions can easily create confusion in the mind of listeners for example”Pakistan” said the US president ” is behind the Afghan Taliban and Haqqani Network”.
But for Radio it must be like this,US President said ” Pakistan is behind the Afghan Taliban and Haqqani network”.4. Elude use of Literary expression:Literary terms and expressions are considered as deviating and very different from Journalistic language, literary expressions own a separate style and had a unique tone which can be harmful for the news specially for radio news so it is better to avoid use of literary expression while writing radio news. For example,Ultimate killers are the weapons of mass destruction.But for radio news it should be,Weapons of mass destruction are ultimate killers.
5. Use of inverted sentences is forbidden:Inverted sentences can easily be understood by any listeners and are considered unnecessary and waste of time for example,Football match, which was held Yesterday, Youth club has won that.But for radio news it should be,Yesterday youth club has won the football.
6. Stave off parenthesis:Unnecessarily defining or explaining of anything or anyone must he staved off.for example, A man, basically a patient of heart has died in the ambulance.
For radio news it must be, A heart patient has died last night in ambulance.7. Put off jargons:Terminologies which are being used by experts of some field or we can that technical language of specialist must be avoided. Radio news are listened by everyone not only the specialist of any field so adequate terms easily understandable by general public should be used. for example, use Heart attack instead of cardiac arrest.
8. Use accustomed and frequently used words:For radio news writing it is necessary to use such words with which general public or audience are familiar. Don’t use difficult words and prefer to use native, informal and easily understood words. For example instead of abnegation, use denial or rejection and for alacrity use eagerness.9. Contractive words :While newscaster reads news and are broadcasted on radio, the listener or audience must feel like the reader is talking directly to him/her as a routine conversation in an informal style, and words we often use contracted must be used in the same manner and news writer will write in the same manner for the ease of newscaster.
Following are some examplesIs not= isn’tWere not= weren’t10. Abbreviations:While writing radio news ,it is better to avoid use of abbreviation especially for major nouns like name of Country, Province, Organization, and military ranks etc. For example write Colonel instead of Col. , write Inter service Intelligence instead of ISI, write Attock instead of ATK etc.
When use of abbreviations is compulsory, it is better to write with hyphens, e.g. C-I-A , F-B-I , N-B-C etc.Use of symbols is strictly prohibited while news writing e.g.
& for and, # for number etc.11. Capitalization:Capitalization of all nouns, important things must be done.12. Evade Quotations:While writing news for radio it is obligatory to keep in mind that this written script will be read out by a news caster while use of commas, brackets is for written text for understanding of reader that it is a quotation said by xyz but for newscaster who has to read out news and audience will hear that and newscaster cannot read all symbols and punctuations so better to avoid that will cause a breakage in the vocal reading of news.For example, Quaid-e-Azam said “There is no one on earth who can undo Pakistan”.
If newscaster reads it will be: Quaid-e-Azam said commas there is no one on earth who can undo Pakistan commas dot.For radio it will be: Quaid-e-Azam said There is no one on earth who can undo Pakistan13. Elude punctuations:It is important to know that punctuations are not used in news writing as they had certain meanings e.g. comma means pause and dot means stop while in radio news writing where a comma is required a single / is used while double // is used instead of dot.
14. Numbers and figures:Numbers, or amount should be written in figures e.g.
50,000 as Fifty thousand12, 50,000 as twelve lac fifty thousandComplex numbers are written in round figures e.g.52,575 as around 53000.15. Gender difference:Better to avoid gender difference as it can cause negative impact on minds of listeners e.g. A female soldier of Kurdish army was fighting against ISISWrite A Kurdish soldier was fighting against ISIS. News story :Fashion trends are always in evolution and by now it has merged as an industry//above all women fashion which includes jewelry/cosmetics/dress and shoes and as for men trends are also changing day by day and the source for inspiration comes from Bollywood and Pakistani drama industry and fashion designers and industrialists are investing in the showbiz as well as on the stars//to live up for fashion is waste of time but living up with fashion is life.
Answer of Q no 2Production of a discussion program is a work of great responsibility and requires a lot of efforts and time. For producing a discussion program the first essential is the selection of the topic. Topic must be chosen wisely as per the current situation of country, society or any social issue and the topic should be of the general public’s Interest. Topic of the discussion is mostly selected by senior authorities or is chosen by the producer. After the selection of the topic, sufficient knowledge must be collected from various sources including newspapers, books and internet. All aspects of the topic must be known and there should be sufficient knowledge gathered about all of them by the producer e.g.
about economy of Pakistan producer must have gathered knowledge about imports, exports, stock exchange, income tax collection, revenues, loans, credits, debits, expenses etc. As daily there are new issues rising and need a lot of discussion for public awareness. So when a topic is chosen, its all aspects should be brought into discussion and there must a summary and result of the discussion.Another responsibility on the shoulders of producer is to select suitable anchor person either one or two as per the requirement. Anchor person must b e confident, professional, should have clear voice, grip over language and good pronunciation of words. After his/her selection anchor person must be updated of the topic and should himself have sufficient knowledge of the topic. Script of the program and plan of discussion must be known to the anchor person.
Next comes the selection of participants. Participants should be between 2 to 4 and the must have good communication skills, knowledge of the topic and it will be best if they are the experts of the field, and they must have good reputation and known to the public or audience.The discussion must be delivering good knowledge to the audience and there should be a result of the discussion. The program must have a positive impact on the mind of audience and society.Part B:On Radio Pakistan, News and current affairs program “Perspective” is broadcasted, which in my opinion follows the essentials of discussion programs.• Title : Perspective• Host :Waqas Salim, • Co-host : Ghina Maher• Analysts (mostly): Brig.
( r ) Haris Nawaz (defense analyst), Dr. Pervez Iqbal cheema, Prof. Humayun Iqbal Shami• In charge : Asad bukhari , Imran Latif• Broadcasted simultaneously from Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Quetta.______________________________________________________________________________