As first understand what exactly the iris

 As society grows and starts to become moretechnologically advanced, more techniques of solving crime with advanced technologyare discovered and soon after put into practice. Not only can we solve crimewith fingerprints and behavioral characteristics such as gait, voice, signatureand odor, but we can also solve crime with the use of iris recognition. There are both disadvantages and advantages to using irisrecognition, but before getting into these, one must first understand whatexactly the iris recognition is. Iris recognition is a biometric identificationmethod of identifying individuals based on their iris patterns. It has slowlybeen emerging since 1994 into biometric technology as an alternate means to dothe same job as fingerprinting.

Throughout this paper, I will go into quitea bit of detail on exactly what the iris recognition system is, while explainingthe development of the iris and what exactly the iris’s functions are for theeye. Throughout this paper I will also answer the following list of questions:are there any changes to the iris between birth and adulthood or even afterdeath, how does the iris recognition system operate and what countries, if any,are currently exercising the use of the iris recognition system, is the iris recognition system reliable and do contactsand glasses cause an error in the system in any way, can iris recognitionbe applied to an iris after death, and finally, what are the advantages anddisadvantages to using the iris recognition system. First,one may be wondering what the function of the iris is in the eye.

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The iris is the purely visible colored ring-shapedmembrane behind the cornea made wholly of pigments, connective tissues and smoothmuscle fibers. The iris begins to form in the third month of development inthe womb. The pigments of the iris are made up of melanin, the same pigmentthat gives skin its color; and thus, the same pigment that gives the eye itscolor. Ultimately, the amount of pigment in the iris is what determines thecolor of the eye. The more pigment quantity, the darker the eye and vice versa.If there is no pigment in the eye what-so-ever, there will also be no color inthe eye; if this is the case then they would be classified as the pink eyes ofalbinisms. Very little pigment in the eye gives the eye a blue color and thenin increasing amounts of pigment in the eye gives one eye colors in thefollowing order: green, hazel, and finally brown. Anotherfunction that the iris does is it controls the quantity of light that reachesthe retina.

The iris has an adjustable round opening in the center that iscalled a pupil and the iris is responsible for controlling the diameter andsize of that pupil. The pupil and iris work as one to normalize the amount oflight that go in the eye. The amount of light allowed into the eye is importantbecause too much or not enough light in the eye can muddle with the individualsvision. In order to regulate the amount of light entering the eye, the irismoves to capsize the pupil if there is too much light entering the eye or itmoves to enlarge the pupil if there is not enough light entering the eye. Thisfunction is involuntarily controlled by the brain which explains why the irisis inimitable in every individual. Not one human will have an alike iris fromone person to the next no matter what the case.

This is still true even withidentical twins. The iris’s build up provides unique texture material differentfor each eye even among the eyes of the same person. One may be thinking, wellI wear contacts, or I wear glasses, do these effect the iris recognitionsystem? Not all contacts and glasses effect the iris recognition imagerysystem, but certain kinds of contacts and glasses can obscure the iris pattern.

Usually soft contact lenses are not likely to causeproblems, but colored contact lenses and glasses might create a glare orsomewhat barricade the iris. If the glare is large enough, identification ofthe iris may not be possible, so it is more common for glasses to be removedbefore the capture of the iris is possible. This is the best way to ensure ahigh-equality image will be taken.

Quite a bit of material has been coveredin this paragraph, so to tie this all together, notwo irises are alike. Not even with identical twins, or for the right and lefteye of an individual.  The amount ofinformation that can be collected in a single iris is much greater than thedata gathered from fingerprints, and the encountered recognition accuratenessof an iris is greater than that for deoxyribonucleic acid methods. Irisrecognition is a powerful tool that, if used the right way, can be used to findany criminal. Next,one may be wondering how the iris recognition system even works. Just likefacial characteristics, voice and fingerprints are used to identify a humanbeing; irises are too used to recognize a person. Irises are just as distinctand maybe even more distinct than fingerprints.

Like the above statement in theprevious paragraph said, the amount of information gathered from an iris ismuch greater than the information gathered from fingerprints and deoxyribonucleicacid methods. So, one might be wondering how might a human be identified byusing just the iris. First, realize that iris recognition does not require any interactionbetween the individual and the capturing device, and imaging can be done at distancesof a little over a meter or less. Some cameras have even been confirmed takingimages at distances of about three meters and of individuals walking at a speedof one meter per second.  Iris recognition typically requires the four steps thatfollow: segmentation, normalization, feature extraction and recognition.All four steps play a major vital portion in iris recognition, and if one stepis skipped, iris recognition could go wrong.

The first step to iris recognitionis segmentation. In the first step the iris region in an eye image is localized(the boundaries of the iris are set). The edges of the iris are distinguishedand separated from the eye image to create a “map” of the eye. The second stepof iris recognition is normalization. In thissecond step, the iris regions that were distinguished in step one aretransformed through a whole lot of difficult math and math calculations so thatthey have actual fixed dimensions. This permits comparison. Dimensional discrepanciesamong eye images are usually because of the elongating of the iris caused bypupil dilation from various levels of brightness.

It may also occur because ofdifferent imaging detachments, spinning of the camera, head tilting, and spinningof the eye within the eye socket. The normalization process will yield irisregions which have the similar constant dimensions, so that binary photographsof the identical iris under different conditions will have characteristicfeatures at the same three-dimensional location.  Next for iris recognition, one has featureextraction. In this step, information that can be used to is extractedinformation that can be used to distinguish different subjects with thecreation of a template that represents the most discriminated features of theiris (typically it uses texture information) Finally, the last step of irisrecognition is matching. In this step, the two iris representations are studiesand evaluated and eventually one of them is eliminated.

To summarize how theiris recognition system works, first one needs to remember that in order forthe iris recognition system to work, interaction does not have to occur.Remember that the four steps to the system are segmentation, normalization,feature extraction and matching. The steps occur in the order listed and if onestep is skipped, a glitch in the iris recognition system may occur. Thirdly,and most importantly, is the iris recognition system even reliable? Does itreduce the amount of fraud or does it help keep crime numbers down or does ithelp catch criminals and if any countries are currently even using it. Irisrecognition has limited forensic value because iris patterns are not leftbehind at the scene unless the eyeball is left at the scene and even then, theiris is not able to be used because a “dead” iris is not able to be ran throughthe iris recognition pattern. Another reason limited forensic value comes fromiris recognition is because the availability of iris databases is small. Today,very few countries use iris recognition. Only a few million digitized samplesof iris patterns exist today, and thus iris data has no legal or establishedforensic status as admissible evidence in court.

Iris recognition is widelyused in the United Arab Emirates. Every day there are seven billion iriscomparisons performed in a security deployment. This covers all twenty-seven airports,border crossings, and seaports of entry into the United Arab Emirates. Arrivingpassengers’ irises are compared against central data base of iris patterns.This is done to reduce criminals from coming into the country. About ninethousand irises are compared each day against eight-hundred thousand irispatterns that are already in the central data base giving the number sevenbillion two hundred thousand comparisons of irises a day that was stated above. The most promising aspect of the irisrecognition system is the that it is yet to make a false positive.

Overtwo-hundred billion iris comparisons have been made and not one has had a falsematch. According to the United Arab Emirates Ministry of Interior, over thepast four and a half years, the iris recognition system has caught over fiftythousand individuals trying to enter the United Aram Emirates under falsetravel documents. This shows the uniqueness of iris patterns and how beneficialiris recognition systems would be all around the world.

So, to answer thequestions asked at the beginning of this paragraph…yes,the iris recognition system is indeed reliable. Currently it has been widelyused in the United Arab Emirates to keep fraudulent people from entering thecountry. It has reduced the amount of fraud and kept crime rates down. Yes, theiris recognition system has limited forensic value, but it can be used to findcriminals, and this will keep crime from occurring again.  Next,one may ask, “is it possible to use the iris recognition system on an irisafter death?” If one thinks about it, the iris recognitionsystem needs to be able to “read” the iris to make a match as to who the irismay belong to.

For manyyears, scientist have believed that in death, the iris, just like all muscles,completely relaxes after death, the cornea clouds and this results in a fullydilated pupil with no visible iris at all. The iris tissue degrades and beginsto decompose very rapidly. Scientist believed that a dead person simply doesnot have a usable iris, or that after death, a person’s iris features will vanishalong with pupil’s dilation. But, believe it or not, recentstudies have shown that results that one mayexpect close-to-perfect iris recognition a few hours after death. Occasionally,in our tests, automatic iris recognition remained viable more than two weeksafter death. These findingscontradict a common belief that the iris decays soon after death.

This has notbeen proven yet, but something interesting to keep up-to-date on. Finally, there are many advantagesand disadvantages to using the iris recognition system. It is up to you, thereader to ultimately decide whether the system should be used. First, theadvantages to iris recognition will be discussed.

Ultimately, the biggestadvantage to the iris recognition system is how accurate it is and itsreliability. Iris scanning is said to be ten times more accurate thanfingerprinting. Also, fingerprints are always exposed and liable to be damaged,but the iris is protected by the cornea and its pattern remains unchanged fordecades. The last advantage is unlike fingerprint scanners that require directcontact and must be kept clean, iris recognition scanners can work at distancesfrom the eye.

Now, the shortcomings to the iris recognition system is the cost.Also, privacy concerns have become a big concern. The fear that futureiris-scanning technology could be developed to track an individual at somedistances without that individual knowing or giving consent is widelydiscussed. Another shortcoming is privacy and security. Even though the followersof the iris recognition system claim that it makes computers and ATMs moresecure, opponents have emphasized the risks of criminals compromising irisscanning security by using a person’s dead eyeballs. The last disadvantage to the iris recognition systemis the matter of hacking and data breaches. These two crimes are hypotheticallymore dangerous if the stolen information is biometric.

If fingerprints arestolen, they can be used to access any other systems that use those stolen fingerprints.Nothing can be done either, because fingerprints cannot be changed. On theother hand, remember, biometrics do not store the actual biometric information.

Iris scans use encoded patterns derived from the iris, not the actual irisitself. So, if the iris scan gets stolen, a possibility is to create a new iriscode for the same personInconclusion, one should now be aware of simply whatthe function of the iris is in the eye, how the iris recognition system works,the iris recognition system’s reliability, what countries are using the irisrecognition system and if it is possible to use the iris recognition system onan iris after death. As a short summary, it can be said that the irisrecognition is a biometric identification method of identifying individualsbased on their iris patterns.

It has slowly been emerging since 1994 intobiometric technology as an alternate means to do the same job asfingerprinting. The iris is the purely visible colored ring-shaped membranebehind the cornea made wholly of pigments, connective tissues and smooth musclefibers. Its two main functions are to determine the color of the eye and tocontrol the amount of light that reaches the retina. The more pigment the iriscontains, the darker the eye color, and the amount of light that enters the eyeis important to regulate because too much light can cause impaired vision. Usuallysoft contact lenses are not likely to cause problems to the function of theiris recognition system, but colored contact lenses and glasses might create aglare or somewhat barricade the iris. If the glare is large enough,identification of the iris may not be possible, so it is more common forglasses to be removed before the capture of the iris is possible.

This is thebest way to ensure a high-equality image will be taken. Iris recognitiontypically requires the four steps that follow; segmentation, normalization,feature extraction and recognition. All four steps are vital to complete theiris recognition process successfully. If one step is missed or skipped, aglitch in the iris recognition system may occur. yes, the iris recognitionsystem is indeed reliable. Currently the iris recognition system has beenwidely used in the United Arab Emirates to keep fraudulent people from enteringthe country. It has reduced the amount of fraud and kept crime rates down.

Yes,the iris recognition system has limited forensic value, but it can be used tofind criminals, and this will keep crime from occurring again. Every day thereare seven billion iris comparisons performed in a security deployment thatcovers all twenty-seven border crossings, airports and seaports of entry intothe United Arab Emirates. Unlike fingerprinting, not one comparison has come backwith a false match, and in fact, a false iris comparison match is still yet toexist. If one thinks about it, the iris recognition system needs to be able to”read” the iris to make a match as to who the iris may belong to. For yearsscientist have believed that in death, the iris, just like all muscles,completely relaxes after death, the cornea clouds and this results in a fullydilated pupil with no visible iris at all, but recent studies are being donethat may make this fact no longer valid. These recent studies have shown results that one may expect close-to-perfect irisrecognition a few hours after death. Occasionally, in our tests, automatic irisrecognition remains viable more than two weeks after death.

This paperhas shown the uniqueness of iris patterns and how beneficial iris recognitionsystems would be all around the world. They need to be considered more anddiscussed on the use of them because they are more reliable than fingerprints.Just imagine, if a world-wide iris database existed, think about how rapidlythe rate of crime would go down and how many fraudulent people would be caughttrying to enter countries they are not supposed to be entering. There are manyadvantages and disadvantages to using the iris recognition system. Advantagesof the iris recognition system are accuracy, reliability, and require no directcontact. Disadvantages of the iris recognition system are the costs, potentialhacking and breaching, and privacy and security concerns. It is up to you asthe reader to ultimately decide whether the system should be used in thesespecific situations.

Iris scans can be considered to be some of the mostaccurate forms of biometrics known, and are far more superior to fingerprintingdue to the fact that all it requires to work is a simple and quick photographof the eye. So one might ask; why are iris scans not used all over the world?     

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