Arduino is a self-contained System on Chip (SOC).

Arduino Mega 2560The Arduino Mega (2560) is a microcontroller board.

It has54 digital input/output pins, 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (i.e hardware serialports), 16 MHz crystal oscillator, USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP headerand a reset button. The Arduino Mega 2560 can be powered by using USB or withan external power. The power source is selected automatically by Arduino.

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External (non-USB) power for Arduino Mega (2560) can come either from anAC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or a battery.Arduino Mega is used to display the text “Enter the salinedrop rate” on an Android phone so that user can enter number of drops perminute. Arduino also continuously reads the saline rate from the flow sensor.WiFi (ESP8266)The WIFI Module (ESP8266) is a self-contained System on Chip(SOC). It is integrated with Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol(TCP/IP) protocol stack that can give any microcontroller access to your WiFinetwork. The WiFi module (ESP8266) is an extremely cost effective board. It provideson-board processing and storage capability in order to be integrated withsensors.

WiFi module is used to provide connectivity across theglobe. It is used to connect the Arduino Mega (2560) to the softwareapplication.Servo MotorA servo motor is a linear or rotary actuator. An exactcontrol of angular or linear position, velocity and acceleration is provided byservo motor. It comprises of a motor that is coupled to a sensor for positionfeedback.

It is a self-contained electrical device that rotates parts of amachine with high efficiency and great precision. The output shaft of thisservo motor can be moved to a particular angle.The servo motor is used to control the saline flow rate. Theservo motor is able to rotate from 0o to 180o to controlthe flow rate. If the saline flow rate is more than that specified in the commandthen the servo motor rotates anti-clockwise to reduce the flow rate and if theactual flow rate is less than that specified in the command then servo motorrotates clockwise to reduce the gap between the valve and pipe. When actualflow rate is same as the one specified in the command, then servo motor stopsto keep flow rate same.Flow SensorFlow sensor consists of two metal wires arranged in parallelvery close to each other.

Flow sensor is used to detect the saline flow fromthe saline bottle. The flow sensor provides a digital pulse each time a certainamount of saline passes through the pipe. The output can easily be connected toa microcontroller for monitoring saline flow.Keypad MatrixA keypad matrix consists of a set of push buttons or switcheswhich are arranged in a matrix format of rows and columns. These keypadmatrices are available in different configurations in the market. We have used a 4×4 matrix configuration.

Keypad Matrix isused to take the user inputs. In case Android phone is discharged or is not working,then the user can use Keypad Matrix to provide the saline drop rate.IR SensorAn Infrared (IR) Sensor is an electronic instrument.

It sensescertain characteristics of its surroundings by either emitting or detectinginfrared radiation. Infrared (IR) Sensor senses the saline drops from salinebottle when it reaches a particular critical level.  After sensing that the saline in the salinebottle has come to a critical level, it transmits a signal to the sensorreceiver. 

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