Application of Multiple Perceptions in Language Acquisition Practiced Theories
Kristofe D. Kannemeyer
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978) states, “Language is a force that drives cognitive development because language mediates the child’s participation in intellectual and social environments. Language leads to new forms for cognitive organization”. Studies involve different theories which exist on child development, promote ways students learn through their own experiences and teachers assess by observation. This paper will prove the importance of student development and seen by the ways in which an educator could support their individual needs in acquiring a language to become the best version of themselves. Student development in language acquisition is best described by various theorists that impact the domains of language use and further applied in various techniques, included are Piaget, Vygosky, Erik Erikson and kolbs, influences of these philosophers prove important factors that promote effective strategies that once implemented and applied gain benefits which enable and encourage language acquisition. This paper explores valuable classroom practices, methodology and various strategies that consider major influences from the relevant theorists. Covering all relations to how language acquisition is successfully taught and implemented towards effective ways learners acquire a language.
Keywords: Learners, acquire, language, Influences, various, theorist
Application of Multiple Perceptions in Language Acquisition Practiced Theories
“If a child can’t learn the way we teach, maybe we should teach the way they learn.” Ignacio Estrada. This paper explores various theories, which include behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism and connectivism influencing the way in which a learner could acquire a language to further progress and develop the meaning and understanding of how to learn, not what to learn. All necessary concepts form the impact of development on teaching and learning processes.
J.Bianco (2009), suggests that research in second language acquisition focuses on the developing knowledge and use of a language by children and adults who already know at least one other language (and) a knowledge of second language may help educational policy makers set realistic goals for programmers for both foreign language courses and the learning of the majority language by minority language children and adults. Educators are developing ways to integrate teaching strategies that promote active listening, social skills, conversational skills into classroom practices more frequently, Education practices are constantly being revised to explore the potential benefits of 21st century hands on teaching practices with less focus on teaching and more ways to emphasis on ways to promote higher-order thinking and learning practices. The aim is to adapt changes to change with change, educators are life long learners, Woolfolk (1995), suggests that learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. changes teaching and the way students learn. The aim is towards helping teachers improve lessons and students learn authentically, in order to accomplish goals to improve learners, of this paper is to achieve benefits in the teacher’s knowledge of how children acquire a language towards learners development and growth, in progression. According to, Haugland & Shade (1994) early childhood educators must devote extra effort to ensure that the software in classrooms reflects and affirms children’s diverse cultures, languages, and ethnic heritages. Like all educational materials, software should reflect the world children live in: it should come in multiple languages, reflect gender equity, contain people of color and of differing ages and abilities, and portray diverse families and experiences
Influences of cognitive development
Gibson, (1969) states that, for perceptual learning theorists, learning was considered to proceed rapidly due to the initial availability of exploration patterns that infants use to obtain information. According to Bowlby, expands on contributions that directly affect infants’ sequential responses are from parent separation and outlines fundamental dynamics of preverbal human infants. Supporting and identifying influences of the early maturing right brain hemisphere impacted by early year social experiences in order to establish instinct as a vital element of survival for an infant. The major influences involve visual, prosodic-auditory and tactile stimuli, cognitive maps in the brain, two types of models, environmental model and organismic models. The theoretical conception consists of the development of both psychology and biology, body and mind and instinctive behavior composed of both genetic endowment and early environmental influences. Trauma in relation to Freuds theory involves “a vulnerable individual exposed to an event of interaction that evokes a usual pathological reaction, exposing the personality to excessive demands of quantities of excitation that it can deal with.” In the case of trauma, the ego fails to deal with tasks, results in repression and early childhood neuroses is acquired in casual conditions from the separation from the mother which directly causes distress over a long period of time. As information processing theories began to emerge, the metaphor of mind as computer, information processor, and problem solver came into wide usage (Newell et al., 1958) and was quickly applied to the study of cognitive development.
Psychologist influences in domains of a language
S. Krashens hypothesis of language acquisition, notes that children and adults also acquire an ability to “pick up” languages, do so in a natural order or sequence and that acquirers of a given language tend to adopt certain grammatical structures early and others later. In Most second language theorists assumed children acquire a language while adults can only learn. Krashen reported that during the natural order hypothesis children, acquiring English as a second language show a natural order for grammatical morphemes regardless of their first language. The sequence, according to Krashen is indifferent in second language learners, the sequential steps follow the same as the order of acquisition for first language learners. Acquisition and learning are used in very specific ways, learning has only one function and that is as a monitor and editor hypothesis implies that formal or conscious learning play only a limited role in second language performance. Krashen’s research shows that input hypothesis allows children to acquire a language by giving meaning first then as a result we acquire structure. The input hypothesis relates to acquisition not learning, we acquire by understanding a language that contains structure i+1, when communication is successful, production ability emerges. Input hypothesis predicts that these simplified codes will be a very useful for the second language acquisition
Theorist Jean Piaget (1950s), emphasizes a learning process which indicates his beliefs in sequential steps, which drives development of learning. What we see changes what we know, what we know changes what we see”. The theorists emphasize the importance of the student’s role in classroom practices by having an active involvement to invent/reinvent knowledge through interaction. As the complexity of society increases, and pressure to complete curriculums, in order for learners to progress onto the next level or grade, according to Piaget, the sequential steps, help guide teachers in ways to promote collaboration, reflection and further restructure learning materials to enhance necessary skills needed towards cognitive development and readiness to move onto the next stage of the learning process.
It is the teacher’s duty to deliver new methods of learning that directly involve economic conditions and ways to achieve effective language acquisition amongst learners, influences of theorists that move away from traditional ways of incorporating teaching disciplines towards 21st century modern education. In classroom practices, learner’s readiness to move to the next stage will depend on the teacher’s ability to manage a classroom, motivate learners and deliver appropriate assessment practices. ” Children must be taught how to think, not what to think” Margaret Mead enforces higher- order thinking to promote ways in developing learners abilities. The developmental stages of young learners, referring back to Piaget’s theory, explains that a child develops language on his or her own, without thinking about the surrounding factors, therefore a child is capable of discovering things on his or her own and can construct their own thought patterns. Piaget believes a child can go through four different stages. Stage one, is sensory motor stage, during this stage occurs from when a child is born to the age of two, during this stage the young child learns to interact with the environment by manipulating objects around them. The second stage inspire-operational stage, this occurs when the child is two to seven years of age. This stage is characterized by egocentrism and a lack of logical thinking. Stage three is the Concrete Operational stage, children develop the ability to apply logical reasoning, however, at this stage he or she cannot yet generalize understanding. The last stage is Formal Operational stage, this occurs from the age of eleven years and up, children are able to think beyond the immediate context in more abstract terms. Once applied, learners are able to carry out logical operations such as deductive reasoning in a systematic way
Kohlbergs (1984) defines learning as a process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Kolberg influences moral development that impacts the way in which we learn. Outlines of stages and levels start with cause and effect of punishment and obedience, orientation that can predominantly affect teaching practices by establishing classroom rules and clear consequences of misbehavior. Learners engagement in language acquisition classroom practices is important and easily implemented and by incorporating no more than five classroom rules, application is effective in order for the educator to keep steady control and, helps keep learners focused. Students are often feared into the idea of punishment and rereign from doing wrong, which is one way to control obedience in the class. At stag two of level one, in order for young learners to be fully engaged in content, a reward system is put into place, this incentive is placed for learners to understand that doing what is right will follow personal gain and further a reward. Stage 3, applies to the young learners by positive reinforcement, congratulating them on sitting quietly, handing in good work, being a good listener, handing in good work, following orders. In the case of stage 4, 5 and six is not applicable to the level of learner’s proficiency due to the lower order of cognitive development, law and order, social construct and ethical principles are invalid.
Effective teaching involves key elements of teacher observations, are learners listening and students involvement in content communicatively and to avoid a lecture type style, instead more discussion based., putting students in the center\ and making sure they are heard. Erik Erikson establishes a theory which involves psychological needs of individuals within the needs of society, each stage represents virtues and characteristic strengths and weaknesses, one step must be complete before moving to the next. The first three stages will be applied within my classroom practices. Eriksons (1953), theory helps decision-making skills in the classroom as teachers work with students to make the right decisions and understand right from wrong. During the first year, the infant establishes trust by developing ways to resolve feelings of uncertainty and provided that the mother is stable in consistent, reliable with love and care, relationships will develop. In the case of mistrust, the infant will develop feelings of insecurities, that could carry through to a possibility of fear, anxiety towards others. The quality of experience during this early stage of live, can affect potential future relationships. Second stage is autonomy vs shame and doubt, this stage occurs during the toddler stage of life, there is a growing sense of independence and autonomy. Exploration is the most important factor to encourage individual growth. In the classroom environment, students are supported and facilitated, the environment is structured and disciplined but flexible. Understanding multiple theories, helps an educator understand and pinpoint the needs of individuals with multiple proficiencies in the class.
Vygosky (1978), a Russian psychologist, developed a cognitive theory that focuses on the fundamental roles of social interaction, new knowledge and scaffolding techniques within the zone of proximal development. Vygoskys psychological views are considered one of the foundations of constructivism and believes young learners make meaning of content in social interactions, which result in the development of higher mental functions. Vygoskys’ concept can be applied to classroom practices and further promote learning by the teacher scaffolding and facilitating students’ needs by an awareness of social problems that young learners face or students’ abilities to develop cognitively or socially. Identifying patterns are critical to learning and as an educator establishing students’ proficiencies, solve traditional problems in today’s classrooms when implementing necessary skills to enhance cognitive development, motivation and appropriate evaluation. reminding students about the rules, clear expectations.
Modern Influences in effective language acquisition.
Technology plays significant role in all aspects of life today, and the use role will only increase in the future. The potential benefits of technology for young children’s learning and development are well documented (Wright & Shade 1994). The advantages of using technology in the classroom are that technology often increases the motivation of students to learn. Students are often more engaged in their learning processes and participate during the lesson when they have fun while they learn. Often they have fun while using technology as it makes the learning process interactive thus improving the student’s communicative skills. These skills are enhanced when students are working in a team and information technology allows students to work together with other students as well as teachers. Teachers can offer each other instructional tips and students’ co-operative learning activities. According to the Nerdyteacher.com technology should make access to knowledge easier. Teachers will need to shift away from the masters of content to guiding students through the content. Teaching facts is not going to get it done in the classroom anymore. Teaching has to be more then that. Technology will never replace the teacher in the classroom, but will force teachers to change their approach to instruction, which benefits students learning.
In most situations learning disabilities are hidden disabilities as there are no outward signs of a disability such as a wheelchair. Learning disabilities are unique to individuals and can appear in a variety of ways. People with learning disabilities can benefit from mainstream and specialized computer hardware and software. Someone diagnosed with learning disabilities will show a lack of achievement. An untrained observer may conclude that the student is lazy or not trying hard enough. The observer sees only the input and output, not the processing information. There are many varieties of applications and tools that accommodate and assist these learners as well as programs, such as the “DO-IT” collaboration which stands for Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology, which serves to increase the successful participation of individuals with disabilities in challenging academic programs.
Language Acquisition relation to teaching practices
Dewy (1950s) theory of impacts the way in which educators teach effective language, Progressivism curriculum focuses on students’ needs to discover what truths are relevant to the present and believe knowledge is forever changing. Progressivism takes the learning process beyond traditional academic subjects while preparing individual learners for future success in life. The aim teaching students how to learn and cope with these inevitable changes jointly determined by teachers and students, relevant to todays world and future. Real world problem solving, individual development. Progressivists believe schools should develop problem solving skills, active experimentation, in to help students learn how to keep up with change, by applying intentional teaching methods that engage young earners based on their level of interest and development. T &S co inquirers into areas of study determined by the school system and the teacher. Educational practices directly affect how students learn in all content areas and the importance is shown by how the teacher systematically designs the set of policies and principles orchestrated by the school in order to achieve an approach to various strategies, techniques, beliefs, effective management skills, behavior and academic abilities reflected primarily upon learners needs.
The purpose of education should be considered as a human right, not a privilege, legally guaranteed for all citizens reflect core factors of a curriculum by “filling of empty vessels” and implement outlines that show clear explanations, authentic content to promote creativity, ways of learners express their own ideas, allow equal opportunities, ensure personal qualities are met as well as equal treatment in order to validate individual learners needs. I want to inspire, ignite imagination and instill a love for learning.
Student achievement in language acquisition
Student achievement is directly related to the teachers approach to becoming a reflective practitioner According to Powell (2010), “professional self-knowledge is crucial to teacher effectiveness in the classroom. The teacher creates important learning relationships with students either consciously or unconsciously. These learning relationships are social and emotional knowledge bedrock of effective teacher and student learning. When these relationships are consciously and reflectively constructed, instruction is enhanced for all students, especially for struggling learners. The key to uncovering professional self-knowledge is reflection”.
Successful teachers’ educate learners to achieve continuous academic development by identifying their own learning methods, strategies and styles to further progress systematically and psychologically pre-determine as individuals. Learners must want to accomplish short and long-term goals intrinsically and achieve this by interacting, nurturing, engaging activities and good behavior. Empiricism’s view “knowledge is based on experience” and that “knowledge is tentative and probabilistic, subject to continued revision and falsification of language learning requires a willingness to want to learn new knowledge and progress onto how to learn skills to stimulate learning, as well as understand content. As an educator, incorporating scaffolding techniques that impact learners desired results from objectives, effect ways students can utilize opportunities to enhance multi-skill developments of affective domains. Skills receiving information, responding, valuing, organizing and characterizing knowledge are met to achieve lifelong learning, quality assurance and adaptability towards constant developmental changes which are crucial in cognitive development and implementing systematic procedures, provide learners opportunities in classroom practices to promote critical thinking, active learning and activities to encouraged learners to express their own thoughts, ideas and interests towards real world problems. Systematic procedures promote individual development and motivate learners to achieve and develop advanced skills in all academic activities by allowing reflective feedback and connecting teaching with learning and understanding. As an educator, I include principles that allow deep involvement in participation such as the use of authentic materials in pedagogy tasks to engage and help learners relate to the courseware. My policies limits time wastage, as well as outlines clear consequences for disruptive behavior. My approach to learners’ academic success focuses on individual needs, learning abilities and behaviors to allow equal opportunities by incorporating multiple intelligence strategies to enhance learners’ academic abilities.
An Eclectic approach towards educational content organizes a range of ideas, styles and diverse sources of Progressivism, Constructivism, Behaviorism and Humanistic approaches towards continuous development and individual growth. Content is effectively implemented and placed to engage learners in self-management techniques, problem solving, adaptability as well as, verbal and non-verbal communicative skills to learn how to work with one another in academic practices. Core elements that structure learners abilities to acquire a language impacts the level of education in learners capabilities to encourage, motivate and build teacher-student relationships, guide learners to make their own choices, express their own thoughts, feelings and ideas to develop academic skills. An educator who implements multiple philosophies, helps implement and shape todays’ future leaders towards 21st century modern learning with an open mind towards multicultural students with various learning abilities. Learners strengths and weaknesses are valued unbiased, considered and reflected towards improvements from their own personal learning experiences.
In order to achieve effective acquisition in language practices prioritize learners involvement that involves language use, social, emotional, behavioral, logical, academic growth strategies within authentic tasks renewal of educational practices can improve student’s abilities to handle academic subjects and can measure learner’s abilities, catering for all types of learners’. According to a study by the University of Miami in Oxford Ohio (2001), the benefits of implementing information technology can be identified as using technology in the classroom improves work efficiency, which affects the way students behave. Information technology improves communication, making lessons more convenient by saving time and improving learning abilities. The study identified convenience as one of the primary benefits of using technology in classes. When convenience was combined with saving time, the percentage increased to 64.6 percent. Only 12.7 percent said the most valuable benefit was improved learning; 3.7 percent perceived no benefit whatsoever. More then 12.7 percent may have felt that learning was improved, but it was not ranked the highest. Using technology in the classroom creates new ways of teaching such as using applications for lesson planning. This allows access to lessons, assignments and notes, and confirms that technology makes life easier for teachers, in terms of planning and having access to lesson plans online. Early childhood educators must devote extra effort to ensure that the software in classrooms reflects and affirms children’s diverse cultures, languages, and ethnic heritages. Like all educational materials, software should reflect the world children live in: it should come in multiple languages, reflect gender equity, contain people of color and of differing ages and abilities, and portray diverse families and experiences (Derman-Sparks & A.B.C. Task Force 1989; Haugland & Shade 1994)
Address the context and timing, provide meaning Incorporate all 21st century learning skills of communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity Remove teacher focused classroom to a student-centered class, Effective communication, and improve listening skills, teach how to listen Higher level of self-awareness Know your audience, cultural differences Consider emotion, a positive approach Creative approaches: Focus and diffuse mode Use Pomodoro technique, a time management method (F.Cirillo 1980), work on focused time for 25 minutes, then take time to relax and do something fun, this technique using time breaks enhances the ability to have focused attention. Exercises that test understanding to increase productivity A teacher who adds more student talk time, ask students to ask each other the relevant questions and compare answers. Incorporate more ways to meet student’s needs towards active experimentation. Incorporate mind maps, during group discussions, encourage learners to be more creative; humor Information should be more structured new approach, modelling instruction
The researcher proves the importance of acquiring a second language at a young age, as it seems to have had a positive effect on the children of today. . summarizing the importance to increase my awareness to provide multiple opportunities and guide instruction towards authentic learning experiences that allows students to be active participants in the learning process. Active learning enhances the enthusiasm of learners, to want to learn and finally, intentions to bond those experiences with learners’ needs to achieve overall objectives of instructional curriculum goals This research concludes the positive outlook of bilingual learning and outlines an understanding of how language acquisition is developed evidence, shows that communicative activities encourage learners and help teachers improve lessons for students’ development in language learning. The effective teacher’s approach to the most appropriate methodology when acquiring a language is that even when a lesson is focused on developing reading and writing, communicative activities should be integrated into the lesson for successful teaching in daily practices. The research sums up a positive outlook of effective philosophical influences and points out that Behaviorism is not an appropriate method to implement and follow through when teaching language due to the ineffective form of repetition and operate conditioning. Incorporating influences of constructivism, cognitivism and ways to encourage positive reinforcement in Behaviorism practices are most effective language methodology in teaching practices.
In order to understand how language acquisition can be applied for effective outcomes, results show in multiple philosophies and opportunities are needed to explore ways people acquire a language in different social contexts. The paper shows strategies and frameworks of how language works as well as the social dimensions in communities affect language acquisition by the way people convey and construct aspects of their social identity through their language. The researcher proves the importance of how domains of languages are used in modeling variety or code choice and the social factors affecting code choice. Interactions of language use are mentioned, where people switch between codes within a domain to informally use language informally in social dimensions and further concludes that all methodologies influenced by philosophies support the benefits of how technology can be used as a tool to benefit future teaching and learning strategies for 21st century modern language learners.
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